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Genus Pholidota chemical constituents and pharmacological studies on_396

By Francis Butler,2014-10-30 18:35
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Genus Pholidota chemical constituents and pharmacological studies on_396

    Genus Pholidota chemical constituents and pharmacological studies on

     Author: Liu Ying, ZHANG Yun-mei, Kim, Chen Ye-

    Gao

     Abstract Objective To understand the species Pholidota chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of the

    research situation at home and abroad. Method of access to domestic and foreign species Pholidota research literature to understand the basic situation in these two areas. The results of the present Pholidota the types of species involved, only 5

    species from this genus isolated from 41 kinds of chemical constituents, including 9, 10 dihydro the Philippines,

    Philippine quinone, United benzyl, 2 styrene, triterpene, benzene C Su, lignans, sterols and aliphatic structure type. Contained the elements of some types of analgesic, anti-

    oxidation, anti-cancer, inhibit NO generation, etc. showed good activity. Conclusion Pholidota species to carry out the study on the discovery of new pharmaceutical active ingredients, and resources conservation are important.

     Key words Pholidota genera; chemical composition; pharmacological effects

     Abstract: ObjectiveTo understand the status of chemical and pharmacological studies on plants of the genus Pholidota. MethodsTo investigate literatures in the world on the chemical

    and pharmacological studies on the genus. ResultsOnly five species of Pholidota genus were studied and 41 compounds were isolated and characterized including 9,10

    dihydrophenanthrenes, phenanthraquinone, bibenzyls, stilbenes,

    triterpenoids, phenyl propanoids, lignans, sterols and aliphatic compounds, and some plants and compounds exhibited

    analgesic, antioxidant, anticancer and NO production inhibitory activities. ConclusionStudies on plants of the genus have important significance to the finding of new

    bioactive compounds and the protection of resources.

     Key words: Pholidota; Chemical constituents;

    Pharmacological study

     Orchidaceae (Orchidaceae) is Pholidota Pholidota plant about 30 species distributed in tropical and subtropical

    southern margin of the Asian region, south to Australia and the Pacific Islands. China has 14 species, produced in the southwest, south and China Taiwan [1]. Some of this is for medicinal plants in the folk, such as Pholidota (P. chinensis)

    the whole plant for the treatment of dizziness, cough and headache, Yunnan Stone peach (P. yunnanensis) have Yin, clearing the lungs, dampness, and eliminate silt and other effects [2].

     In recent years, domestic and foreign well-known

    traditional Chinese medicine for more development and application of Dendrobium. Orchidaceae Dendrobium Dendrobium Dendrobium is a variety of plants, fresh or dried stem collectively. In the "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic", the Dendrobium is classified as top grade, with Ziyin heat, Sheng

    Jin Yiwei, lungs cough, eyesight and other physical effects. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that Dendrobium also has anti-tumor, anti-aging, strengthen immunity, dilation of blood vessels and anti-platelet aggregation and so on.

    Therefore, in clinical Dendrobium, Chinese herbal compound, and India are widely used in traditional medicine. However, the growth of Dendrobium species harsh conditions, as environmental destruction and human predatory dredging of diminishing resources, some species on the verge of extinction. Pholidota other relatives are often mixed Dendrobium Medicinal Plants application [3]. In order to understand the genus Pholidota chemical constituents and pharmacological study of the situation and whether alternative

    medicine Dendrobium applications, this paper at home and abroad genus Pholidota chemical constituents and

pharmacological studies are reviewed.

     A chemical composition

     So far, the genus Pholidota chemical research is not too

    much. Only India and China scholars Pholidota plants are part of the chemical composition of a study focused on the stone peach, Yunnan Pholidota, lodging bud Pholidota P. imbricate, P. artiwlata and P. rubra these five kinds of plants, were isolated 9, 10 dihydro the Philippines, Philippine quinone, United benzyl, 2 styrene, triterpene, phenylpropanoids, lignans, sterols and aliphatic structure of the type of chemical composition, to 9, 10 DHP class , two styrene,

    benzyl, and triterpenoids together as the main ingredient.

     1.1 9, 10 dihydro the Philippines, United benzyl, and 2 styrene from four kinds of Chinese Communist isolated genus Pholidota 9, 10 DHP derivatives 9 (Figure 1). Which bud from the residential Pholidota share flavidin (1) [4],

    imbricatin (2) [4,5], and coelonin (3) [5]; from P. artiwlata share flavidin [6,7], isoflavidinin (4 ) [6] and iso

    oxoflavidinin (5) [6]; from P. rubra share imbricatin and coelonin [8]; from Yunnan Pholidota share coelonin [9], eulophiol (6) [10], lusianthridin (7 ) [10], phoyunnanin E (8) and phoyunnanin D (9) [11]. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 of the structure can be seen as the basis for compounds 3, from C

    4 and C 5 formed between the adoption of sub-methoxy-furan

    ring, while compound 5, C 4 and between C 5 then form a

    lactone ring structure. Compounds 8 for 2 9, 10 DHP

    formation of ether, compound 9 of 9, 10 DHP and the

    associated formation of benzyl ether. In addition, the share of the Philippines from Yunnan Pholidota quinones densiflorol

    B (10) [10].

