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APA WRITING STYLE AND MECHANICS

By Harold Griffin,2014-06-17 07:17
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APA WRITING STYLE AND MECHANICS ...

     APA Writing Style 1 Pagination and Page Header: See APA p. 288. Use the “header and footer feature” in Microsoft Word. See Appendix A for directions.

     APA requires a Running Head for publication. See APA, p. 296, section 5.15.

    APA Writing Style and Mechanics

     The title is in upper and lowercase Student Name letters, centered between the left and right margins and positioned in the upper half of the page (See University of Phoenix APA, p. 296) An example is Include your Group Number; Course Number for the course in which you are available on p. 306 (please note the enrolled. example has different requirements, this is only to be RAPATH100; GEN101 used for illustration of where to begin the title) Faculty Name

    June 18, 2005

UOP REQUIRED TITLE PAGE

Centered on the page (as shown above), include in this order:

    ? Title of Paper (Mixed upper and lower case letters; centered, see APA p. 296)

    ? Your Name (first and last, do not include academic or license information, i.e., BSN, RN)

    ? University of Phoenix

    ? Group Number; Course Number

    ? Facilitator’s Name and Title (first and last, with academic title, i.e., MSN, MBA, PhD)

    ? Date Submitted

    **All lines are double-spaced (no single or triple-spacing) throughout the entire document.

    The standards outlined in this sample paper are within APA guidelines; however, your instructor may have

    additional requirements.

    APA does not permit use of the word Introduction” as a level heading. Instead, begin the text of the paper by including the APA Writing Style 2 same title as the title on the title page (centered, upper, and lower case). See APA, p. 298, 5.17.

     APA Writing Style and Mechanics: A User‟s Guide

     The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Publication Indent the first line of each Quotations: All paragraph. Use short quotes Manual) began as an article published in Psychological Bulletin in 1929. That article the tab key, require a page which should be number or set at five to paragraph seven spaces, reported results of a 1928 meeting of scholars "to discuss the form of journal manuscripts symbol if no or ? inch. See page number is APA, p. 289. available. See APA p. 292. and to write instructions for their preparation" (American Psychiatric Association [APA],

2001, p. xix). Today the manual is in its fifth edition, and the APA format described in it

    is a widely recognized standard for scientific writing (i.e., scholarly or professional

    writing) in the social sciences. Although the stylebook is designed to prepare manuscripts

    for publication, many school and health care journals have adopted its use as a guide to

    achieve uniformity and consistency (Cuddy, 2002). Writing in the style prescribed by the

    Publication Manual can be a daunting experience for students; however, as with all new

    skills, “practice makes perfect” (P. Proofreader, personal communication, June 28, 2004).

    In this paper, a review of APA information and writing tips most often used by the Personal communication is explained on University of Phoenix undergraduate and graduate students are presented. However, this TIP: Conclude p. 214 (APA) your and is not introduction by included on the including a reference document is no substitute for the Publication Manual itself. While APA formatting sentence that page. provides a brief summary of the salient software is available from a number of vendors, students are discouraged from points to be addressed in the paper. purchasing it due to the inconsistency of formatting specific to University of Phoenix

    papers.

    Format Considerations

    Level One Heading (

     Some of the more commonly used rules and formats from the Publication Manual See APA, p. 113)

    are presented and discussed in this section. Please note, however, that some assignments

    may require unique formatting, and students should consult with faculty for clarification.

     APA Writing Style 3 Level Three Heading (See APA, p. 113)

    Correct Margins

     Margins are required to be one inch equally or set at the word processor default. Microsoft Word default for the header and footer are each set at ? inch. The rule is broken to avoid placing a lone heading on the last line of the page or a single line of text on the top of the next page.

    Page Header

     The header contains the first two or three words of the title and appears in the header/footer feature of Microsoft Word (See Appendix A for format directions for the header/footer feature). The page number is set at five spaces to the right of the text. The automatic function of a word-processing program should be used to print the headers and page numbers consecutively in the paper, with Arabic numerals beginning on the title page.

    Reference Page

     The hanging indentation (See Appendix B for format directions for hanging

    indents) is used for the reference page; that is, the first line of the reference, usually the author‟s name, rests against the left margin, and the lines that follow are indented 5 or 7 spaces or ? inch. The Publication Manual (2001) recommends setting the tab key to ?

    inch (word processor default). The reference page is alphabetized by author and contains the date of publication in parentheses, directly after the author‟s name. Next, the title, the place of publication, and the name of the publisher are listed. The proliferation of electronic materials has prompted the APA to create formats designed specifically for Internet and web-based written material. Students should bookmark and frequently visit the APA website at www.apastyle.org for current formatting of electronic references.

     APA Writing Style 4

    Only those references that have been cited in the paper are listed on the reference

    page. Personal communications are cited in the text, but not on the reference page.

    Additional reference examples are available in Appendix C.

