THE RISE OF EUROPE
OK so this is a review thing that was done by Pei Zhang a long time ago for Dr. Corbet‟s AP European
History class… The numbers of dots following the word indicate how important the concept is. The
more dot = more important. Many things below are wrong and some are missing. The definitions are
copied from various encyclopedias, and dictionaries.
You may find a version at http://www.peizhang.com/academia/
Vassal • a person who work with out wage, slave, serf
serf • person who is bond to the land and won by the lord.
three-field system • By that system, one field was planted with a summer crop, one with a winter crop, and one
was left fallow.
imperial free cities •Cities within a country that is independent for trading.
Hanse • A medieval merchant guild or trade association.
Merchant guild •The guild arose as a consequence of the growth in that century both of commerce and of urban
communities. Merchants traveled from market to market in foreign countries, and, for the sake of mutual
protection, a group of merchants from the same city often banded together in a caravan. craft guild • In general, the craft guild arose when a group of artisans, imitating the example of the merchants of
the city, decided to unite for mutual benefit.
Magna Carta • The charter of English political and civil liberties granted by King John at Runnymede in June
“estates of the realm” • States conected to Hubsberg but not within.
Holy Roman Empire • A loosely federated European political entity that began with the papal coronation of the
German king Otto I as the first emperor in 962 and lasted until Francis II's renunciation of the title at the
instigation of Napoleon in 1806. The empire was troubled from the beginning by papal•secular squabbles over
authority and after the 13th century by the rising ambitions of nationalistic states in Europe. By 1273 the
empire consisted primarily of the Hapsburg domains in Austria and Spain.
Culniac Reformers ••
Gregory VII vs. Henry IV, to go to Canossa •• stood in snow infront of Canossa barefoot for 3 days to be forgiven
excommunication • A formal ecclesiastical censure that deprives a person of the right to belong to a church.
Fourth Lateran Council • The fourth council was held in 1215 under Pope Innocent III. The most important of
the Lateran councils, it was attended by two Eastern patriarchs, representatives of many secular princes, and
more than 1200 bishops and abbots. Among its 70 decrees were a condemnation of two religious sects, the
Cathari and the Waldenses; a confession of faith containing, for the first time, a definition of
transubstantiation; an order forbidding the foundation of new monastic orders; a requirement that all members
of the Western church confess and communicate at least once a year; and arrangements for the calling of a
dogma • A doctrine or a corpus of doctrines relating to matters such as morality and faith, set forth in an
authoritative manner by a church.
transubstantiation • 1. Conversion of one substance into another. 2. Theology. The doctrine holding that the bread
and wine of the Eucharist are transformed into the body and blood of Jesus, although their appearances remain
Anselm • Italian•born English prelate, philosopher, and theologian who founded Scholasticism and is best known
for his ontological argument for the existence of God.
Abelard • 1079•1142. French theologian and philosopher whose application of the principles of ancient Greek
logic to the doctrines of the medieval Catholic Church led to charges of heresy.
Aristotle •• Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on
logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In
his philosophical system theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the
essential method of rational inquiry.
“scholastic philosophers” ••• philosophic and theological movement that attempted to use natural human reason,
in particular, the philosophy and science of Aristotle, to understand the supernatural content of Christian
revelation. It was dominant in the medieval Christian schools and universities of Europe from about the
middle of the 11th century to about the middle of the 15th century. The ultimate ideal of the movement was to
integrate into an ordered system both the natural wisdom of Greece and Rome and the religious wisdom of
Thomas Aquinas •• 1225•1274. Italian Dominican monk, theologian, and philosopher. The outstanding
representative of Scholasticism, he applied Aristotelian methods to Christian theology. His masterwork is
Summa Theologica (1266•1273).
manorial system •• manorial system greatly improved methods of farming were devised. European farmers
discovered that by allowing as much as a third of their land to lie fallow and by rotating crops they could
greatly increase their production.
feudalism ••• Feudalism was a medieval contractual relationship among the European upper classes, by which a
lord granted land to his man in return for military service. Feudalism was further characterized by the
localization of political and economic power in the hands of lords and their vassals and by the exercise of that
power from the base of castles, each of which dominated the district in which it was situated. The term
feudalism thus encompasses a division of governmental power spreading over various castle•dominated
districts. It does not, however, refer to the social and economic relationships between the peasants and their
lords, which are defined as MANORIALISM
simony • The buying or selling of ecclesiastical pardons, offices, or emoluments.
lay investiture • under which feudal kings and the emperor were accustomed to placing their own vassals in high
St. Augstine •• (AW-gus-teen, aw-GUS-tin)World Literature, Philosophy, and Religion An important teacher in
the CHRISTIAN CHURCH, who lived in the fourth and fifth centuries. After a dramatic conversion to
CHRISTIANITY, Augustine became a BISHOP. He is a SAINT of the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. His
works include The City of God and his autobiography, CONFESSIONS.