     Genus Pholidota United benzyl compounds less. Su bud only from isolated Pholidota batatasin ? (11) [4], isolated

    from Yunnan Pholidota batatasin ? [9,10], gigantol (12)

    and 3,3 ', 5 3-hydroxy benzyl Union ( 13) [10]. Was also

    isolated from Yunnan Pholidota 7 Stilbenes phoyunbene A D

    (14 17) [11], trans- 3,3 ', 5 3-hydroxy 2'

methoxy-2-styrene ( 18), trans 3,3 ', 5 3-hydroxy-

    stilbene (19) cis-type 3,3' 2-hydroxy -5 - methoxy-2-

    styrene (20) [9].

     1.2 triterpenoid triterpenoid in Dendrobium plants rarely, but three kinds of Pholidota genus has now been eight rings A Tuen alkyl-type triterpenoids (Figure 2, compound 21 ~ 28). Majumder, etc. P. rubra were isolated from the two triterpenoid cinnamate pholidotin (21) and 24

    methylenecycloartanyl p hydroxy trans cinnamate (22)

    [8]. Chinese scholars were isolated from Yunnan Pholidota cyclopholidonol (23) [12,13], cycloneolitsol (24) [12], cyclopholidone (25) [12,13], pholidotanin (26) [13], 25

    methylenecyclopholidonyl p hydroxy trans cinnamate

    (27) [13,14] and the 25 methylenecyclopholidonyl p

    hydroxy cis cinnamate (28) [15]; from isolated Pholidota cyclopholidonol and cyclopholidone [16]. 1.3 Other compounds from Yunnan were isolated Pholidota 28 ferulic acid ester (n

     octacostyl ferulate) [12], () pinoresinol [17], ()

     syringaresinol [17], (R ) () lasiodiploidin [17], 3,5

     Dimethoxybenzene acetone [10], 4 (3 hydroxy 2

    methoxyphenyl) 2 methyl ethyl ketone [17], 4 (3

    hydroxyphenyl) 2 methyl ethyl ketone [17], (24R)-6b-

    hydroxy 24 ethylcholest 4 en 3 one [10], 5a,

    8a-epidioxy 24 (R) methylcholesta 6,22 dion 3b

     ol [10], β sitosterol [12,13,17], daucosterol [10], 32 acid (n dotriacontanoic acid), and 29 alkyl (n

    nonacosane) [12]. In addition, Xue-Mei Ma et al [18] on stem

    from Guizhou, Yunnan Pholidota determination of total alkaloids and polysaccharides that contain Pholidota Yunnan, 0.075% total alkaloids, containing 17.65% polysaccharide.

     Figure 1 Pholidota genus of 9, 10 dihydro the

    Philippines, Philippine quinone, benzyl, and 2 in conjunction styrene compounds (abbreviated)

     Figure 2 Pholidota species of triterpenoids (omitted)

     2 Pharmacology

     Plants and their constituents Pholidota pharmacological studies reported few, mainly reflected in the analgesic, anti-

oxidation, anti-cancer and inhibiting NO generation and so on.

     2.1 Pholidota analgesic effect of aqueous extract significantly inhibited acetic acid writhing response caused by frequency, markedly improved hot plate-induced pain in mice

    and pain in mice induced by electrical stimulation of the pain threshold, indicating a clear Pholidota analgesic effect . Its role in a dose-dependent, intensity, aminopyrine and morphine than the weak, but the duration was longer than that of morphine [19]. Fuzhou in the pharmaceutical stone peach syrup alcohol extract prepared for the treatment of headaches, there are analgesic and sedative effect, non-toxic side-effects

    [16].

     2.2 antioxidant Pholidota genus share of 9, 10 - dihydro-

    Philippine compounds flavidin shows the different models in vitro antioxidant activity. Esters of β-carotene linoleic

    acid model system, flavidin showed very good antioxidant activity, 50 ppm concentration, activity was 90.2%, and BHA considerable; DPPH model, flavidin displayed free radical scavenging activity of 5, 10,20, and 40 ppm concentration is

    stronger than BHA; phosphorus molybdenum law, flavidin the antioxidant activity of vitamin C quite. Moreover, flavidin also shows a strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity [20].

     2.3 The anti-cancer effects in vitro studies have shown

    that chloroform layer Yunnan Pholidota active site of human hepatoma HepG2 cells can block the cell cycle effect. Through the down cycle, Cyclin B1 proteins and protein kinase p34 (superscript cdc2) expression in the human hepatoma HepG2 cells were arrested in G2 / M phase [21].

