1. RIP metric
Question: what is the metric that from router A to router B which both running RIP? Answer: one hop
Why: at router A, the route to router B is generated by the layer 3 switcher, so the metric is one hop. If is there is a loopback interface at router B, and in the same AS, then the route for this lo interface will be generated by router B and advertise to router A. At router A the loopback route‘s metric is two hop. RIPnG的metric要加1。
2. 问，RIPv2 使用什么决定路由；
: By hop. 答
Why: Metric of RIPv2 is a hop count between 1 and 16. RIPv2 use the metric do route
3. RIP metric
Question: what maximum of the metric account in RIP. How many hops mean that the destination is unreachable?
Answer: the maximum is 15. 16 hops means unreachable.
Why: An unreachable network is indicated by setting the hop count to 16, which RIP interprets as an infinite distance. 当metric>15时都表示不可达。
4. EIGRP neighbor
Question: There is a SW between R1 and R2, SW is running STP protocol, R1 and R2 run EIGRP, when the link between R1 and SW is down, how R2 knows R1‘s neighbor is down.
Answer: EIGRP use hello packet to discovery and recovery neighbors. On the Ethernet
network, Hellos are multicast every five seconds. When R2 receives a Hello packet from R1, the packet will include a hold time. The hold time tells R2 the maximum time it should wait to receive subsequent Hellos from R1. If the hold timer expires before a Hello is received,
the neighbor R1 is declared unreachable and DUAL is informed of the loss of the neighbor.
Then R2 know the neighbor is down. On Ethernet, the hold time is 15s (three times the Hello
Why: Because EIGRP updates are nonperiodic, it is especially important to have a process whereby neighbors (EIGRP-speaking routers on directly connected networks) are discovered and tracked. On most networks, Hellos are multicast every five seconds, minus a small random time to prevent synchronization. On multipoint X.25, Frame Relay, and ATM interfaces, with access link speeds of T1 or slower, Hellos are unicast every 60 seconds. This longer Hello interval is also the default for ATM SVCs and for ISDN PRI interfaces. In all cases, the Hellos are unacknowledged. The default Hello interval can be changed on a per interface basis with the command ip hello-interval eigrp.
When a router receives a Hello packet from a neighbor, the packet will include a hold time. The hold time tells the router the maximum time it should wait to receive subsequent Hellos. If the hold timer expires before a Hello is received, the neighbor is declared unreachable and DUAL is informed of the loss of a neighbor. By default, the hold time is three times the Hello interval.
5. EIGRP unequal load-balance
Question: if we set the variance 2, how will router A choose the path to the 172 network? Answer: A-B-E and A-C-E. The metric of the lowest-cost route is 20, the variance is 2, so the route whose metric exceeds 40 will not be considered a feasible route. Why: The variance command is used to determine which routes are feasible for unequal-cost load sharing. Variance defines a multiplier by which a metric may differ, or vary, from the metric of the lowest-cost route. Any route whose metric exceeds the metric of the lowest-cost route, multiplied by the variance, will not be considered a feasible route.
6. EIGRP over frame-relay
Answer: config EIGRP on the frame-relay network, we need to use the ―broadcast‖ keyword
when config the PVC or manually identify each neighbors using the ―neighbor‖ command.
For this question, may not use the two ways both.
7. EIGRP over frame-relay
First: frame-relay map need to add broadcast keyword then eigrp neighbor can be establish.
Second: If frame-relay map dose not use broadcast keyword then need to use neighbor command in the eigrp processes of all the eigrp routers.
8. EIGRP unequal load balance
Answer: The EIGRP unequal load balance enables the router do load balance on links with unequal metrics. The router spread the traffic load inversely proportional to the metrics of the links.
Why: The variance command is used to determine which routes are feasible for unequal-cost load sharing. Variance defines a multiplier by which a metric may differ, or vary, from the metric of the lowest-cost route. Any route whose metric exceeds the metric of the lowest-cost route, multiplied by the variance, will not be considered a feasible route.
• The maximum-paths limit must not be exceeded as a result of adding the route to a load-sharing
• The next-hop router must be metrically closer to the destination. That is, its metric for the route must
be smaller than the local router's metric. A next-hop router, being closer to the destination, is often
referred to as the downstream router.
