French universities and government research agencies and the Implications for China
Through the French universities and government research institutions in research activities in France in which to explore the status of introduced the French universities and
research institutions of the cooperation model, and contact our practice, stressed the universities and research institutions the importance and necessity of cooperation .
【Abstract】 A Comparative Study title
Key words France / universities / research institutions / cooperation ... ...
France is the world's most important technological power. She has a splendid culture and magnificent technological achievement. Many well-known scientists,
thinkers and writers, such as Laplace, Gauss, Ampere, Marie Curie, Rousseau, Victor Hugo and so well-known to most Chinese
people. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) statistics, the overall level of
scientific research in France ranks fifth in the world, theses the number of 7%. France's basic research in particular, has always been at the forefront of the world, second only to the United States, with Britain and Germany, quite.
France is also a strong centralized state, its organization and management of scientific research to national goals also used for the purpose of management. Adheres to an independent scientific and technological development of the premise, the Government attaches great importance to study various aspects of the use of force, through a variety of co-
operation "network" to better coordinate human and material resources together to maximize use of domestic human, material and financial resources . Therefore, universities, government
research institutions and the industrial sector cooperation has been widespread attention to the parties, and has gained a lot of successful experiences and have a larger development. Especially in universities and national research centers of
cooperation after years of operation, has achieved great results. Some of their mode of cooperation and concrete implementation measures on China's universities and research institutes to further strengthen and expand cooperation in the
future have a good inspiration, we should learn from and emulate it.
A French scientific research system overview
The framework of the French scientific research system in the late 20th century, the formation of 60. As the level of scientific research on the country's economic development are closely linked, and therefore the characteristics of French research system is based on national economic development needs, the government's direct intervention, and constantly establish and improve the application of basic research and
development covering the whole process of various types of government-run scientific research institutions. This is in Western countries is unique. Scientific and technological research institutions and industrial-type sub-types.Science
and technology institutions and government departments to implement the administration of the same model, its staff enjoy the government's civil servants are treated, research funding depend largely on government funding. The Trade and Industry-based institutions is entirely the same as the operation of the private sector. The French government's research department is in charge of National Education, Research and Technology (hereinafter referred to Research Department). Ministry of Scientific Research According to the
Government's intention to develop research policy and planning and development direction of research funding the preparation of annual budgets.
France's R & D capability broadly grouped into three major components: First, scientific research institutions
directly under the Government, universities, foundations, forms and non-profit research institutions and scientific and technological co-ordination service management agencies; two of the industrial sector R & D institutions; three national
defense scientific research institutions. The country's total
research staff of about 30 million, of which the personnel engaged in public research, about 14 million people, about 8 million people engaged in basic research (mainly concentrated
in the universities and national research centers), about 5 million people engaged in target-oriented research, but also
of about 3 million people engaged in military research. Researchers, the average age of 45.7 years. Broken down by sector, research and the distribution of power or less is: will examine the time converted into a full-time (most of the
teachers are engaged in both teaching and research), institutions of higher learning are about more than 30000 research; research institutions directly under the Government
of about 7 10000; civilian research organizations, more than 6,000 people, the industrial sector R & D institutions have 60000 people, military researchers have about 2 million; In addition, industry Technology Center (part of private research
institutions) are also nearly four thousand.
France's scientific research funding is also very abundant. French research minister Alleg had announced in 2002 budget for civilian R & D expenditures amounted to 82.392 billion francs, of which 57.234 billion francs research and operating expenses, research project costs 25.158 billion francs. Compared with the previous year, operating expenses increased by 2.2%, the project costs increased by 3%, the fastest annual growth rate of nearly 5 years.
Two French universities and government research institutions in national research activities in the role of
In France, universities are autonomous public institutions, the National Ministry of Education of the University Research Division is responsible for evaluation and guidance. University labs are generally three categories: First, co-organized with the collaboration of national research laboratories, research funding largely provided by the state research institutions; second is examined by the
National Assessment of Education Research Division laboratory, similar to China's National Laboratory, funding and other aspects of the state's preferential treatment; 3 is known as "B2" laboratory. No need to review and inspection of such laboratories, research funding is not sufficient. Similarly, in France there are many teaching and research staff engaged in individual research.
French university teaching and research staff of 30000, and ten thousand engineering and technical personnel and
management personnel, are located in more than 160 institutions of higher education of about 4,000 laboratories engaged in research work (including teaching and research staff of teaching and research of various accounting for half of the time). University research is one of the main features of all regions and across almost all subject areas involved. Thus, despite the country's medium-sized plans are generally
borne by government research institutions, but the commitment to "smaller" technology plans, the University of the
scientific research system because of its flexible characteristics, play an important role. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
Government research institutions in research activities in France, plays an important role. For example, France's largest government research institutions - the French national
scientific research center, which has more than 10000 researchers and 1.5 thousand engineering and technical and administrative staff. R & D center in addition to bearing the
natural sciences, humanities and social sciences in various fields such as basic research and applied research tasks, but also perform the following functions: to promote scientific research and personnel training, tracking and analyzing the
situation and development trend of science and technology at home and abroad to participate in Government's science and technology policy formulation and research programs, provide for the national scientific and technological community plays a vital role in basic research of large-scale scientific
equipment. Therefore, the French government research institutions in many of today's major scientific fields have played an important role, many of which the level of research in the field is a world leading position.
