The Period of Realism
I Fill in the blanks
1 By 1875, American writers were moving toward _realism___ in
literature. We can see this in the true-to-life descriptions of Bret Harte, William Dean Howells, and Hamlin Garland.
2 The most straightforward definition of realism is probably the one given by the American realist _William Dean Howells___: that is,
―nothing more and nothing less than the truthful treatment of material.‖
3 Realism first appeared in the United States in the literature of __local
color__, an amalgam of romantic plots and realistic descriptions of things immediately observable: the dialects, customs, sights and sounds of regional.
4 The theme of __A Modern Instance__, one of William Dean Howells’
earlier novels, shocked the public. It was about divorce, a subject which was not talked or written about openly.
5 As one of America’s first and foremost realists and humorists, __Mark
Twain__, the pen name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, usually wrote about his own personal experiences and things he knew about from firsthand experiences.
6 At the heart of Mark Twain’s achievement is his creation of two
characters: __Tom Sawyer__ and __Huckleberry Finn__.
7 Mark Twain, was born on November 30, 1835, in the village of Florida,
Missouri, and grew up in the larger river town of Hannibal. The steamboats which passed daily were the fascination of the town and became the subject matter of Twain’s __Life on the Mississippi__.
8 Ernest Hemingway, whose own style is based on Twain’s, once said,
―All modern American literature comes from __(The Adventures of)
9 __Stephen Crane__, the first American naturalist, was not much influenced by the scientific approach. He was a genius with amazing sympathy and imagination.
10 All of Stephen Crane’s characters are controlled by __the
environment__. This is what makes Crane a ―naturalist‖.
11 In __The Red Badge of Courage__, Stephen Crane’s greatest novel,
the accident of war makes a young man seem to be a hero. War changes men into animals. In the view of author, good and bad, hero and coward, are merely matters of chance, of fate.
12 Hamlin Garland developed a writing method which he called ―__veritism__‖ (meaning truth). He described people, places and events in a careful and factual meaner.
13 __Henry James__ was a realist, but not a naturalist. He was an observer of the mind rather than a recorder of time. His realism was a special kind of psychological realism.
14 Henry James first achieved recognition as a writer of the
―__International__‖ novel—a story which brings together persons of
various nationalities who represent certain characteristics. 15 __The Portrait of a Lady__ is the best novel of Henry James’ ―middle
period‖. It is a story about a young, bright American girl goes to Europe to explode life.
16 Henry James’s most mature, and perhaps his best, novels are
considered to be his last three: The Golden Bowl, __The Ambassadors__,
and The Wings of the Dove.
17 Dreiser’s greatest novel, __An American Tragedy__, reveals a last
stage in his thinking: social consciousness.
18 __Darwinism__ had an evident influence on naturalism. It seemed to stress the animality of man, to suggest that man was dominated by the forces of evolution.
19 __The Art of Fiction__ was Henry James’ most famous and influential
critical essay written in response to a lecture on fiction delivered by the English novelist Sir Walter Besant at the Royal Institution on April 25, 1884.
A Match the following literary figures with their correspondent literary stage.
1 Theodore Dreiser a Imagism
2 Henry David Thoreau b Romanticism
3 Henry James c the Jazz Age
4 Edgar Allen Poe d Transcendentalism 5 Fitzgerald e the Lost Generation 6 Ezra Pound f Naturalism
7 Ernest Hemingway g Realism
1—f; 2—d; 3—g; 4—b; 5—c; 6—a; 7--e
B Match the following literary figures with the right information. 1 William Dean Howells 2 Mark Twain
3 Henry James 4 Stephen Crane
5 Jack London 6 Theodore Dreiser
a Darwinian naturalist
b His style had been called realistic, naturalistic, and impressionistic
c He was once called ―the world’s worst great writer‖
d ―… a boy and an old man, but never was he a man‖
e psychological realist
f the arbiter of American realism
1—f; 2—d; 3—e; 4—b; 5—a; 6--c
C Match the following literary figures with their works. 1 William Dean Howells a Trilogy of Desire 2 Stephen Crane b A Passionate Pilgrim 3 Hamlin Garland c The Prince and the Pauper 4 Henry James d The Blue Boat
5 Jack London e A Traveler from Altruria 6 Theodore Dreiser f Main-Traveled Roads 7 Mark Twain g Martin Eden
1—e; 2—d; 3—f; 4—b; 5—g; 6—a; 7—c
James’ first important fiction was “A Passionate Pilgrim”(1871) in which he deals with the first of his great themes, the reactions of an eager American “pilgrim” when confronted with the
fascinations of the complex European world of art and affairs. 热情的朝圣者！The Passionate Pilgrim，又译；激情飘泊者-- William Shakespeare
III Multiple Choice
1 __D__, who became the editor of Harper’s Monthly in 1891, created the first theory for American realism.
a Emile Zola b Hamlin Garland c Stephen Crane d William Dean Howells 2 __B__’s stories still had many unrealistic qualities: ―tall tales‖ and
unlikely coincidences. He is never a pure realist. a Henry James b Mark Twain c Nathaniel Hawthorne d Henry David Thoreau 3 __C__ in the 1860s was the first American writer of local color to
achieve wide popularity.
