French universities and government research agencies and the Implications for China
Through the French universities and government research institutions in research activities in France in which to explore the status of introduced the French universities and
research institutions of the cooperation model, and contact our practice, stressed the universities and research institutions the importance and necessity of cooperation .
【Abstract】 A Comparative Study title
Key words France / universities / research institutions / cooperation ... ...
France is the world's most important technological power. She has a splendid culture and magnificent technological achievement. Many well-known scientists,
thinkers and writers, such as Laplace, Gauss, Ampere, Marie Curie, Rousseau, Victor Hugo and so well-known to most Chinese
people. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) statistics, the overall level of
scientific research in France ranks fifth in the world, theses the number of 7%. France's basic research in particular, has always been at the forefront of the world, second only to the United States, with Britain and Germany, quite.
France is also a strong centralized state, its organization and management of scientific research to national goals also used for the purpose of management. Adheres to an independent scientific and technological development of the premise, the Government attaches great importance to study various aspects of the use of force, through a variety of co-
operation "network" to better coordinate human and material resources together to maximize use of domestic human, material and financial resources . Therefore, universities, government
research institutions and the industrial sector cooperation has been widespread attention to the parties, and has gained a lot of successful experiences and have a larger development. Especially in universities and national research centers of
cooperation after years of operation, has achieved great results. Some of their mode of cooperation and concrete implementation measures on China's universities and research institutes to further strengthen and expand cooperation in the
future have a good inspiration, we should learn from and emulate it.
A French scientific research system overview
The framework of the French scientific research system in the late 20th century, the formation of 60. As the level of scientific research on the country's economic development are closely linked, and therefore the characteristics of French research system is based on national economic development needs, the government's direct intervention, and constantly establish and improve the application of basic research and
development covering the whole process of various types of government-run scientific research institutions. This is in Western countries is unique. Scientific and technological research institutions and industrial-type sub-types.Science
and technology institutions and government departments to implement the administration of the same model, its staff enjoy the government's civil servants are treated, research funding depend largely on government funding. The Trade and Industry-based institutions is entirely the same as the operation of the private sector. The French government's research department is in charge of National Education, Research and Technology (hereinafter referred to Research Department). Ministry of Scientific Research According to the
Government's intention to develop research policy and planning and development direction of research funding the preparation of annual budgets.
France's R & D capability broadly grouped into three major components: First, scientific research institutions
directly under the Government, universities, foundations, forms and non-profit research institutions and scientific and technological co-ordination service management agencies; two of the industrial sector R & D institutions; three national
defense scientific research institutions. The country's total
research staff of about 30 million, of which the personnel engaged in public research, about 14 million people, about 8 million people engaged in basic research (mainly concentrated
in the universities and national research centers), about 5 million people engaged in target-oriented research, but also
of about 3 million people engaged in military research. Researchers, the average age of 45.7 years. Broken down by sector, research and the distribution of power or less is: will examine the time converted into a full-time (most of the
teachers are engaged in both teaching and research), institutions of higher learning are about more than 30000 research; research institutions directly under the Government
of about 7 10000; civilian research organizations, more than 6,000 people, the industrial sector R & D institutions have 60000 people, military researchers have about 2 million; In addition, industry Technology Center (part of private research
institutions) are also nearly four thousand.
France's scientific research funding is also very abundant. French research minister Alleg had announced in 2002 budget for civilian R & D expenditures amounted to 82.392 billion francs, of which 57.234 billion francs research and operating expenses, research project costs 25.158 billion francs. Compared with the previous year, operating expenses increased by 2.2%, the project costs increased by 3%, the fastest annual growth rate of nearly 5 years.
Two French universities and government research institutions in national research activities in the role of
In France, universities are autonomous public institutions, the National Ministry of Education of the University Research Division is responsible for evaluation and guidance. University labs are generally three categories: First, co-organized with the collaboration of national research laboratories, research funding largely provided by the state research institutions; second is examined by the
National Assessment of Education Research Division laboratory, similar to China's National Laboratory, funding and other aspects of the state's preferential treatment; 3 is known as "B2" laboratory. No need to review and inspection of such laboratories, research funding is not sufficient. Similarly, in France there are many teaching and research staff engaged in individual research.
French university teaching and research staff of 30000, and ten thousand engineering and technical personnel and
management personnel, are located in more than 160 institutions of higher education of about 4,000 laboratories engaged in research work (including teaching and research staff of teaching and research of various accounting for half of the time). University research is one of the main features of all regions and across almost all subject areas involved. Thus, despite the country's medium-sized plans are generally
borne by government research institutions, but the commitment to "smaller" technology plans, the University of the
scientific research system because of its flexible characteristics, play an important role. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
Government research institutions in research activities in France, plays an important role. For example, France's largest government research institutions - the French national
scientific research center, which has more than 10000 researchers and 1.5 thousand engineering and technical and administrative staff. R & D center in addition to bearing the
natural sciences, humanities and social sciences in various fields such as basic research and applied research tasks, but also perform the following functions: to promote scientific research and personnel training, tracking and analyzing the
situation and development trend of science and technology at home and abroad to participate in Government's science and technology policy formulation and research programs, provide for the national scientific and technological community plays a vital role in basic research of large-scale scientific
equipment. Therefore, the French government research institutions in many of today's major scientific fields have played an important role, many of which the level of research in the field is a world leading position.
Three French universities and government research agencies
French universities and government research institutions, research focus, commitment to the task as well as in research activities in the role played by different, but their work is
very much complementary. The rapid development of science and technology today, especially in the human, material and property, limited circumstances, the cooperation between the two is particularly important, which is more effective to play
R & D strengths and talents to better train can not be underestimated role. Therefore, the French universities and government research institutions attach great importance to co-operation, they always adhere to the "complementary, long-
term cooperation" principle, in the long-term process of
cooperation to explore a set of very unique model of collaboration, their cooperation is very successful, and it is great research value.
French universities and research centers co-operation,
for example, they have a long history of cooperation and good cooperation in the base-chu, especially in 1966 to create the "Collaborative Research Unit", the more closely. To the 20th century, late 80's, in 1350 the laboratory research centers, there are 940 co-organized with the University. In 1995, their cooperation, there has been a major initiative, that is, Ministry of Higher Education, universities and research centers signed a four-year cooperation agreement, signed by the three research projects jointly defined, and match the
required funding. This allows the parties to the common academic goals, will be their limited resources together to support the international level, require significant investment in research.
The cooperation of universities and research centers,
there are two main methods: the Collaborative Research Units (URA) and mixed (joint) research units (UMR). UAR is a university affiliated research institutes, some of which