Three French universities and government research agencies
French universities and government research institutions, research focus, commitment to the task as well as in research activities in the role played by different, but their work is
very much complementary. The rapid development of science and technology today, especially in the human, material and property, limited circumstances, the cooperation between the two is particularly important, which is more effective to play
R & D strengths and talents to better train can not be underestimated role. Therefore, the French universities and government research institutions attach great importance to co-operation, they always adhere to the "complementary, long-
term cooperation" principle, in the long-term process of
cooperation to explore a set of very unique model of collaboration, their cooperation is very successful, and it is great research value.
French universities and research centers co-operation,
for example, they have a long history of cooperation and good cooperation in the base-chu, especially in 1966 to create the "Collaborative Research Unit", the more closely. To the 20th century, late 80's, in 1350 the laboratory research centers, there are 940 co-organized with the University. In 1995, their cooperation, there has been a major initiative, that is, Ministry of Higher Education, universities and research centers signed a four-year cooperation agreement, signed by the three research projects jointly defined, and match the
required funding. This allows the parties to the common academic goals, will be their limited resources together to support the international level, require significant investment in research.
The cooperation of universities and research centers,
there are two main methods: the Collaborative Research Units (URA) and mixed (joint) research units (UMR). UAR is a university affiliated research institutes, some of which research topics and research centers related to the work, scientific research center through a collaborative approach to the UAR to provide human and material resources, UAR is in line with research centers to participate in the priority development policy research. In general, well-equipped, high
level of research, with academic competitiveness, but also
research and development and scientific research centers in the same direction of the university laboratories and research centers to possible forms of cooperation URA. Such cooperation and give full play to the university scientific research
strength, personnel training, promoting academic development, and has played a significant role. But also to the research
center has injected new vitality. UMR different modes of cooperation with the URA. UMR research work into the overall
development policy research center track: The two sides co-
funding, personnel and logistics support, as well as UMR joint exercise of academic and management. UMR research work must also accept the National Research Council inspection. The main difference between URA and the UMR is: URA is part of the University involved in the work of research centers, research centers do not participate in URA's academic leadership, but according to research objectives to determine their level of participation. UMR relatively close co-operation, universities
and research centers in the development of an annual funding plan that sets out the list of researchers by providing funding, equipment, etc. are all common responsibility. More importantly, UMR research work with clear objectives, tasks
and assessment targets that can withstand the "research will" checks.
This mode of cooperation, at least the following several advantages: First, is conducive to scientific research institutions and universities, scientific research policies
have been fully reflected the combination of organic and with the Government to formulate a national research and policy coordination; 2 is to make their own human and material resources, capital and other resources in a more rational allocation and utilization to achieve greater efficiency; third is to increase transparency, strengthen the cooperation between scientific research partnerships; 4 is a shared commitment to R & D risk, brainstorming, research and risk reduction into to the greatest extent; 5 through complementary
advantages, improve efficiency and enhance the scientific research activity. Therefore, the cooperation of universities and research institutions not only promoted the equipment, documentation and other resources sharing, but also to
motivate a large number of teachers engaged in research work. At the same time, scientific research institutions registered by the university researchers could assume part of the teaching tasks, and can guide the students.
At present, the research work of universities and
government research institutions has become the hip. For example, the national research centers and universities and engineering schools has signed nearly 200 cooperation agreements, 60% of researchers and engineers in collaboration
with the University of the URA, the State Institute of Health Sciences are also a number of research units located at the university. At the same time, there are nearly 3,000 universities teaching and research staff participate in national research center directly under the laboratory's work. In these laboratories, with an average of every 10 researchers from universities in there 4.
University for scientific research and government institutions can be mitigated or part of the solution in the
scientific research activities in universities are facing difficulties. For example, shortage of funds for university research activities in the commonly encountered problems, despite the Government's investment in scientific research increases every year, and the rate of increase is not small, but the French university faculty and staff salaries accounted for more than 84% of research budget, so that can be used for research and laboratory equipment to improve the funds fall far short of needs. In addition, the system cumbersome, lack of efficiency and motivation, and researchers are also troubled by the aging factor in the development of university research. Structure with the government research grumble through the cooperation of the introduction of competition
mechanism, the development of scientific research into the national plan, and effective management of co-laboratory, the
performance of its research work by the National Science Council's evaluation and monitoring, effective solved the structure and efficiency. Government research institutions in recent years through a series of reform measures to effectively alleviate the problem of aging research team, the leadership gradually younger. As the national scientific research center, Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and
Medicine and director of the new Institute of Health were only 45,46, and 48 years old. A large number of young researchers into the co-laboratory work, no doubt the work of university research has injected new vitality.