Charlemagne • Also called Charles I or “Charles the Great.” 742?-814. King of the Franks (768•814) and
founder of the first empire in western Europe after the fall of Rome. His court at Aix•la•Chapelle became the
center of a cultural rebirth in Europe, known as the Carolingian Renaissance.
Constantine •• A city of northeast Algeria east of Algiers. It was founded by Carthaginians and was the capital and
commercial center of Numidia.
Hanseatic League • A former economic and defensive confederation of free towns in northern Germany and
neighboring areas. Traditionally dated to a protective alliance formed by Lübeck and Hamburg in 1241, it
reached the height of its power in the 14th century and held its last official assembly in 1669. Aachen • A city of western Germany near the Belgian and Dutch borders.
THE UPHEAVAL IN CHRISTENDOM. 1300 - 1560
Black Death ••• Respiratory transmission was mainly responsible for the historic plague epidemics that swept
across entire continents and wiped out tens of millions of people. One such epidemic killed an estimated 100
million people in the Middle East, Europe, and Asia during the 6th century. Another epidemic in the same
regions during the 14th century--known as the Black Death--killed one-fourth to one-half the population of
Europe, or about 75 million people.
Hundred Years War •• Hundred Years' War, common name given to the series of armed conflicts, broken by a
number of truces and peace treaties, that were waged from 1337 to 1453 between the two great European
powers at that time, England and France.
“Babylonian Captivity” •• or babylonian exile, term applied to the period between the deparration of the Jews
from Palestine to Babylon by the Babylonian king.
Council of Constance •• ecclesiastical council that met in the imperial city of Constance (Konstanz) from 1414 to
1418. It was convoked by Antipope John XXIII at the request of Sigismund, Holy Roman emperor. The
specific purpose of the council was to settle the question of the papal succession, claimed by John and by Pope
Gregory XII and Antipope Benedict XIII. It was also intended to end the schism in the Western church,
formulate ecclesiastical reforms, and oppose heresies.
Leonardo da vinci • Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the
Renaissance. best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa.
Lorenzo Valla • The linguistic studies of the Italian humanist Lorenzo Valla (1407-57) paved the way for future
scholarship and greatly influenced Renaissance thought and literary style.
Christian humanism •• Erasmus of Rotleroam- Sir Thomas More- group of people who worked for spiritual and
religion in a human point of view.
Copernicus •• Polish astronomer who advanced the theory that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun,
disrupting the Ptolemaic system of astronomy.
Meister Eckhart • German theologian regarded as the founder of mysticism in Germany. His influential works
concern the union of the individual soul with God.
Fredinand and Isabella ••• By a chance of dynastic fortune--the accession of ISABELLA I to the throne of Castile
in 1474 and of her husband FERDINAND II to that of Aragon in 1479--the two most important kingdoms of
Spain were joined. The "Catholic kings," as they are known, were exceptionally gifted, Isabella in internal
politics and Ferdinand in foreign policy.
Wars of the Roses •• series of dynastic civil wars in England fought by the rival houses of Lancaster and York
between 1455 and 1485
Star Chamber • A 15th-century to 17th-century English court consisting of judges who were appointed by the
Crown and sat in closed session on cases involving state security.
conquest of Granada • The year 1492 was the most notable of Ferdinand's reign. It opened with the conquest of
Granada, which marked the victorious conclusion of the long struggle against the Moors. imperial Knights • defender of the faith.
Indulgences • The remission of temporal punishment still due for a sin that has been sacramentally absolved.
Anabaptists • A member of a radical movement of the 16th-century Reformation which believed in the primacy of
the Bible, in baptism as an external witness of the believer's personal covenant of inner faith, and in separation
of church from state and of believers from nonbelievers.
Michael Servetus • Originally Miguel Serveto. 1511-1553. Spanish-born theologian and physician who described
the circulation of blood. His denial of the doctrine of the Trinity led to his execution for heresy. “predestination” • The doctrine that God has foreordained all things, especially that God has elected certain souls
to eternal salvation.
Henry VIII •••• Henry VIII, King of England
Henry VIII, king of England from 1509 to 1547, instigated the REFORMATION of the English church in order to
secure a divorce from the first of his six wives. Born at Greenwich on June 28, 1491, he was the second son of
Henry VII, founder of the TUDOR dynasty, and Elizabeth of York. He received a good education, particularly
in languages and theology. He also delighted in music, composing a number of songs himself, and in sports,
especially hunting and jousting. On the death of his older brother, Prince Arthur, in 1502, Henry became heir
apparent; he succeeded his father on Apr. 22, 1509.
Shortly before his coronation Henry married CATHERINE OF ARAGON, the daughter of Ferdinand II and
Isabella I of Spain, who had previously been Arthur's wife. The new marriage was happy for a number of
years, but by 1527, Henry was concerned because Catherine had borne no male heir to continue the Tudor line.