• The metric of the lowest-cost route, when multiplied by the variance, must be greater than the metric
of the route to be added.
9. EIGRP DUAL
Question: FD RD successor FS
10. EIGRP the command neighbor
EIGRP send hello packet to 18.104.22.168 use multicast default. But the frame-relay network don‘t support multicast. Use the neighbor command, the route will send hello packet to the
destination address by using unicast.
11. EIGRP ip bandwidth-percent
Question，ip bandwidth-percent eigrp 200 20是什么意思；还有eigrp的邻居需要配臵
The 200 is the autonomous system number of the eigrp process. 20 mean that the eigrp process can use 20 percent of the bandwidth.
In broadcast network, EIGRP don‘t need manual appoint neighbor, in no-broadcast network,
EIGRP need to use neighbor command appoint peer.
12. EIGRP SIA state
When a route goes active and queries are sent to neighbors, the route will remain active until a reply is received for every query. If a neighbor cannot reply because some reasons, the
route would stay permanently active.
Routes that have a valid successor are said to be in a ―passive‖ state. If, for some reason, a router loses a route through its successor and does not have a feasible successor for that route, then the route transitions to an ―active‖ state. In the active state, a router sends queries out to its neighbors requesting a path to the lost route.
When an EIGRP neighbor receives a query for a route, it behaves as follows:
If the EIGRP topology table does not currently contain an entry for the route, then the router immediately replies to the query with an unreachable message, stating that there is no path for this route through this neighbor.
If the EIGRP topology table lists the querying router as the successor for this route and a feasible successor exists, then the feasible successor is installed and the router immediately replies to the query. If the EIGRP topology table lists the querying router as the successor for this route and a feasible successor does not exist, then the router queries all of its EIGRP neighbors except those sent out the same interface as its former successor. The router will not reply to the querying router until it has received a reply to all queries that it originated for this route.
If the query was received from a neighbor that is not the successor for this destination, then the router replies with its successor information.
13. OSPF Area & LSA
Question: 问在下图中！area 0和area 2？NSSA，中有什么类型的LSA和路由；
Answer: Area 0: LSA 1 2 3 5
Area 1: LSA 1 2 3 7
Area 2: LSA 1 2 3 4 5
Why: router C是ASBR！router E产生4类的LAS进入area 2。
14. OSPF virtual-link
Answer，Because all inter-area traffic must pass through the backbone; non-backbone areas
cannot exchange packets directly. Area 2 don‘t connect to area 0, there should be a
virtual-link in area 1 to connect area 2 and area 0.
15. OSPF stub area
Answer，type 4、5 LSA
16. OSPF load-balance
Answer，，A-B-E and A-C-E. If multiple equal-cost, equal-path-type routes exist, OSPF
utilizes them. By default, the Cisco OSPF implementation load balances over a maximum of
16 equal-cost paths.
1. Select the route or routes with the most specific match to the destination address. The most specific
match should always be the longest match the route with the longest address mask. The entries may
be host, network, subnet, supernet or default addresses.
2. Prune the set of selected entries by eliminating less-preferred path types.
Intra-area paths, inter-area paths, E1 external paths, E2 external paths. 3. equal-cost load balance.
17. area nssa•default-information-originate•(Not-So-Stubby-Area)
The statement default-information-originate, added to the area nssa command, will cause the
ABR to advertise a default route into the NSSA this time, with a type 7 LSA.
18. OSPF type of network and DR, BDR
问在哪台设备上可以看到下面的显示，用这个命令，show ip ospf neighbor
问OSPF show ip ospf neighbor输出的对不对；
DRouter 之间是2way, DR和BDR是full, p2p线路是full.
19 OSPF Area & LSA
如图，R1上有个22.214.171.124 接口！做了redistribute connect动作！R3上做了RIP
redistribute into OSPF的动作。
要求，describe the routes/lsa in the area 0 and area 1
Area 0 LSA 1 2 3 5
Area 1 LSA 1 2 3 7
20 OSPF metric
Cisco router calculate a default OSPF cost as 10^8/BW, where BW is the configured bandwidth of the interface and 10^8 is the reference bandwidth. The reference bandwidth can be changed with the command auto-cost reference-bandwidth.
