THE RISE OF EUROPE
OK so this is a review thing that was done by Pei Zhang a long time ago for Dr. Corbet‟s AP European
History class… The numbers of dots following the word indicate how important the concept is. The
more dot = more important. Many things below are wrong and some are missing. The definitions are
copied from various encyclopedias, and dictionaries.
You may find a version at http://www.peizhang.com/academia/
Vassal • a person who work with out wage, slave, serf
serf • person who is bond to the land and won by the lord.
three-field system • By that system, one field was planted with a summer crop, one with a winter crop, and one
was left fallow.
imperial free cities •Cities within a country that is independent for trading.
Hanse • A medieval merchant guild or trade association.
Merchant guild •The guild arose as a consequence of the growth in that century both of commerce and of urban
communities. Merchants traveled from market to market in foreign countries, and, for the sake of mutual
protection, a group of merchants from the same city often banded together in a caravan. craft guild • In general, the craft guild arose when a group of artisans, imitating the example of the merchants of
the city, decided to unite for mutual benefit.
Magna Carta • The charter of English political and civil liberties granted by King John at Runnymede in June
“estates of the realm” • States conected to Hubsberg but not within.
Holy Roman Empire • A loosely federated European political entity that began with the papal coronation of the
German king Otto I as the first emperor in 962 and lasted until Francis II's renunciation of the title at the
instigation of Napoleon in 1806. The empire was troubled from the beginning by papal•secular squabbles over
authority and after the 13th century by the rising ambitions of nationalistic states in Europe. By 1273 the
empire consisted primarily of the Hapsburg domains in Austria and Spain.
Culniac Reformers ••
Gregory VII vs. Henry IV, to go to Canossa •• stood in snow infront of Canossa barefoot for 3 days to be forgiven
excommunication • A formal ecclesiastical censure that deprives a person of the right to belong to a church.
Fourth Lateran Council • The fourth council was held in 1215 under Pope Innocent III. The most important of
the Lateran councils, it was attended by two Eastern patriarchs, representatives of many secular princes, and
more than 1200 bishops and abbots. Among its 70 decrees were a condemnation of two religious sects, the
Cathari and the Waldenses; a confession of faith containing, for the first time, a definition of
transubstantiation; an order forbidding the foundation of new monastic orders; a requirement that all members
of the Western church confess and communicate at least once a year; and arrangements for the calling of a
dogma • A doctrine or a corpus of doctrines relating to matters such as morality and faith, set forth in an
authoritative manner by a church.
transubstantiation • 1. Conversion of one substance into another. 2. Theology. The doctrine holding that the bread
and wine of the Eucharist are transformed into the body and blood of Jesus, although their appearances remain
Anselm • Italian•born English prelate, philosopher, and theologian who founded Scholasticism and is best known
for his ontological argument for the existence of God.
Abelard • 1079•1142. French theologian and philosopher whose application of the principles of ancient Greek
logic to the doctrines of the medieval Catholic Church led to charges of heresy.
Aristotle •• Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on
logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In
his philosophical system theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the
essential method of rational inquiry.
“scholastic philosophers” ••• philosophic and theological movement that attempted to use natural human reason,
in particular, the philosophy and science of Aristotle, to understand the supernatural content of Christian
revelation. It was dominant in the medieval Christian schools and universities of Europe from about the
middle of the 11th century to about the middle of the 15th century. The ultimate ideal of the movement was to
integrate into an ordered system both the natural wisdom of Greece and Rome and the religious wisdom of
Thomas Aquinas •• 1225•1274. Italian Dominican monk, theologian, and philosopher. The outstanding
representative of Scholasticism, he applied Aristotelian methods to Christian theology. His masterwork is
Summa Theologica (1266•1273).
manorial system •• manorial system greatly improved methods of farming were devised. European farmers
discovered that by allowing as much as a third of their land to lie fallow and by rotating crops they could
greatly increase their production.
feudalism ••• Feudalism was a medieval contractual relationship among the European upper classes, by which a
lord granted land to his man in return for military service. Feudalism was further characterized by the
localization of political and economic power in the hands of lords and their vassals and by the exercise of that
power from the base of castles, each of which dominated the district in which it was situated. The term
feudalism thus encompasses a division of governmental power spreading over various castle•dominated
districts. It does not, however, refer to the social and economic relationships between the peasants and their
lords, which are defined as MANORIALISM
simony • The buying or selling of ecclesiastical pardons, offices, or emoluments.