He concluded that his marriage displeased God--in a biblical text (Leviticus 20:21), marriage to a dead
brother's widow is forbidden--and he ordered his chief minister, Cardinal WOLSEY, to approach the papacy
for a decree that the marriage was invalid and that Henry was free to marry again. By this time the king had
fallen in love with Anne BOLEYN.
Catherine opposed the annulment, as did her nephew CHARLES V, Holy Roman emperor and king of Spain.
Because Charles dominated Italy during this period, Pope CLEMENT VII was unable to grant Henry's request.
A divorce trial held in London in 1529 was adjourned without a decision. In anger at the delay Henry
dismissed Wolsey. By 1532 he had found a new chief minister, Thomas CROMWELL, who proposed that
England break with the papacy so that the archbishop of Canterbury, the highest officer in the English church,
could grant the divorce. Legislation to this effect was passed by Parliament in 1533. As a result Henry was free
to marry Anne, and the Church of England (see ENGLAND, CHURCH OF) was established as an
independent national church, no longer in communion with the Roman Catholic church or the pope.
In September 1533, Anne Boleyn bore Henry a daughter, who was christened Elizabeth. She was declared heir to
the throne in place of Catherine's daughter, Mary, who was now regarded as illegitimate. Anne Boleyn,
however, like Catherine, failed to bear a son. For this reason, and because of her infidelity to the king, she
was executed in 1536.
Henry's third wife, Jane SEYMOUR, did bear a son, Edward, but she died in 1537, shortly after his birth. The
fourth wife, ANNE OF CLEVES, was a member of a Protestant ruling family from Germany. Thomas
Cromwell had negotiated the marriage (1540) because he feared a Catholic alliance against England and
wished to gain diplomatic support from Lutherans on the Continent, but Henry was displeased with Anne's
appearance and divorced her almost immediately. Shortly after, Cromwell was charged with treason and
executed. The king then married Catherine HOWARD, a niece of Cromwell's enemy Thomas Howard, duke
of Norfolk. Catherine was beheaded in 1542 on charges of unchastity. Henry's last wife, who survived him,
was Catherine PARR. None of his last three wives bore him children.
In his role as supreme head of the church, Henry supervised the general direction of the Reformation. Between
1536 and 1540 all of the monasteries and nunneries in England were dissolved and their property confiscated
by the government. An oath of supremacy, promising loyalty to the king as head of the church, could be
required of all subjects, and those who refused it, like Sir Thomas MORE, could be executed. In 1521, Henry had written a treatise against Martin Luther, for which Pope Leo X had awarded him the title
"Defender of the Faith." Despite the organizational charges of his Reformation, Henry never adopted
Protestant doctrines. The Latin Mass remained in use throughout his life, and theological changes were
relatively minor, although both Cromwell and Thomas CRANMER, Henry's archbishop of Canterbury,
favored Protestant beliefs.
Several wars between England and France were fought during Henry's reign. He was personally in command of
the English army that captured the towns of Therouanne and Tournai and defeated the French in the famous
Battle of the Spurs (1513). In 1520, Henry met the French king FRANCIS I in a grandiose demonstration of
friendship on the so-called Field of the Cloth of Gold, near Calais. Soon after, however, he joined Emperor
Charles V in war (1522-27) against France. A third war was fought in 1544-46. Henry's forces also defeated
the Scots in the notable battles of Flodden (1513) and Solway Moss (1542).
Henry VIII's will provided for the succession of his three children in the normal order, despite the fact that both
daughters had earlier been excluded from the succession. When he died, on Jan. 28, 1547, his son became
EDWARD VI. His daughters later succeeded in turn as MARY I and ELIZABETH I.
Henry has been criticized for his greed and despotism and for squandering national resources on needless foreign
wars. He was, however, able to hold the country together during a period of rapid change and factional strife,
and he fostered the development of a sophisticated court in which fine artists and musicians found patronage. Thirty-Nine Articales • Thirty-Nine Articles, a set of doctrinal statements generally accepted in the Anglican
Communion as having primary doctrinal significance. The articles are not officially acknowledged as a
binding creed or confession of faith, but they do record the doctrinal foundations on which Anglican tradition
Vulgate • The Latin edition or translation of the Bible made by Saint Jerome at the end of the fourth century A.D.,
now used in a revised form as the Roman Catholic authorized version.
Spiritual Exercises •• religious and moral self discipline. Insisted when the fathers read the bible, he was reading
under gidance of god. This group of the Jesuits under the leadership of St. Ignatius Loyola, consisted of highly
educated men dedicated to a renewal of piety through preaching, catechetical instruction, and the use of
Loyola's Spiritual Exercises for retreats.
Julius II •• Originally Giuliano della Rovere. 1443-1513. Pope (1503-1513) who ordered the construction of Saint
Peter's in Rome and commissioned Michelangelo to decorate the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican. Habsburgs • A royal German family that supplied rulers to a number of European states from the late Middle Ages
until the 20th century. The Hapsburgs reached the height of their power under Charles V of Spain. When
Charles abdicated (1558), the empire was divided between the Spanish and Austrian lines. The Spanish
branch ceased to rule after 1700 and the Austrian branch after 1918.