Four French universities and government research agencies of the Enlightenment
Through the understanding of French research
institutions, universities and government research institutions, forms of cooperation analysis, we find that China and France despite the social and political systems are
different, but the research and development in the state's macro-control and the overall plan, the State Science and Technology Policy the formulation and implementation of major IT projects on budget and input in such areas as are there are
many similarities between the two countries. Therefore, the French universities and research institutions in research activities in cooperation and experience, should give our universities and national research institutes to explore
scientific and technological cooperation, new ways to have great insight.
Universities and research institutes co-operation in
science and technology and economic globalization today, very
important and necessary. This is because: ? colleges and
universities, especially research universities are rapidly becoming China's scientific and technological innovation, especially in basic research, the main force. Colleges and universities for scientific research from 1996 to 47 billion to 2000's 14.2 billion (of which 7.6 billion of government funds), an annual increase of 24%, of which in 2000 increased 32% compared with 1999. Colleges and universities in 2000 by the National Natural Science Foundation project grants
accounted for 75%; key projects were about 62%, 67% of Outstanding Youth Science Fund; "973" project chief scientist for more than 50% of colleges and universities. In high-tech
research, colleges and universities continue to play a source
ashamed to use. "863" program since the implementation of a total of more than 100 colleges and universities undertaken a number of projects in 2300, accounting for 34% of the total. This shows that our colleges and universities undertake research tasks will play a greater role. However, high-quality
colleges and universities to accomplish this great historical mission, the problem exposed by inadequate funding or in research activities, the greatest obstacle. Replacement of equipment, personnel training and exchange of experimental conditions and the improvement of the environment, experimental materials, and other aspects of the purchase could not be guaranteed due to shortage of funds. In which China is a developing country, the country's economic
construction and social security system, the establishment and improvement will require substantial capital investment. Therefore, investment in scientific research funds, the government once the input intensity can greatly increase (although the investment in research funding every year
increase). Universities and national research institutes stressed that the cooperation of research institutes can make use of advanced instruments and equipment, a good research base and scientific and technical information quickly and
directly experimental conditions to conduct a joint research activities. This can be in the country's scientific research on the financial and material resources are very limited circumstances, the full use of national research institutes
and universities, existing R & D strength and their respective research strengths, but also to avoid wastage of resources and duplication of research. Chinese Academy of Sciences Laboratory of the current (or Institute), open to universities or other research unit, the applicant on a regular basis in the period of time to laboratory work, is a better form of cooperation. Contrast French universities and national research institutions co-operation mechanism, we also can use
than existing forms of cooperation closer and more stable mode
of cooperation. That such cooperation should be by agreement between the units or other forms of fixed, there is a long-
term goals of cooperation, planning and implementation of concrete cooperation measures and to develop indicators of
performance appraisal, not just the applicant's a personal short-term behavior.
Second, from the perspective of personnel training must also be emphasized that the cooperation of universities and research institutes. Currently Institution of Higher Learning
approach tends to be "dual", that is through classroom activities and scientific and technological activities in two different ways to achieve the purpose of cultivating innovative talents. The scientific and technological activities has gradually become a high-level university
personnel training is one important way. This trend reflects that the community put forward new requirements for personnel standards require colleges and universities to train people to conduct innovative activities as soon as possible. Colleges
and universities has also undertaken doctoral and masters-
level training mission of two people in the country's more than 600 undergraduate colleges and universities in general have the right to grant a doctorate in more than 260 master's
degrees conferred by nearly 500. These schools train 80% of our doctoral students. However, the innovative talents must give students, especially graduate students at the school have more opportunities to participate in during the research
activities. Clearly, according to the existing university research conditions (even the well-known university), to in-
school students (including undergraduates) full liberalization of the laboratory and so that all students can participate in scientific research work is unrealistic. So, here it can learn from France's universities and research institutes to establish a joint laboratory practice? Universities and research institutes in the training of personnel can have a unified planning and objectives. For example, students can
research institutes of the advantages of university teaching and learning activities to complete their basic course learning task. The university students can be part of the scientific research institutes, or even all of the research.
The partners can give full play to their strengths to maximize use of existing research resources. This is regardless of the university or research institutes to train people to be very beneficial.
Finally, Zhejiang University, even the prestigious
universities with world-class universities significant
disparities remain. Seen most prominently in original results, teacher quality, research funding and international aspects, especially the Nobel Prize, "natural" and "Science" magazine published papers, research funding, Dr. teacher ratio and other indicators, but also need to Our relentless efforts in order to shorten the distance with world-class universities.
The catch-up in many indicators, the University's academic status of technology in the world economy is the top priority
and research. In the final analysis, that is, the level of scientific research competition and catching up. To this end, the University In addition to tap their potential, but also be proactive in seeking to work with national research
institutes, scientific and technological cooperation, which is an increase in the current national conditions of China under the comprehensive strength of science and technology an effective way. Universities and research institutes, researchers may unite to form a rational structure of the research team shared the national major projects; joint participation in international cooperation major issue. This helps both sides will fully exchange academic ideas, open ideas, in scientific research activities and academic
exchanges and promote each other together. Collaborative approach can be used in the form of flexible, either by way of an agreement entered into long-term comprehensive cooperation