a Mark Twain b William Dean Howells c Bret Harte d Harriet Beecher Stowe 4 In __B__, a character, Mr. Sewell, expresses William Dean Howells’
own opinions by saying ―The novelists might be the greatest possible help to us if they painted life as it is, and human feelings in their true
proportion and relation.‖
a A Modern Instance b The Rise of Silas Lapham c A Hazard of New Fortunes d Through the Eye of Needle 5 ―__C__‖ was a term created by the French novelist, Emile Zola. a realism b transcendentalism c naturalism d veritism 6 Emile Zola, in studying human life, believed people were not really ―free‖. Rather their lives, opinions and morality were all controlled by social economic and __D__.
a modern science b Darwinism
c social status d psychological causes
7 Stephen Crane’s novel, Maggie: A Girl of the Street, is the story of a girl __C__.
a who is brought up in a poor area of Chicago
b who is loved by her father but betrayed by her friends c who experiences the violence and cruelty of the society almost every day
d who is evil by nature
8 In his short story, __A__, Stephen Crane shows how even life and death are determined by fate.
a The Open Boat b The Open Window
c War is Kind d War is Slaughterhouse
9 The naturalism of __D__ was filled with deep sympathy for the
common people. His literature was a form of protests against the conditions which made the lives of Mid-western farmers so painful and
a Harold Frederic b Ambrose Bierce
c Henry James d Hamlin Garland
Harold Frederic (1856—1898, New York author)
1913年(美国最富传奇色彩的愤世作家??安布罗斯比尔斯！Ambrose Bierce 1842—1914?，(
10 The changing consciousness of the character is the real story. __D__
gave this kind of literature a name. He called it ―stream-of-consciousness‖.
a Henry James b James Joyce
c John Conrad d William James
11 We usually divide Henry James’ career as a writer into three stages: early, middle and mature. Which of the following work belongs to James’
early stage? B
a The Portrait of a Lady b The American c The Tragic Muse d The Golden Bowl 12 The novel which was described by an American critic as ―an outrage
to American girlhood‖ is Henry James’ __A__.
a Daisy Miller b The Portrait of a Lady c Woman in Love d Awakening
13 Mark Twain’s first novel, __A__ was an artist failure, but it gave its name to the America of the post-bellum period which it attempts to
a The Gilded Age b Life on the Mississippi c The Innocents Abroad d The Mysterious Stranger 14 Among the following writers, who has been entitled at one time
克朗代克！河，的吉卜林 C ―Kipling of the Klondike‖，
A Mark Twain b Frank Norris
c Jack London d Henry James
15 Jack London was at his height of his powers when he wrote __C__,
which is deeply influenced by Darwinism.
a The Sea Wolf b To Build a Fire c The Call of the Wild d Martin Eden
16 With the publication of __B__ in 1900, Theodore Dreiser committed his literary force to opening the new ground of American naturalism.
a An American Tragedy b Sister Carrie c The Bulwark d The Stoic
17 In his works, Theodore Dreiser’s tone is always __D__.
a sad b satirical c comic d serious 18 Which is not one of the characteristics of Stephen Crane’s works? D
a Poetic symbolism b Probing of psychological depths c The use of vivid color and imagery
d The theme of social effects on a person
19 The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn was Mark Twain’s masterwork
from which, as __C__ noted, ―all modern American literature comes.‖
a Henry James b William Dean Howells
c Ernest Hemingway d Theodore Dreiser
20 In his later novels, Mark Twain seems less hopeful about democracy, which is reflected in his work, __D__.
a The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg
b The Mysterious Stranger
c The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County
d A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court
IV Decide whether the following statements are True or False. 1 In the late nineteenth century, although Americans continued to read the works of Irving, Cooper, Hawthorne, and Poe, the great age of American romanticism had ended. T
2 By the last of the nineteenth century, the realists rejected the portrayal of idealized characters and events. T
3 The American realists sought to describe the wide range of American experience and to present the subtleties f human personality. T
4 After the Civil War, the Frontier was closing. Disillusionment and frustration were widely felt. What had been expected to be a ―Golden
Age‖ turned to be a ―Gilded‖ one. T
5 By the 1870s New England Renaissance had waned. The Age of Romanticism and Transcendentalism was by and large over. The age of
realism had arrived. T
6 As a literary movement, realism came in the latter half of the nineteenth century, as a reaction against the ―lie‖ of romanticism. T
7 Mark Twain had, as his aim of writing, the soul, the life, and the speech of the people in mind. T
8 As a critic of eminent standing and as a prolific writer, Mark Twain helped to mould public taste and became the champion of literary realism in America. F (Mark Twain ? William Dean Howells)
9 Placed in historical perspective, Howells is found lacking in qualities and depth. But anyhow he is a literary figure worthy of notice. T
10 Mark Twain’s later works unmistakably showed his change from an optimist and humorist to an almost despairing determinist. T
11 Life on the Mississippi was such a truthful description that Howells felt that he could taste ―the mud‖ in it. T
12 Tom Sawyer walked out of Twain’s pages directly from his fresh
memory of his boyhood in the west.
13 Mark Twain should be remembered both as a great literary artist and a great social critic in the history of the U.S. T
14 Stephen Crane died of Tuberculosis in Germany at the age of 28. T
15 Howell’s The Rise of Silas Lapham is a fine specimen of American realistic writing. T
16 American naturalism, like realism, had come from Europe. T