“Jacqueries” ••• The Jacquerie was a French peasant insurrection in 1358. During the HUNDRED YEARS' WAR
the French peasants suffered in the extensive pillaging of the countryside by English soldiers and were further
victimized by the financial exactions of their own nobles. On May 21, 1358, an uprising began near
Compiegne, northeast of Paris. Led by Guillaume Cale, or Carle, the peasants destroyed castles and slew their
occupants. They joined forces with another rebel group from Paris, led by Etienne Marcel, but both groups
were routed on June 9 and 10. Savage reprisals followed.
John Whyclif •• 1328?-1384. English theologian and religious reformer. His rejection of the biblical basis of papal
power and dispute with the doctrine of the transubstantiation of the host anticipated the Protestant
Great Schism ••• The term Great Schism is used to refer to two major events in the history of Christianity: the
division between the Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Roman) churches, and the period (1378-1417) during
which the Western church had first two, and later three, lines of popes.
Medici Family •• The Medici, the most famous of Italian dynasties, governed FLORENCE under a veiled
despotism from 1434 to 1494 and from 1512 to 1527 and as overt hereditary rulers from 1530 to 1737. Its
members were among the great patrons of the Italian Renaissance.
Raphael • 1483-1520. Italian painter whose works, including religious subjects, portraits, and frescoes, exemplify
the ideals of the High Renaissance.
Book of the Courtier •• Under the veneer of magnificent works of art and the refined court life described in
BALDASSAIC CASTIGLIONE's Book of the Courtier, the Renaissance had a darker side Many intellectuals
felt a profound pessimism about the evils and corruptions of society as seen in the often savage humanist
critiques of Giovanni Francesco Poggio Bracciolini (1380-1459) and Desiderius Erasmus. Paracelsus • 1493-1541. German-Swiss alchemist and physician who introduced the concept of disease to
medicine. He held that illness was the result of external agents attacking the body rather than imbalances
within the body and advocated the use of chemicals against disease-causing agents.
Thomas a Kempis •• 1380?-1471. German ecclesiastic and writer of devotional literature, most probably including
The Imitation of Christ (1426). stress on being faithful to the movements of grace, on poverty and humility,
and on warnings about guarding the senses against distractions and temptations.
Praise of Folly •• by Desiderius ERASMUS is an ironic and satirical mock-encomium deflating the pretensions of
worldly dignity and learning. Those who regard themselves as wise--philosophers, theologians, and scholars--
are merely pretentious fools who work against divine and natural order.
Maximilian I • 1459-1519. King of Germany (1486-1519) and Holy Roman emperor (1493-1519) who through
arranged marriages added greatly to the territory and power of the Hapsburgs.
Tudors •• a family of Welsh origin, ruled England from 1485 to 1603.
Concordat of bologna •• was a period of great religious strife, the English monarchy consolidated its power,
English nationalism and naval strength grew, and literature and scholarship flourished. Moriscos • Spanish Muslims who converted to Christianity during and after the expulsion of the Moors from Spain
were known as Moriscos.
Protestant ••• A member of Protestantism movement in Western Christianity whose adherents reject the notion
that divine authority is channeled through one particular human institution or person such as the Roman
Catholic pope. Protestants look elsewhere for the authority of their faith. Most of them stress the BIBLE--the
Hebrew Scriptures and the New Testament--as the source and the norm of their teaching. Roman Catholic and
Eastern Orthodox Christians also stress the authority of the Bible, but they also look to tradition, and, in the
case of Catholics, to the pope as a source of authority.
Ninety-Five Theses • The Reformation began in Germany on Oct. 31, 1517, when Martin Luther, an Augustinian
university professor at Wittenberg, posted 95 theses inviting debate over the legitimacy of the sale of
Schmalkaldic War •• In 1546-47, Charles was temporarily free to turn against the German Protestant princes,
who had allied against him in the Schmalkaldic League. He defeated and captured one of their leaders, John
Frederick I elector of Saxony, at the Battle of Muhlberg (1547), after which the other, Philip of Hesse,
surrendered; but other German princes would not accept the religious settlement he tried to impose in the
Augsburg Interim (1548). In alliance with France, they renewed the war in 1551 and forced the emperor to
flee from Germany. Charles's brother, Ferdinand, eventually negotiated the Peace of Augsburg (see Augsburg,
Peace of) in 1555. This gave the German princes, but not their subjects, the right to choose either Catholicism
Cuius regio, eius religio ••• each prince was to determine the religious character of his territory. The exclusion of
the Calvinists caused later problems.
Institutes of the Christian Religion • developed a comprehensive theology, which John Calvin detailed in
successive editions of Institutes of the Christian Religion
“Episcopal” movement •• movement to let bishop have more power than popes. Anglican Churches
Pluralism • he doctrine that reality is composed of many ultimate substances. The belief that no single explanatory
system or view of reality can account for all the phenomena of life.
