State parties … shall take measures:
a) To reduce infant and child mortality care.
b) To ensure the provision of necessary medical assistance and
health care to all children, with emphasis on the development of
primary health care.
c) To ensure the provision of adequate nutrition and safe drinking
d) To ensure appropriated health care for expectant and nursing
e) To develop preventive earth care and family life education. f) To integrate basic health service programs in national
g) To ensure the meaningful participation of non-governmental
organizations local communities and the beneficiary population
in the planning and management of basic service programs for
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child
In this Volume......
FOCUS, what it is, what it does
Studies on Child Labor and Abuse
Child Rights Advocacy
Child Education Support
Preventive Health and Sanitation
Zerihun goes to New York/A Success Story
FOCUS on Children at Risk wishes to extend its gratitude and appreciation to Save the Children Sweden for financing the publication of this Newsletter.
FOCUS on Children at Risk
P.O. Box 12610
Tel. No. 56 51 55
Account Number (A/C No.) 0171818399800
FOCUS on Children at Risk
(What it is - What it does)
FOCUS .......................................... Non political/non religious local NGO Year established ............................. 1994
Legal status .................................... Operates under agreements with the Ministry of Justice and
the Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission Decision making bodies ................ General Assembly ; Board of Directors ; Secretariat ;
Geographical areas of operation ... Addis Ababa
Woreda 2 (Kebeles 15, 16 and 17)
Woreda 14 (Kebeles 17, 21 and 22)
Woreda 8 (Kebeles 01, 03, 05, 11 and 35)
No. of beneficiaries ...................... 10,000 (direct and indirect)
FOCUS: Specific Objectives
; To protect high-risk children from the danger of street life through the provision of
educational and training opportunities.
; To provide Basic Education to non-school going needy children of both sexes in order to
enable them to join the government formal school system.
; To create a conducive, child-friendly schools environment, by providing community
schools with modern physical facilities such as school building, and school libraries
where the target beneficiaries can have better access to child-focused and work-oriented
; To improve the child right awareness of community members: parents, teachers and
children as well as other members of the community, in order to ensure change of attitude
on authoritative style of upbringing children and to promote the rights of children in
compliance with the UN Convention on the Rights of the child.
; To improve the health status of needy households through the construction of dry latrines
and installation of safe drinking water points for beneficiaries in Woreda 8, Kebeles 01,
05 and 11.
; To provide skills training for unemployed youth of both sexes in the areas of carpentry,
electricity, masonry, plumbing, hair dressing and manicuring in order to enable the
trainees to be employed in small-scale enterprises or to create their own jobs and support
themselves and their families.
Studies on Child Labour and Abuse
had previously conducted 3 well- FOCUS
"... State Parties shall take all received studies on child labor and abuse in
appropriate measures to eliminate 3 areas of Addis Ababa, Words 2, 8 and 14.
The findings of these studies were made harmful social and cultural practices
public at various workshops undertaken in affecting the welfare, dignity, normal
growth and development of the child”. 2000 and 2001.
The studies are part of the Organization‟s Article XXI - African Charter on the
on-going activities on child rights awareness Right and Welfare of the Child
and constitute an important element in
current efforts to combat child abuse in
A. Study on Child Rights and Child Abuse
The first study, entitled “A Study of Child Right Abuse and Neglect within the Family Environment in Addis Ababa” was undertaken in January 1998 in Woredas 2 and 14 deprived
areas where FOCUS is at present engaged in providing social services to the population, particularly needy children. The study found that in 3 areas, i.e. violations of child rights; sexual abuse and child labor, there was a great deal of room for improvement and strenuous and concerted efforts needed to be undertaken to better the situation of children.
A Mother Regularly Manhandling Her Child (Child Abuse)
1. Violation of child Right
4 major violations of child rights were The vision of FOCUS
identified in the study. These were:
characterization (affecting 6 %) prohibition FOCUS would like to see that of food, as a form of punishment (affecting disadvantaged children in Ethiopia 20 %), female circumcision (affecting 29 %) are cared for and protected.
and verbal and physical assault (affecting
2. Sexual Abuse
The study indicated that, as opposed to girl children living within the safe confines of their own homes, girl children living with people other than their natural parents were increasingly at risk of sexual molestation.
3. Child Labour
It was brought out clearly in the study that the majority of children interviewed believed it was there duty to assist their parents in household chores. 93 % of the children believed that the work they performed was not hazardous. Interestingly, the majority of children who work within the family environment did not consider the work as a breach of their rights, as long as it was distributed fairly and not imposed on them. On the other hand, many parents were unaware of the law forbidding the employment of children under the age of 14, either within the family environment (domestically) or in family owned concerns.
; FOCUS to undertake long-term FOCUS: Overall Objective
activities with community groups, to try To address the needs of target
communities, particularly children and to alleviate the perceived neglect and
youth, through sustainable urban social abuse of children in the target areas.
development programs based on genuine ; Appointment by the community of a
participation of the target community. „child rights‟ group to undertake
responsibility for running the programs.
; FOCUS to assist (financially and technically) the child rights‟ group in development of
relevant programs to assist the children within the community.
; The child rights‟ group to liaise with child rights committees of some schools in the 2
Proposed Action Programs
; Education in (information) advocacy activities on child rights, for community groups.
; Establishment of a „child abuse center‟, to deal with reported cases of child abuse and offer
; Strengthening of credit/micro financing facilities for parents. ; Expansion of school feeding programs
; Integration of family planning activities with on-going or proposed activities.
B. Study on Child Labour in the Informal Sectors
The second study, entitled “A Study of
Child Labour in the Informal sector” was
FOCUS Guiding Principles undertaken in 2000 in Woreda 2, the oldest
a) Legality - FOCUS shall never be engaged in part of Addis Ababa incorporating a poor, activities that contravene the law of the land.
b) Accountability - FOCUS is accountable for residential area. A significant number of
all its activities to its target groups, households in this area make their living community, the government and donors. It
also assumes full responsibility for from prostitution and petty trading. Others undertaking all its activities as per its plan.
c) Transparency - FOCUS shall at all times work in garages or metal shops. open its door to scrutiny for all its activities.
d) Participation - FOCUS values the participation of its beneficiaries especially
children and their parents in its programs. The study found that four-fifths of the
e) Gender Sensitivity - FOCUS values the full children interviewed indicated that they and equitable involvement of girls and boys;
women and men in all its programs. were living with their families in extremely f) Non-discrimination - FOCUS believes in the
equality of its beneficiaries especially poverty-ridden conditions. About two- children and their families-regardless of
religion, ethnic background, sex, nationality, thirds of the children were between the ages language and political affiliation, etc.
g) Collaboration - FOCUS believes in of 12-18 years of the time of their first
cooperation and collaboration with concerned employment, with some as young as 7. The individuals and organizations.
majority (26 %) were engaged as “errand
boys” ore “errand girls”, while 23 % were
engaged in the domestic activities.