21 OSPF external route
Stub area; totally stub area; nssa; totally nssa
22 OSPF type of network and DR, BDR
Broadcast DR&BDR 126.96.36.199; DRouter 188.8.131.52
NBMA 手工配臵邻居！需要选举DR BDR unicast
Point-to-point 不选举DR BDR！ 组播184.108.40.206
Virtual link Unicast
23 OSPF DR rule
If one or more of the eligible routers include their own address in the DR Field, the neighbor
with the highest priority will be declared the DR. In a tie, the neighbor with the highest Router ID will be chosen.
24 OSPF neighbor and adjacency
What is difference between OSPF neighbor and adjacencies?
The OSPF neighbor relationships are established and maintained through the exchange of Hello packets. The purpose of the neighbor relationship is the formation of adjacencies over which to pass routing information. Only then OSPF neighbor finished database
synchronization, the OSPF neighbors are fully adjacent.
25 OSPF virtual-link
Hello包经过virtual-link会被交换吗；Hello packet will be exchanged via virtual-link?
The output shows that OSPF hellos are suppressed. This means that, while the virtual link is
up, no hellos are exchanged. OSPF suppresses the hellos because it considers virtual links to be demand circuits (按需链路).
Virtual links are interpreted by the router as unnumbered point-to-point networks. OSPF packets are unicast over virtual links. As on point-to-point networks, Valid neighbors will always become adjacent.
Within each ABR, the virtual link will transition to the full functional point-to-point interface state when a route to the neighbor ABR is found in the route table. When the interface state becomes point-to-point, an adjacency is established across the virtual link.
26 IBGP&IGP synchronization
How BGP synchronization affected the route to 220.127.116.11/24?
When router B receives the route 18.104.22.168/24 from router A, if the BGP synchronization is on, router B will neither enter this route into its IGP routing table nor advertise this route to router C unless router B known this route by IGP first.
What is the BGP synchronization?
Before a route learned from an IBGP neighbor is entered into the IGP IP routing table or is advertised to a BGP peer, the route must first be known via IGP.
27 BGP attribute
Which BGP attribute will influence inbound flow?
MED (Multi_Exit_Disc), as_path, origin.
28 BGP AD
What about the BGP administrative Distance?
Internal BGP is 200, External BGP is 20, Backdoor EBGP 200.
29 BGP states
BGP neighbors building process?
Idle State ; Connect State ; Active State ; Open sent state ; Open confirm state ;
30 BGP attribute ATOMIC_AGGREGGATE
ATOMIC_AGGREGGATE is a well-known discretionary attribute that is used to alert
downstream routers that a loss of path information has occurred.
Any time a BGP speaker summarize more-specific routes into a less-specific aggregate, and path information is lost, the BGP speaker must attach the ATOMIC_AGGREGATE attribute to the aggregate route. Any downstream BGP speaker that receives a route with the ATOMIC_AGGREGATE attribute cannot make any NLRI information of that route more specific, and when advertising the route to other peer, the ATOMIC_AGGREGATE attribute must remain attached.
31 BGP attribute Local_pref
32. BGP attributes COMMUNITY
The COMMUNITY attributes enable you to apply same policies to a group of routes. It is used to simplify policy enforcement.
The Extcommunity can effect the best path select, the minimal Extcommunity cost will be selected, this step is fellow the next-hop metric and before the max-path. A BGP community is a group of routes that share common routing policy. They work by setting a common COMMUNITY attribute in the routes. Peers receiving those routes can recognize the COMMUNITY attribute and apply the appropriate policy.
33 BGP mechanism of prevent loops.
IBGP: BGP does not advertise routes that have been learned from an IBGP peer to another
EBGP: BGP use the AS-path attribute to prevent loop. If a BGP speaker sees its own AS
number in a received route from an external peer, it knows that a loop has occurred and
ignores the route.
3.4 BGP attribute MED
R3 will choose R4 due to the lowest med
35 IBGP mechanism of prevent loops
R1(AS1)--------R2(AS2)------R3(AS2)-----R4(AS2), R1在AS1, R2, 和R2建EBGP。
R2和R3IBGP, R3和R4 IBGP！ 有一条路由从R1传给R2！问这条路由会不会在R4
It will not appear in the R4 routing table. And there are several method to resolve this question.
Establish IBGP peer between R2 and R4.
Configure R3 as RR.
Use BGP confederation in AS2.