St. Ingatius Loyola •• Spanish Inigo de Oñez y Loyola) (1491-1556), sometimes erroneously called Íñigo López de
Recalde, Spanish ecclesiastic, who founded the Society of Jesus, the Order of the Jesuits. Council of Trent •••• The Council of Trent, the 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic church, was held
at Trent in northern Italy between 1545 and 1563. It marked a major turning point in the efforts of the
Catholic church to respond to the challenge of the Protestant REFORMATION and formed a key part of the
COUNTER-REFORMATION. The need for such a council had long been perceived by certain church leaders,
but initial attempts to organize it were opposed by FRANCIS I of France, who feared it would strengthen Holy
Roman Emperor CHARLES V, and by the popes themselves, who feared a revival of CONCILIARISM. The
council eventually met during three separate periods (1545-47, 1551-52, 1562-63) under the leadership of
three different popes (PAUL III, Julius III, PIUS IV). All of its decrees were formally confirmed by Pope Pius
IV in 1564.
In the area of religious doctrine, the council refused any concessions to the Protestants and, in the process,
crystallized and codified Catholic dogma far more than ever before. It directly opposed Protestantism by
reaffirming the existence of seven sacraments, transubstantiation, purgatory, the necessity of the priesthood,
and justification by works as well as by faith. Clerical celibacy and monasticism were maintained, and decrees
were issued in favor of the efficacy of relics, indulgences, and the veneration of the Virgin Mary and the
saints. Tradition was declared coequal to Scripture as a source of spiritual knowledge, and the sole right of the
church to interpret the Bible was asserted.
At the same time, the council took steps to reform many of the major abuses within the church that had partly
incited the Reformation: decrees were issued requiring episcopal residence and a limitation on the plurality of
benefices, and movements were instigated to reform certain monastic orders and to provide for the education
of the clergy through the creation of a seminary in every diocese.
Attendance at the council was often relatively meager, and it was dominated by Italian and Spanish prelates.
Several European monarchs kept their distance from the council's decrees, only partially enforcing them or, in
the case of the French kings, never officially accepting them at all. The Council of Trent helped, however, to
catalyze a movement within the Catholic clergy and laity for widespread religious renewal and reform, a
movement that yielded substantial results in the 17th century.
Castiglione • Italian diplomat and writer best known for Il Cortegiano (1528), which describes the perfect courtier.
Lorenzo the Magnificent • Medici, Lorenzo de', called The Magnificent (1449-92), Italian banker and statesman,
who was a leading patron of art and scholarship during the Renaissance.
Queen Mary •• ruled England as Queen Mary I from 1553 and earned the epithet Bloody Mary for the executions
of Protestants that occurred during her reign.
Wat Tyler‟s Rebellion •• often called the Peasants' Revolt, English uprising of 1381 led by an ex-soldier named
Wat (Walter) Tyler. Its immediate cause was popular resentment over the poll tax that had been imposed to
finance a war with France. no more attempts were made to impose the poll tax. Tyler became a figure of
legend and is the hero of the poem “Wat Tyler” (1794), by the British poet Robert Southey.
Unam sanctam • in which Boniface VIII asserted the supremacy of the pope over all rulers in temporal as well as
in spiritual affairs.
John Huss • 1372?-1415. Czechoslovakian religious reformer who was excommunicated (1409) for attacking the
corruption of the clergy. His De Ecclesia questioned the authority and infallibility of the Catholic Church.
Pragmatic Sanction •• An edict or a decree issued by a sovereign that becomes part of the fundamental law of the
land. [Translation of Late Latin pragmatica sancti?, imperial decree referring to the affairs of a community :
Latin pragmatica, relating to civil affairs + Latin sancti?, ordinance.]
Michelangelo • 1475-1564. Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet who created some of the greatest works of
art of all time, including the marble sculpture David (1501), the paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
(1508-1512), and the plans for Saint Peter's Church in Rome.
Castiglione • Italian diplomat and writer best known for Il Cortegiano (1528), which describes the perfect courtier.
The Prince •• World Literature, Philosophy, and Religion The best-known work of NICCOLò MACHIAVELLI, in
which he asserts that a prince must use cunning and ruthless methods to stay in power. Handbook of a Christian Knight ••
Charles V •••• Charles V, Holy Roman emperor (1519-56) and--as Charles I--king of Spain (1516-56), dominated
the politics of Europe for 40 years. Charles was born in Ghent, in present-day Belgium, on Feb. 24, 1500, the
eldest son of the Habsburg Philip the Handsome (later PHILIP I) and JOAN THE MAD of Castile. From his
father, who died in 1506, he inherited the Netherlands (including most of the modern Netherlands and
Belgium) and Franche Comte (a French-speaking province that bordered eastern France but belonged to the
Holy Roman Empire). After the death (1516) of his maternal grandfather, FERDINAND II of Aragon, Charles
became ruler of the kingdoms of Spain and the Spanish dependencies in Italy--the kingdoms of Naples, Sicily,
and Sardinia. The HABSBURG possessions of Austria and several smaller south German lordships came to
him on the death (1519) of his paternal grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor MAXIMILIAN I, as did hereditary
claims to the crowns of Hungary and Bohemia. The latter were made good by his younger brother Ferdinand
(later Emperor FERDINAND I) in 1526, after the last independent king of Hungary, LOUIS II, was killed by
the Turks in the Battle of Mohacs. Meanwhile, in 1519, Charles had been elected German king and Holy
Roman emperor in succession to his grandfather Maximilian.
