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CChapter 3 Making correct and effective sentences

By Jerome Clark,2014-11-19 11:28
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CChapter 3 Making correct and effective sentences

    Chapter 3 Making correct and effective sentences

    造正确有效的句子

    3 Conciseness

     We write sentences to express ideas. The use of words in a sentence, therefore, is decided by the idea it expresses. Needless words do not help express ideas; on the contrary, they obscure the meaning and confuse the reader. So one of the rules of sentence-making is to use only the necessary words, or as few words as possible so long as the meaning is fully expressed.

     But often we tend to put a superfluous多余的

    word here and there in a sentence. This habit may come from the way we talk. It is common in speaking to repeat a word, use words of similar meaning together, and change words we have said and even the structure of a sentence in the middle of it. But we should not do so in writing. This is possible because when we write we have time to check what we have written and delete all the words that are not

    needed for the expression of ideas, or to make our sentences concise.

     Here are a few hints for making concise and clear sentences;

    A, Use a pronoun instead of repeating a noun; B, Use a word instead of a phrase with the

    same meaning, and use a phrase instead of a

    clause with the same meaning

    C, Do not repeat words or phrases, if possible, in a sentence or in one that follows; D, Do not use different words or phrases with similar meanings in the same sentence; E, Do not repeat the same idea in different

    sentences except for emphasis.

    4 Emphasis

    When we talk, we emphasize an important idea by raising our voices or making a gesture. When we write, we also have ways to lay emphasis on certain words or phrases.

     Placing

    The end and the beginning of a sentence usually attract the reader’s attention, so

    important elements of a sentence should be put at these tao places, especially the end. Climactic sequence

     In enumerating列举 things or ideas, we

    should start from the least important and end

    with the most important, or in the climactic高潮

     sequence.

    The use of verbs in the active voice

     Verbs are generally more emphatic than nouns or any other part of speech.

    Subordination

     We have talked about subordination and coordination. Subordinating a part of a sentence is a way of giving emphasis to the main idea in the sentence.

    Repeating important words

     Repetition as a rule should be avoided, but occasionally important words can be repeated for the sake of emphasis.

    Short sentences

     Short sentences are often emphatic, especially after longer ones.

Balanced sentences

     A balanced sentence is one that consists of two parts of the same structure and roughly the same length, and with contrasted(or similar) ideas.

    Periodic sentences

    圆周句(指主要意义至句尾始明白的句子)

     A periodic sentence is one that is not complete in structure or meaning until it reaches the last word, which is the most important word of the sentence.

    A sentence in which the main clause or its predicate is withheld until the end; for example,

    周期句;主句或谓语在句末的句子?例如;

    Despite heavy winds and nearly impenetrable ground fog, the plane landed safely. 尽管有强风和无法看透的地雾;飞机安全着

    

     When we read this sentence we are not kept in suspense for the main meaning, as we are when reading the periodic one, and we fell its

    force is weaker. But the loose sentence may sound more natural and may be easier to understand.

    Negative-positive statements

     When a negative statement is followed by a positive one, the meaning is emphasized by the contrast.

    Rhetorical questions反问

     They are questions in form but emphatic statements in meaning. They are not asked to be answered.

    5 Variety

     A series of sentences of the same structure and length with the same noun or pronoun as the subjects produce monotony. It is often good to vary structures and mix short and long, simple and compound or complex, loose and periodic sentences, so long as the meaning is properly expressed.

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