Glycyrrhizin Pharmacological Research Trends
【Abstract】 Objective To review the pharmacological effects of glycyrrhizin for the licorice rational use of resources and depth to provide a reliable basis for development. Are summarized and summarize years of research findings and literature at home and abroad. Results and Conclusion glycyrrhizin have more and stronger pharmacological activity, licorice has a long history of drug use as a nation, is a valuable development of health products and medicines
Key words Glycyrrhiza glycyrrhizin pharmacological effects
Advances in Pharmacological Action of Glycyrrhizin
Abstract: ObjectiveTo review the progress in the study of pharmacological effects of glycyrrhizin for its reasonable
utilization and further development. MethodsDocuments of experimental and clinical study on glycyrrhizin within recent years were consulted and summarized. Results and
ConclusionBeacuse glycyrrhizin has many good pharmacological
effects and has been being used for many years in Chinese medicine, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, is a valuable plant for health care products and medicine.
Key words: Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch; G `lycyrrhizin; Pharmacological effect
Licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, also known as the United States grass, honey Gan, honey grass, country and old, well-informed, sweet grass, grass powder, etc. for leguminous
plants, is a treasure-house of China's most widely used
medicine as a medicine, known as "the King of Herbs "in the world. Licorice distribution of both cities in Europe and Asia, our main production in Inner Mongolia, Gansu; followed by Shaanxi, Shanxi, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Hebei, Xinjiang, Qinghai and other places.
"Chinese Medicine Dictionary" records licorice has the following functions: and in the priorities, lungs, detoxification, reconcile the various drugs. Sunburn use: governance stomach weak, eat less, abdominal pain, loose stools, Laojuan fever, Fei Wei, cough, palpitations, panic
epilepsy; HEALTH use: governance throat swelling, pain, peptic ulcer, ulcer sore, antidote to poison and food poisoning [ 1]. "Shen Nong's Materia Medica" "Do not Catalog" "Treatise on Febrile Diseases" "effects of the medicine on the" "Golden
Chamber" "Day Zi Materia Medica" "Compendium of Materia Medica" and other medical publications have documented the efficacy of on the licorice. In other countries, as early as the 5th century BC, "Hippocratic Collection" does have use of licorice as a record of gynecological medicine, while the current state of Japanese "Kampo 210 Common side" there are 150 parties with licorice. Glycyrrhizin (glycyrrhizic acid, abbreviated as GA) is the main active ingredient licorice, licorice root in the content of 3.63% ~ 13.06% (due to
variety, origin-specific), general content can be as high as 7% ~ 10% in licorice with potassium or calcium salts in the form of [1,2]. Glycyrrhizin poorly water-soluble, for ease of
consumption, usually made of soluble salts, glycyrrhizic acid
and its salts are collectively referred to as glycyrrhizin (glycyrrhizin, referred to as GL). This paper summarizes the pharmacological effects of glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizin for future research directions are also prospected.
Structure and Properties of a Glycyrrhizin
Glycyrrhizin is a pentacyclic triterpenoid series of saponins, formula C42H62O16, molecular weight is 822.92. Pure white needle-like crystals, no smell, taste very sweet. Under the action of heat and pressure and the acid can be hydrolyzed to glycyrrhetinic acid and two molecules of glucuronic acid. Melting point (212 ? 7) ?, soluble in hot water, ethanol and acetone, room temperature, slightly soluble in water, insoluble in ethanol, ethyl ether . For ease of
consumption, the general made of soluble salt (licorice salts easily soluble in water), glycyrrhizic acid and its salts are collectively referred to as glycyrrhizin, has been listed as an important fine chemical products, there is a common liquorice acid mono-ammonium salts, glycyrrhizic acid a sodium (potassium) salts, glycyrrhizic acid disodium salt (potassium) salts, glycyrrhizin three sodium (potassium) salts, and so on. Glycyrrhizin has high sweetness (approximately 250 times that of sucrose), low thermal energy (less than cane sugar 1 / 10), bubbles and low hemolysis, safe non-toxic (pure natural
product, by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Board to include "recognized the safety of the material") and a strong health care effectiveness has been widely used in medicine,
food, cosmetics, cigarettes and other industries.
2.1 Antiviral Glycyrrhizin has induced animals and human blood interferon (IFN) role, while enhancing the macrophages and natural killer cells (NK cells) activity, inhibit
varicella, zoster virus proliferation. In 1986 in Fukushima Medical University, Associate Professor Masahiko Ito, such as resistance to toxicity of glycyrrhizin were screened and found that it has the AIDS virus (HIV) on the proliferation and
inhibit cell degeneration, the inhibitory rate of HIV up to 98% . In vitro studies have shown that, 0.3 mmol / L of GL completely inhibited HIV caused by HIV cytopathic, 0.6 mmol / L of GL can be completely suppressed the expression of HIV-
specific antigen, GL inhibit HIV replication mechanism is mainly reduced protein kinase GL C activity, in addition, GL can effectively prevent the cell-cell fusion, thus inhibiting
the spread of HIV [4,5].
Cinatl J et al  who compared the five kinds of
antiviral drugs on the two cases of SARS in patients with antiviral activity. SARS virus, researchers were inoculated into 96-well plates containing a variety of drugs in Vero cells, after 72 ~ 96 h after the observation of virus-induced
cell lesions. At the same time, through the MMT cell
proliferation assay to determine the cytotoxicity of drugs. The results showed that, GL is the strongest inhibitor of SARS virus replication, its selective index reached 67. GL is not only inhibit viral replication, but also inhibit viral
replication of early virus attachment cells and trans-membrane
functions, and in the virus adsorption period and adsorption period are very effective. Chen Yuping, etc.  people to use GL compound the clinical treatment of 26 cases of patients
with SARS showed, GL inhibit viral replication, liver protection JiangMei, anti-inflammatory, anti-exudative effect
and toxic side effects can be used to treat SARS.
2.2 The treatment of acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis glycyrrhizin in vitro can inhibit the proliferation of vaccinia virus, etc., for the treatment of chronic hepatitis, effect is remarkable. In 1992, the glycyrrhizin tablets (HB-ning) is the Ministry of Health identified as the drug of choice for the treatment of chronic hepatitis, in
addition to powerful new GL (GL, glycine and cysteine composition of injection) is the treatment of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver drugs in clinical widely used Minophagen C (glycyrrhizin per ml containing 40 mg), a therapeutic effect on hepatitis B, and non-A, non-B hepatitis
has a preventive effect.
Eisenbtrrg J et al  person to Remefa S form of intravenous injection of GL in chronic HBV infection, the disease into significant results, and compared with the effect of interferon, a cure rate of 30% ~ 40%. Matsuo et al  who reported the use of lamivudine combined GL can more effectively control the replication of hepatitis B virus, while the concentration of HBV-DNA was inhibited. Zhang Ya-xi
using the main compound of GL-containing glycyrrhizin
treatment of chronic hepatitis B patients also showed that its apparent inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication, can improve the HBV-DNA negative rate .
WU et al  to 118 patients with chronic hepatitis B patients were randomly divided into A, B group, A group was given compound glycyrrhizin and infrastructure Liver drug treatment, B group were given the basis of Liver drug therapy, were treated for 12 weeks. Observed before and after treatment groups of serum hyaluronic acid enzymes, laminin, ?
procollagen peptide, IV collagen changes. The results showed that after treatment A group of four indicators and B were significantly lower compared with a significant difference (P