Ruler of the World
Not since Charlemagne in the early 9th century had any one ruler dominated so much of Europe. Moreover,
Charles V's Spanish subjects were conquering vast overseas territories in Central and South America. Hernan
Cortes, the conqueror of Mexico, began to refer to his sovereign as "ruler of the world." Charles and his
subjects in Europe were certain that God had bestowed so much power on him because he had to defend
Christendom from the attacks of the Turks of the OTTOMAN EMPIRE and later from the Protestant heretics.
Charles spoke of himself as "God's standard bearer," and his heraldic device bore the legend plus ultra
("always further"). For Charles's opponents the problem was less philosophical and eminently practical: what
was he going to do with his power, and how could they preserve their independence? These questions, and the
radically different answers given to them, dominated and largely explain the complex political history of
Charles V's reign.
The 16th century was an age of increasing population, rising prices, growing cities, and expanding trade. These
conditions were essential for the functioning of an empire as large as that of Charles V. He could borrow huge
sums of money from the wealthy bankers and mineowners like the German house of FUGGER or from the
well-organized money market of Antwerp. In return, the lenders were given monopoly rights and political
protection. Nevertheless, finance was the emperor's greatest practical problem. Time and again, promising
military campaigns had to be broken off for lack of money. Once, in 1527, the unpaid imperial army in Italy
took matters into its own hands, marched on Rome, and subjected the city to a murderous and devastating
Control of Spain
In 1517, Charles went to Spain for the first time to claim his maternal inheritance. This foreigner, with his large
retinue of Netherlanders, was unpopular. After he left in 1520, the cities of Castile (the central and largest
kingdom of Spain) broke into rebellion (1520-21). Only after the nobles defeated the towns was Charles's rule
accepted in Spain. His fight against the Muslim Turks and the German Protestants appealed to the traditions
of the Spaniards.
Castile and the Spanish Indies provided an ever-growing proportion of the emperor's revenues. In return, Charles
appointed more and more Castilians as generals of his armies, governors and viceroys of his provinces, and
advisors in his councils. Gradually his international empire turned into a Castilian empire, supported mainly
by the efforts of Castile but also run for the benefit of the Castilian ruling groups. Germany and the Reformation
After his visit to Spain, Charles traveled to Germany to be crowned king of that country. His official coronation by
the pope as Holy Roman emperor did not take place until 1530. In 1521 he presided over the diet (the
representative assembly of the German princes and cities) at Worms and witnessed Martin LUTHER'S refusal
to recant his alleged errors. Charles was not persuaded by Luther, but he recognized the need for a
thoroughgoing reform of the Roman Catholic church. It took him until 1545 to persuade a reluctant papacy to
summon the Council of TRENT. In the meantime it was necessary to deal with the REFORMATION in
Germany. Charles's tactics there depended largely on the pressures he felt from his other obligations. When he
was otherwise at peace, he tried to enforce the condemnation of the Lutheran doctrines on those German
princes and cities that had adopted the Reformation. When he was at war with France or when the Turks
threatened Germany-- as they did after the Battle of Mohacs and in 1529, when they besieged Vienna--he
made considerable concessions to the Protestants. Much to the displeasure of the popes, the emperor's
theologians even tried, though without success, to reach a compromise with the Lutheran theologians. Wars with the Turks and France
The Turks attacked in the Mediterranean, as well as in Hungary. These attacks were particularly dangerous, as
they were supported by the wide-ranging corsairs, or pirates of the BARBARY STATES of North Africa,
whose rulers acknowledged themselves vassals to the Turkish sultan. In 1535, Charles commanded his most
successful campaign against the Barbary States, conquering Tunis; but in 1541 he failed against Algiers. Charles's most persistent enemy, however, was France, whose Valois kings fought the emperor for the leadership
of Europe in general and for the domination of Italy in particular. As early as 1522, Charles made an alliance
with HENRY VIII of England to attack and partition France. The plan failed, but the French never forgave
Charles nor fully trusted him again. In 1525, Charles's army defeated and captured FRANCIS I of France at
the Battle of PAVIA in Italy. But when Francis was released after a compromise peace, the so-called ITALIAN
WARS were resumed. The Spaniards finally acquired (1535) Milan and confirmed their domination of Italy,
but Charles failed either to break French power or to win over Francis I by the offer of Milan to a French
In 1546-47, Charles was temporarily free to turn against the German Protestant princes, who had allied against
him in the Schmalkaldic League. He defeated and captured one of their leaders, John Frederick I elector of
Saxony, at the Battle of Muhlberg (1547), after which the other, PHILIP OF HESSE, surrendered; but other
German princes would not accept the religious settlement he tried to impose in the Augsburg Interim (1548).