     2.4 inhibited the use of NO generation in rat macrophages in vitro inhibitory activity of NO generated test system of Yunnan Pholidota isolated 13 compounds phoyunnanin E (8), phoyunnanin D (9), phoyunbene A D (14 17 ), trans 3,3

    ', 5 3-hydroxy 2' methoxy-stilbene (18), trans 3,3

    ', 5 3-hydroxy-stilbene (19), cis- 3,3 ' 2-hydroxy 5

     methoxy-stilbene (20), batatasin ? (11), gigantol (12),

    3,3', 5 3-hydroxy benzyl Union (13) and coelonin (3 ) were

    measured, results showed that phoyunbene B (15), cis- 3,3 '

     2-hydroxy 5 methoxy-stilbene (20), batatasin ?

    (11) and 3,3', 5 3 Benzyl hydroxy Union (13) has a very

    good inhibition of NO generation, higher than the positive control activity of resveratrol, and no cytotoxic effect, suggesting that they may Yunnan Pholidota active ingredient in the anti-inflammatory [9,11].

     2.5 Other experiments show that the role of

    pharmacological, Yunnan Dendrobium nobile Pholidota and have a better role in cough and Yiwei. Yunnan also has Pholidota rat kidney microsomal K, Na-ATP enzyme's role, activity was

    stronger than Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium [18].

     3 Conclusion

     Pholidota genus Dendrobium contains the same family of plants similar to the structure type 9, 10 DHP class and

    benzyl and other ingredients together, but some elements such as the triterpenoids in the plant is rarely found in Dendrobium. Although the Pholidota genus and species of Dendrobium in the chemical composition and pharmacological

    effect has some similarities, in-depth comparative study

    should be strengthened. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://

     Philippine classes and associated classes in recent years, benzyl Dendrobium plants found in an important

    biologically active components, such as Erianin, Mao Ranfi, moscatilin, moscatin and drumstick benzyl and the Philippine Philippines and other compounds associated with anti-tumor,

    anti - oxidation, anti-virus and anti-platelet aggregation and

    other active [22 ~ 25]. Pholidota species are widely distributed, providing a very rich class and the associated natural Philippine benzyl compounds library. China Pholidota species, 14 species, only Pholidota and Yunnan Pholidota a number of studies. Dendrobium species in recent years over-

    exploitation of the class instead of Dendrobium medicinal applications, its resources will also be less and less. Future work should be in the following aspects: ? continue in-depth

    study of the genus, particularly in resource-rich plants as

compared to the chemical composition, and using

    pharmacological screening activity tracking, to be active ingredients, pharmacological effects of the active ingredient research to clarify the medicinal plants of the role of the

    material basis and the discovery of new medicinal compounds; ? genus Pholidota study the pharmacological effects, and compared with the traditional Chinese medicine Dendrobium, identifying certain species can replace Dendrobium medicinal, to expand the drug source of Dendrobium; ? good resource

    investigation , and sorting out the distribution of this species and reserves, the protection of resources and work to prevent the extinction of endangered species. Also studied artificial cultivation and tissue culture technologies to meet the high demand market.

     References

     [1] Delectis Florae Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae Agendae, Academiae Sinicae Edita. Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae [M]. Beijing: Science Press, 1999, Tomus 18: 386 (in

    Chinese).

     [2] Jiangsu New Medical College. Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine [M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Scientific and Technological Press, 1977: 600 (in Chinese).

     [3] Bao XS, Shun QS, Chen LZ. Chinese Medicinal Plants of Dendrobium [M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Medical University Press and Fudan University Press, 2001. 109 (in Chinese).

     [4] Veerraju P, Rao NS, Rao LJ, et al. Bibenzyls and phenanthrenoids of some species of Orchidaceae [J]. Phytochemistry, 1989, 28 (11): 3031.

     [5] Majumder P, Sarkar A. Imbricatin, A new modified 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivative of the Orchid Pholidota

imbricate [J]. Indian J Chem, 1982, 21B (9): 829.

     [6] Majumder P, Sarkar A, Chakraborti J. Isoflavidinin and iso-oxoflavidinin, two 9,10-dihydrophenanthrens from the

    Orchids Pholidota articulate, Otochilus porecta and Otochilus fusca [J]. Phytochemisry, 1982, 21 (11): 2713.

     [7] Majumder P, Datta N, Sarkar A, et al. Flavidin, a novel 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivative of the Orchids

    Coelogyne flavida, Pholidota articulate and Otochilus fusca [J]. J Nat Prod, 1982, 45 (6) : 730.

     [8] Majumder P, Pal A, Lahiri S. Structure of pholidotin, a new triterpene from Orchids Pholidota rubra

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