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Prepositions

By Alma Nelson,2014-06-17 05:41
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Prepositions ...

    Prepositions

    Prepositions have many rules and different uses. This paper just talks about some

    problems that Korean students commonly have with prepositions. These prepositions all

    have other uses too; these are just the ones that students have the most trouble with.

    In/On/At

    ? On

    o For time:

    ? Days of the week, including a specific time of the day of the week

    ? I will see you on Tuesday.

    ? On Wednesday, I met my friend, Bob.

    ? I will see you on Friday afternoon.

    ? Specific days, such as dates or holidays

    ? My family has a big dinner on Christmas

    ? Ill see you on January 22.

    ? On time (meaning not late)

    ? I got to class on time.

    ? I met my friend on time. o For space:

    ? On basically means on top of or on the front of.

    ? Put your book on your desk.

    ? The clock is on the wall.

    ? In

    o For time:

    ? Months

    ? I will see you in January.

    ? In September, I met my girlfriend.

    ? Years, including groups of years, such as decades or centuries

    ? I was born in 1985

    ? In 1953, the Korean War ended.

    ? The internet was widely used in the 1990s.

    ? In the 20th century, cars became very popular.

    ? From now to a future time

    ? I will see you in 5 minutes.

    ? In 2 years, I will graduate from college.

    ? Times of year

    ? In the summer, I took a trip to Thailand.

    ? I hate the weather in the winter.

    ? Times of day

    ? I have class in the morning.

    ? In the afternoon, I can often watch movies.

    ? In time (meaning not too late. Not the same as on time)

    ? I got to class in time for the test.

    ? I hope I can get to Starbucks in time. My friend will leave

    soon.

    o For space:

    ? In basically means inside of.

    ? At ? We meet in the classroom at 9 am. o For time: ? Please dont put your books in your bag until Im finished. ? A specific time

    ? I will see you at 6:30.

    ? At noon, Ill eat lunch

    ? I always wake up at 5 am.

    ? Night

    ? I sometimes play games at night.

    ? My neighborhood is very quiet at night.

    o For space:

    ? At basically means near this location.

    ? Bob is at work now.

    ? I was waiting at the bus stop for 15 minutes.

    ? Common mistakes with in/on/at

    o Not used with last or next

    ? (Wrong) On last night, I was very busy.

    ? (Right) Last night I was very busy.

    ? (Wrong) I will go to Europe in next summer.

    ? (Right) I will go to Europe next summer.

    o Not used with vacations, use over or during for specific vacations, but

    simply on for vacation alone.

    ? (Wrong) In summer vacation, I had a part time job.

    ? (Right) During summer vacation, I had a part time job.

    ? (Right) Over summer vacation, I had a part time job.

    ? (Wrong) I had a good time in vacation.

    ? (Right) I had a good time on vacation.

    After/Later/Before

    The most common problem with these is that many students dont remember that these

    are used relative to a time other than now, for example, a time in the past or future. For

    times relative to now, you must use in for a future time and ago for a past time.

    ? Correct uses of in and ago o I will see you in 5 minutes.

    o Lets go to Europe in 2 years.

    o I saw him 5 minutes ago.

    o I met my girlfriend two years ago.

    ? After/Later

    o These can be used to describe a time relative to another time (past or

    future)

    ? I was very busy last Saturday. After 5 hours of studying, I had to

    go to my part-time job.

    ? I started high school in 2001. After 3 years, I graduated.

    ? I met Sally last January. Two months later, we were a couple.

    ? I ate some fish last night, but 30 minutes later I felt sick.

    ? I will go to the movies tonight at 8 pm. You can meet me 2 hours

    later.

    ? I hope to graduate in 2010 and start my own company after 5 years.

    o Of course, later can also be used alone to mean later than now.”

    ? See you later!

    ? Ill meet you later.

    ? Before

    o Before is similar to after and later. Its used relative to another time.

    ? I had never gone to Japan before I went there last year.