In alliance with France, they renewed the war in 1551 and forced the emperor to flee from Germany. Charles's
brother, Ferdinand, eventually negotiated the Peace of Augsburg (see AUGSBURG, PEACE OF) in 1555. This
gave the German princes, but not their subjects, the right to choose either Catholicism or Lutheranism. Abdication
In 1555-56, Charles V voluntarily abdicated in several stages. He left the Holy Roman Empire to Ferdinand and all
his other dominions to his son, PHILIP II of Spain. Many historians have seen Charles V's reign as a failure.
His contemporaries, however, did not, especially as Philip's marriage (1554) with Queen MARY I of England
seemed to open up dazzling new prospects for the house of Habsburg. No one could know that Mary would die
young and childless.
Charles retired to a comfortable villa built next to the monastery of San Yuste in Spain. There he lived the life he
had always wished to live. He spent much time in religious devotions but was also surrounded by his fine
collection of paintings by Titian and other Renaissance artists. He listened to music, dismantled and assembled
mechanical clocks, ate gluttonously, and, not least important, still meddled in European political affairs.
Charles died on Sept. 21, 1558.
“livery and maintenance” • Livery - symbol of a noble. Henry VIII said only a noble can only have 2 foot men, no
more armies, could wear that symbol.
Spanish Inquisition • A tribunal held in the Roman Catholic Church and directed at the suppression of heresy.
Marranos • A Spanish or Portuguese Jew who was forcibly converted to Christianity in the late Middle Ages but
who continued to practice Judaism in secret.
“justification by faith” • justification by grace, through faithWorld Literature, Philosophy, and Religion In
CHRISTIANITY, the way a person can achieve SALVATION through faith and reliance on God's GRACE,
not through any good deeds that the person has done.
Peasants‟ Revolt •• Its immediate cause was popular resentment over the poll tax that had been imposed to finance
a war with France. no more attempts were made to impose the poll tax. Tyler became a figure of legend and is
the hero of the poem “Wat Tyler” (1794), by the British poet Robert Southey.
Peace of Augsburg •• In 1555 the diet (assembly of princes) of the Holy Roman Empire met in Augsburg to make
peace between the warring Roman Catholic and Lutheran princes of Germany. It adopted the formula cuius
regio, eius religio, whereby each prince was to determine the religious character of his territory. The exclusion
of the Calvinists caused later problems.
Anglican Church ••• The acts of Parliament between 1529 and 1536 mark the beginning of the Anglican church
as a national church independent of papal jurisdiction. Henry VIII, vexed at the refusal of Pope Clement VII to
annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragón, induced Parliament to enact a series of statutes denying the pope
any power or jurisdiction over the Church of England. He thus reaffirmed the ancient right of the Christian
prince, or monarch, to exercise supremacy over the affairs of the church within his domain. He cited
precedents in the relations of church and state in the Eastern Roman Empire and until the 9th century under
Charlemagne. Although his action was revolutionary, Henry VIII received the support of the overwhelming
majority of Englishmen, clerical and lay alike. Support was given chiefly because no drastic change was made
in the Catholic faith and practices to which England was accustomed. After Henry's death, the influences of
religious reform were felt more strongly in England, and in 1549 the first Anglican Book of Common Prayer
was published and its use required of the English clergy by an Act of Uniformity. The second prayer book,
reflecting more strongly the influence of continental Protestantism, was issued in 1552 and was followed
shortly by the Forty-two Articles, a doctrinal statement similar in tone. Both were swept away upon the
accession (1553) of Mary I, who returned England to a formal obedience to the papacy that lasted until her
death in 1558.
Justification by works and faith ••• In the area of religious doctrine, the council refused any concessions to the
Protestants and, in the process, crystallized and codified Catholic dogma far more than ever before. It directly
opposed Protestantism by reaffirming the existence of seven sacraments, transubstantiation, purgatory, the
necessity of the priesthood, and justification by works as well as by faith.
Society of Jesus •• the largest Roman Catholic religious order, whose members are called Jesuits, was founded by
Saint IGNATIUS LOYOLA. Professed members are bound by a vow of obedience to the pope. When the
COUNTER-REFORMATION was launched, the Jesuit order was its driving force.
the Lollards •• followers of the English religious reformer John WYCLIFFE, were members of a widespread
Christian movement of the late 14th and early 15th centuries that was highly critical of the power and wealth
of the church.