    In Text Citations

     Direct quotations. Direct quotations need to mirror exactly the original source, Level Four Heading. (See APA, p. 113) even if errors are contained in the original. To alert the reader that any errors are part of

    the original material, the word sic, enclosed in brackets and italicized, should follow the

    erroneous material. The source of information must be cited. The format of direct

    quotations may vary with the placement of the quoted material in the sentence. The

    following is an example of how one might use a direct quote from a website with an

    author: “Diversity is emerging as one of the most serious issues in the workplace today,

    yet most employers are not prepared to deal with it” (Copeland, 2003, Erroneous

    Assumptions, ?1). The author‟s last name, the year of publication, the website title, and

    the paragraph number are included in the in-text citation when no page number is

    available. In addition, the following is an example of how one might use a direct quote

    from a book with one author: Venes (2001) stated, “The types of influenza doctors must

    prepare for fall into three categories” (p. 106). If the author‟s name is given prior to the

    quote, include the date of publication (in parenthesis) after the author‟s name, and follow

    the quote with the page or paragraph number. See page 121 in the Publication Manual for

    more information. Appendix C has additional examples of in-text citations when using

    direct quotes.

     Quotations of less than 40 words are enclosed in double quotation marks. “Use

    single quotation marks within double quotation marks to set off material that in the

     APA Writing Style 5

    original source was enclosed in double quotation marks” (APA, 2001, p. 119). Quotations of 40 words or more are set in a block format without quotation marks. The block quote

    is started on a new line, indented five spaces or 1/2 inch. A sample block quote is

    contained in this paper.

     Paraphrased material. Paraphrasing allows the writer to use the ideas of another, to represent another‟s argument, and to give proper credit to the original author or authors

    (Lawton, Cousineau, & Hillard, 2001). Each time an author is paraphrased, the source

    must be cited in the text. Page or paragraph numbers are not required for paraphrased

    material, but the Publication Manual encourages writers to do so (APA, 2001, p. 121). For example, if one were to paraphrase information from an article located in an online

    database, one would format it in this way: Daniels (2004) included Garden Restaurants

    on his list of the 50 best companies for minorities. Or, for another example using the

    same article consider the following: A list of companies has been singled out as best for

    minority employees (Daniels, 2004). Both examples include the author‟s last name and

    the date of publication. If the author‟s name is not provided with the paraphrased text, it

    must be included in the in-text citation. An additional illustration for paraphrasing

    information comes from the University of Phoenix rEsource page: Values and ethics are

    closely related but different (University of Phoenix, 2004). Appendix C has additional

    examples of in-text citations when paraphrasing.

     Plagiarism. Plagiarism constitutes a serious academic concern. According to Electronic source, direct quote citation: If the electronic Lawton, Cousineau, and Hillard (2001), “academic communities demand that writers source does not have page numbers; use the paragraph credit others for their work and that the source of their material clearly be acknowledged” symbol.

     (? 6). Internet access has resulted in an increase in plagiarism. As noted by McCabe (as

    Secondary Sources: See P. 247 in the APA manual for citation of secondary sources. Use of primary sources is preferred.

     APA Writing Style 6

    cited in Sterngold, 2004), 41% of students said they engaged in “cut-and-paste”

    plagiarism from online sources. The words we use must be original, cited, and referenced

    accordingly. While it may be easier to use someone else‟s words, doing so you only

    discredits the writer. When in doubt, cite. Other Format Issues

     Although the Publication Manual (2001) suggests that an abstract of an article precede the text, an abstract is not used in most papers submitted by University of

    Phoenix students. Faculty members may require an abstract if students are submitting

    very lengthy papers or project proposals. In those cases, the direction to submit an

    abstract will be in the assignment guidelines.

     Preferred typefaces in APA style are 12-pt Times New Roman or 12-pt

    Courier New. Students should avoid using any software settings that reduce spacing

    between words or letters.

    Writing Mechanics

     Besides formatting, correct grammar, punctuation, spelling, and sentence structure

    are essential components of scholarly writing. Strunk (1999) emphasized the importance

    of being succinct:

    Block quote - see pages 117 and Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a 118 in the APA manual for an example and discussion. paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should

    have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. This requires not

    that the writer make all his sentences short, or that he avoid all detail and treat his

    subjects only in outline, but that every word tell. (?1)

     APA Writing Style 7

    Grammar

     Besides the provision of a standardized format for scientific writing, the

    Publication Manual emphasizes the importance of proper grammar. In addition to the

    Publication Manual, students will have another resource with the Gregg Manual. For a

    thorough review, Chapter 2 in the Publication Manual is particularly helpful for learning

    good writing mechanics. A few of the rules of grammar will be addressed here.

    Subject and verb agreement. A singular noun requires a singular verb, and a plural noun requires a plural verb (APA, 2001). Words that intervene between the noun

    and verb do not change that basic rule.

    Noun and pronoun agreement. When writers use a subject which is singular, they need to use pronouns which are singular. To avoid having to use he/she and him/her,

    writers may reword the sentence and use a plural subject, thereby eliminating the problem.