    ? My uncle got married last year. He had met his wife 5 years

    before.

    ? I hope to start my own company in the year 2015. Ill graduate

    from college 5 years before that.

    ? Common Mistakes with after/later/before

    o Notice the placement

    ? after goes before what its describing

    ? later goes after what its describing

    ? before goes before a clause but after a time.

    o Remember, they arent used with a time relative to now

    By/Until

    ? By

    o By is used for a one time action. The action must happen before the

    time you state.

    ? I must wake up by 6 am.

    ? Wake up happens only once. It is not continuous or

    repeated.

    ? 6 am is the last possible time that waking up is okay. 5

    am is also okay, but 7 am is not.

    ? I hope to graduate by 2008.

    ? Graduate happens only one.

    ? 2008 is the last time that graduating is okay for you.

    ? Until

    o Until is used for a continued or repeated action. The action stops at the

    time you state.

    ? I must study until 8 pm.

    ? Studying is continuous. It starts now and continues until

    the time you give.

    ? 8 pm is the time that the continued action of studying

    ends.

    ? Mary will be in Thailand until Wednesday. ? Common Mistakes ? Mary will continuously “be in Thailand. o Make sure you dont mix the two up. ? Wednesday is the day that the trip ends, and she returns. o When using these words with now they have a very different meaning

    from each other, but also different from Korean.

    ? Until now means that an action continued and now it stops

    ? I liked you until now (after now, I dont like you).

    ? Until now, I have been so busy (after now, Im not busy).

    ? By now means an action should have happened before now, but

    it did not happen.

    ? My friend should have come by now.

    ? If she was going to marry him, she would have done it by

    now.

    ? Neither one means that the action will continue in the future.

    ? (Wrong) I have liked ice cream until now.

    ? (Right) I still like ice cream.

    ? (Wrong) I did it until now.

    ? (Right) I already did it.

    For/Since/From

    ? For

    o For is used for a duration of time, something that has a beginning and an

    end and that you can count the increments (such as minutes, hours, days,

    months, etc.)

    ? I will be in Thailand for three days.

    ? Gary lived in India for 5 years.

    ? Since

    o Since is used for a starting point of time in the past.

    ? I have been in Thailand since last Monday.

    ? Gary has lived in India since 2002.

    ? From

    o From is used for a starting point of time in the future.

    ? I will be in Thailand from next Monday.

    ? I will work for the company from 2008.

    o From can ask be used with to for a duration of time (past or future).

    ? I will be in Thailand from next Monday to next Saturday.

    ? Bob worked for the company from 2002 to 2004.

    Exercises

Complete the following with the correct preposition. Please note that not every

    preposition is one that we discussed today.

1. I woke up . . 7 am. I was running late! I got up, and I noted my brother was

    still . . bed. I woke him up too. We had breakfast and left home . . 7:30. We

    had to be . . school . . 8 or we would be late. We had gone . . this school . .

    2004. We had many friends there. However, we would be going . . a new

    school . . two months become we would be moving. We made it . . school . .

    time. The teacher started just as we walked in.

    2. I went . . the store this morning . . 7:30 am. I hadnt been . . the store . .

    September, but the store owner still remembered me. I had to be . . school . .

    8 am, so I had to hurry. I got to school . . time. . . 10 minutes, there was a

    knock . . my door. It was the new professor who I met . . last week. He had

    moved . . Korea just two weeks . . He told me he had been working all night

    and that he would have to continue to work . . 9 am, so he asked me to make

    some copies for him. He also asked me to make some copies for him . . Monday,

    but I didnt have enough time.

    3. Later on, the new professor asked me to go to lunch . . him. He said we should

    meet . . noon. While we were eating, he told me he that he first came to

    Asia . . 2005, but he lived . . Japan . . 3 years before coming . . Korea.

    Two years . . coming . . Korea, he met his wife. We both had to be back . .

    the building . . 1 pm, so we had to leave the restaurant . . 12:50. We decided

    to meet every Monday for lunch . . next week.

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