Machiavelli •• 1469-1527. Italian political theorist whose book The Prince (1513) describes the achievement and
maintenance of power by a determined ruler indifferent to moral considerations.
Erasmus •• 1466?-1536. Dutch Renaissance scholar and Roman Catholic theologian who sought to revive classical
texts from antiquity, restore simple Christian faith based on Scripture, and eradicate the improprieties of the
medieval Church. His works include The Manual of the Christian Knight (1503) and The Praise of Folly
ECONOMIC RENEWAL AND WARS OF RELIGION. 1560 - 1648
da Gama •• 1469-1524 First European to reach India by sea route.
Magellan •• 1480?-1521. Portuguese navigator. While trying to find a western route to the Moluccas (1519),
Magellan and his expedition were blown by storms into the strait that now bears his name (1520). He named
and sailed across the Pacific Ocean, reaching the Marianas and the Philippines (1521), where he was killed
fighting for a friendly native king. One of his ships returned to Spain (1522), thereby completing the first
circumnavigation of the globe.
Black Legend •• Bartolomé de Las Casas, Portrayed all Spanish treatment of Indians as unprincipled and
Potosi • A city of south-central Bolivia southwest of Sucre in the Andes at an altitude of about 4,203 m (13,780 ft).
It was founded after silver was discovered in 1545 and during its early days was a fabled source of riches.
Commercial Capitalism •
Bourgeois • A person belonging to the middle class.
Junker • A member of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and
Siglo de Oro • "golden century"
Duke of Alva •1508-83), Spanish general, in war with The Netherlands. William the Silent. The duke of Alva was
governor of the Netherlands from 1567 to 1573.
Lepanto • The naval Battle of Lepanto, fought off the coast of Greece on Oct. 7, 1571, was the first major defeat of
the Ottoman Turks by the Christian states of western Europe.
Don Juan • Don Juan is a legendary figure of Spanish origin whose amorous adventures have been the subject of
numerous literary and musical works.
Sir Francis Drake • 1540?-1596. English naval hero and explorer who was the first Englishman to
circumnavigate the world (1577-1580) and was vice admiral of the fleet that destroyed the Spanish Armada
“Boy Kings” • James I (of England) (1566-1625), king of England (1603-25) and, as James VI, king of Scotland
Wallenstein • Albrecht Eusebius Wenzel von. Duke of Friedland and Mecklenburg. 1583-1634. Austrian
military leader who fought for the Hapsburgs during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). Oxenstierna • Count Axel Gustafsson. 1583-1654. Swedish politician who virtually ruled Sweden as leader of the
council of regency during the minority of Christina (1632-1644).
Louis XIII •• 1601-1643. King of France (1610-1643) who relied heavily on his political adviser Cardinal
Richelieu to overcome familial insurgence and war with Spain and the Hapsburgs.
Bourbon Family •• French royal family descended from Louis I, Duke of Bourbon (1270?-1342), whose members
have ruled in France (1589-1793 and 1814-1830), Spain (1700-1868, 1874-1931, and since 1975), and Naples
and Sicily (1734-1860).
Henry of Navarre ••• Henry IV, the first BOURBON king of France (1589-1610), ended the French Wars of
Religion (see RELIGION, WARS OF) and began the reconstruction of a country devastated by years of civil
war. Born on Dec. 14, 1553, Henry was the son of Antoine de Bourbon and Jeanne d'Albret, heiress to the
throne of Navarre. Raised a Calvinist, he succeeded his father as titular leader of the HUGUENOT (Protestant)
faction in France. By 1572, when he became king of Navarre on the death of his mother, he was the effective
leader. In that year Henry married MARGARET OF VALOIS, sister of kings Francis II, Charles IX (then
reigning), and Henry III. During the wedding festivities many of the Protestant leaders were murdered (by
order of the dowager queen, Catherine de MEDICIS) in the SAINT BARTHOLOMEW's DAY MASSACRE
(Aug. 24, 1572). Henry of Navarre was spared, but forced to convert to Catholicism. He soon renounced his
conversion and resumed leadership of the Huguenot armies.
Antwerp • A city of northern Belgium on the Scheldt River north of Brussels. One of Europe's busiest ports, it has
been a center of the diamond industry since the 15th century. The first stock exchange was founded here in
1460. Population, 490,524.
Franche-Comté • A historical region and former province of eastern France. The region was first occupied by a
Celtic tribe in the fourth century B.C. and became part of France after 1676. Until that time its control was
continually disputed by France, Germany, Burgundy, Switzerland, and Spain.
“Price Revolution” •• rapid devaluation of money and long-term inflation
Fugger • Family of German financiers who exerted great economic and political influence in the 15th and 16th
centuries. Founded by Johannes (1348-1409), the family business was greatly expanded by his son Jakob
Mercantilism •••• Mercantilism, economic policy prevailing in Europe during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries,
under which governmental control was exercised over industry and trade in accordance with the theory that
national strength is increased by a preponderance of exports over imports. Mercantilism was characterized not