    For example, the sentence “A student applying for a job must carefully proofread his or

    her application” can be reworded to read, “Students applying for jobs must carefully

    proofread their applications.” Use of plurals also can help writers reduce sexist bias and

    avoid stereotypes, as well as keep them from using both singular and plural in the same

    sentence or paragraph.

    Punctuation. Correct punctuation establishes the rhythm and readability of

    sentences. In APA style, only one space is used after periods, commas, colons, and

    semicolons. When a hyphen is used, no space appears before or after the hyphen (APA,

    2001).

     APA Writing Style 8

    Correct use of commas and semicolons can be challenging for students. Writers Web Address in Text: Do not cite web addresses in text- please see the explanation on the references page of this document. are encouraged to proofread their papers to ensure proper use of commas (Proofreading for commas, n.d.).

    Capitalization. Capitalization is used to designate a proper noun or trade name, as

    well as major words in titles and headings. Instances where capitalization is not used

    include laws, theories, models, or hypotheses, such as ethical decision-making models;

    names of conditions or groups in an experiment, such as experimental or control groups;

    or nouns that designate parts of a book, such as chapter 8 (APA, 2001). A common error

    in capitalization is its use with the name of a specific educational degree versus the

    general focus of a degree program. An example is Master of Arts degree versus master‟s

    degree in visual arts.

    Seriation. Items contained in a list can help to clarify the point being made or

    components of a subject. APA does not permit the use of bullets. To show seriation of

    separate paragraphs, number each paragraph with an Arabic numeral, followed by a

    period but not enclosed in or followed by parentheses. To show seriation within a

    paragraph or sentence, use lowercase letters (not italicized) in parentheses. An example

    of these formats is shown in Appendix D.

    Numbers. Spell numbers one through nine in the body text. Use Arabic numerals

    to express numbers 10 and above. However, there are many exceptions to this rule and

    these can be found on pages 123-128 in the Publication Manual.

    Third person versus first person. Writing, “The writer instructed the patients.” when “the writer” refers to yourself is ambiguous and may give the impression that you

     APA Writing Style 9

    did not participate. Instead, use a personal pronoun: “I instructed the patients.” However,

    for the most part, reference to self (first person) is limited to reflection or opinion papers.

    TIP: Always include a conclusion that summarizes the main points of the paper. Conclusion

    Understanding the mechanics, usage requirements, and referencing materials of

    APA formatting will help you improve and communicate clearly the content of your

    work. The intent of this paper is to help you begin to understand the different components

    necessary for development of scholarly papers. However, not all of the content of the

    Publication Manual is reviewed, and you are encouraged to refer to this excellent

    resource as well.

    Reference Page Notes: Use a separate references page and double space. Note that throughout the paper and reference list, titles of non-periodicals and the names of journals, book titles, and volume are set in italics rather than being underlined. See APA Manual, pages 239-281 for examples of APA Writing Style 10 various references. In addition, please read pages 215-232 for basic reference guidelines.

    Book Corporate Author see page 251, #33.

     References Book, revised edition see APA page 249, #27.

    American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American

    Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

    Copeland, L. (2003). Managing a multicultural workforce. California Job Journal. Online Database Reference: Do not include the URL from online Retrieved October 16, 2004, from http://www.jobjournal.com databases that are password protected (such as the UOP Online Library. Cuddy, C.M. (2002). Demystifying APA style. Orthopaedic Nursing, 21(5), 35-42. Including it would not enable the reader to directly Retrieved June 28, 2004, from EBSCOhost database. locate the article. Only include the name of the database. See APA Daniels, C. (2004, July 28). 50 Best companies for minorities. Fortune, 149(13), 136- pp. 278-279

    141. Retrieved October 19, 2004, from ProQuest database.

     Lawton. K. A., Cousineau, L., & Hillard, V.E. (2001). Plagiarism: Its nature and Information gathered from a website is consequences. Retrieved June 28, 2004, from Duke University Guide to Library cited in the text of the paper with the web Research Web site: http://www.lib.duke.edu/libguide/plagarism.htm page title in the Document author’s space available on a and the year. university The site is then Proofreading for commas. (n.d.). Retrieved June 28, 2004, from Purdue University program or referenced on department web the references site APA p. 274, page as shown #78. here. See APA Online Writing Lab Web site: p. 269, 274. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_commaproof.html

    Sterngold, A. (2004). Confronting plagiarism: How conventional teaching invites cyber-

    cheating. Change, 36(3), 16+. Retrieved June 28, 2004, from ProQuest database

    Strunk, W., Jr. (1999). Omit needless words. In The elements of style (chap. 3). Retrieved

    June 28, 2004, from http://www.bartleby.com/141/strunk5.html#13

    University of Phoenix. (2004). Week two overview. Retrieved November 4, 2004,

    from University of Phoenix, Week Two, Resource. GEN480Interdisciplinary Information retrieved from the University of Capstone Course Web site: https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/resource/resource.asp Phoenix rEsource page. See Appendix C for further examples.

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