lay investiture • under which feudal kings and the emperor were accustomed to placing their own vassals in high
St. Augstine •• (AW-gus-teen, aw-GUS-tin)World Literature, Philosophy, and Religion An important teacher in
the CHRISTIAN CHURCH, who lived in the fourth and fifth centuries. After a dramatic conversion to
CHRISTIANITY, Augustine became a BISHOP. He is a SAINT of the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. His
works include The City of God and his autobiography, CONFESSIONS.
Charlemagne • Also called Charles I or “Charles the Great.” 742?-814. King of the Franks (768•814) and
founder of the first empire in western Europe after the fall of Rome. His court at Aix•la•Chapelle became the
center of a cultural rebirth in Europe, known as the Carolingian Renaissance.
Constantine •• A city of northeast Algeria east of Algiers. It was founded by Carthaginians and was the capital and
commercial center of Numidia.
Hanseatic League • A former economic and defensive confederation of free towns in northern Germany and
neighboring areas. Traditionally dated to a protective alliance formed by Lübeck and Hamburg in 1241, it
reached the height of its power in the 14th century and held its last official assembly in 1669. Aachen • A city of western Germany near the Belgian and Dutch borders.
THE UPHEAVAL IN CHRISTENDOM. 1300 - 1560
Black Death ••• Respiratory transmission was mainly responsible for the historic plague epidemics that swept
across entire continents and wiped out tens of millions of people. One such epidemic killed an estimated 100
million people in the Middle East, Europe, and Asia during the 6th century. Another epidemic in the same
regions during the 14th century--known as the Black Death--killed one-fourth to one-half the population of
Europe, or about 75 million people.
Hundred Years War •• Hundred Years' War, common name given to the series of armed conflicts, broken by a
number of truces and peace treaties, that were waged from 1337 to 1453 between the two great European
powers at that time, England and France.
“Babylonian Captivity” •• or babylonian exile, term applied to the period between the deparration of the Jews
from Palestine to Babylon by the Babylonian king.
Council of Constance •• ecclesiastical council that met in the imperial city of Constance (Konstanz) from 1414 to
1418. It was convoked by Antipope John XXIII at the request of Sigismund, Holy Roman emperor. The
specific purpose of the council was to settle the question of the papal succession, claimed by John and by Pope
Gregory XII and Antipope Benedict XIII. It was also intended to end the schism in the Western church,
formulate ecclesiastical reforms, and oppose heresies.
Leonardo da vinci • Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the
Renaissance. best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa.
Lorenzo Valla • The linguistic studies of the Italian humanist Lorenzo Valla (1407-57) paved the way for future
scholarship and greatly influenced Renaissance thought and literary style.
Christian humanism •• Erasmus of Rotleroam- Sir Thomas More- group of people who worked for spiritual and
religion in a human point of view.
Copernicus •• Polish astronomer who advanced the theory that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun,
disrupting the Ptolemaic system of astronomy.
Meister Eckhart • German theologian regarded as the founder of mysticism in Germany. His influential works
concern the union of the individual soul with God.
Fredinand and Isabella ••• By a chance of dynastic fortune--the accession of ISABELLA I to the throne of Castile
in 1474 and of her husband FERDINAND II to that of Aragon in 1479--the two most important kingdoms of
Spain were joined. The "Catholic kings," as they are known, were exceptionally gifted, Isabella in internal
politics and Ferdinand in foreign policy.
Wars of the Roses •• series of dynastic civil wars in England fought by the rival houses of Lancaster and York
between 1455 and 1485
Star Chamber • A 15th-century to 17th-century English court consisting of judges who were appointed by the
Crown and sat in closed session on cases involving state security.
conquest of Granada • The year 1492 was the most notable of Ferdinand's reign. It opened with the conquest of
Granada, which marked the victorious conclusion of the long struggle against the Moors. imperial Knights • defender of the faith.
Indulgences • The remission of temporal punishment still due for a sin that has been sacramentally absolved.
Anabaptists • A member of a radical movement of the 16th-century Reformation which believed in the primacy of
the Bible, in baptism as an external witness of the b