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On_Different_Attitudes_Between_China_and_the_We

By Evelyn Clark,2014-07-24 18:26
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On_Different_Attitudes_Between_China_and_the_We

     On Different Attitudes Between China and the

    West toward Racial Issues

    Student name:Caol ianying Class:050513

     Supervisor:Hu jinping

Abstract Although the word “race” has no scientific meanings, racial issues still

    exist in so many countries. Racial discrimination has always been left unsolved as a serious social problem in the United States. Not only the ethnic problem relates to long-term peace and the economic development in the world, but also it has the significant influence to the peace and development of the world. China consistently holds a non-racial discrimination, a non-tribal grouping discrimination in its " cultural nationality " idea.But the West takes a self-centered attitude, and consider themselves as the superior nation. This essay will take the different attitudes of China and the western countries on the racial issue as the clue to deeply analysis the difference of their culture ,tradition and the ethic concept,in order to supply more theoretical basis and actual materials to study the world's racial problems.

    Keywords:China and the West; racial problem; different attitude

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    论中西方对待种族问题的不同态度

    摘要:自上世纪80年代以来,中国实行了改革开放的国策,特别是21世纪初

    中国加入WTO,给予了中国进一步融入国际社会、促进了中西方文化交流和发展,

    同时也增加了双方相互学习的机会。文化是没有对错的,重要的是在中西文化交往

    中,取其精华、弃其糟粕。在不同的中西方文化之中,中西方对待种族问题的不同

    态度一直以来颇受关注。

    尽管“种族”这个词的本身并没有科学的含义,但种族问题仍然存在于很多国

    家,种族歧视作为一个严重的社会问题在美国仍然没有得到解决。种族问题不仅关

    系到许多国家的长治久安、经济发展,而且还对世界和平与发展产生重大影响。中

    国一贯奉行的是无种族歧视、无族群歧视的人类平等的"文化民族"观念,而西方国

    家则信奉以自我为中心,白人至上的种族致高态度。本文将以中西方对待种族问题

    的不同态度为线索,从其经济,政治,历史原因深入分析双方的文化、观念及传统

    和道德方面的异同之处,为进一步研究世界种族问题提供相应的理论依据和实际素

    材,并以此希望促进在西方国家各种族之间做到真正的平等。

关键词:中西方!种族问题!不同态度

1.Introduction

     Race only refers to human's skin color, however it differentiates the people who live in each nation, US's people in particular mutually. Race itself is not the social problem, but racism is actually

    the social problem, because it just according to different skin color to treat the human and the crowd

    differently. China and the west have different cultures ,different notions and different ethics on racial

    problem, which cause different attitudes and resultson racial problem. 2. The Definition of Race

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2.1 .1The Meaning of Race

     Before attempting to discuss the problem of race-prejudice, it is essential to have the terms we intend to use perfectly clear and fully understood. This is particularly necessary in dealing with the subject of race, for there can be very few words in the English language that have been so frequently misunderstood and so often and so flagrantly distorted. Our first task, therefore, must be to define the word race itself. In the dictionary ,race refers to :

    (1).A local geographic or global human population distinguished as a more or less distinct group by genetically transmitted physical characteristics.(2)..A group of people

    united or classified together on the basis of common history, nationality, or geographic distribution: the German race.(3).A genealogical line; a lineage.(4).Humans considered

    as a group.(5).Biology a.An interbreeding, usually geographically isolated population of organisms differing from other populations of the same species in the frequency of hereditary traits. A race that has been given formal taxonomic recognition is known as a subspecies.bA breed or strain, as of domestic animals.(6).A distinguishing or

    characteristic quality, such as the flavor of a wine.

     For the mankind ,race refers to a human population considered distinct based on physical characteristics.It is important to note that race is predominantly a social construct - in

    other words, scientists have discovered that only 2 percent of our genes are ultimately responsible for the visible differences such as skin color. Although it is not an exact science, social groups play a very important role in defining the rules of race. For example, in some cultures a light skin mulatto who is also upper class may be considered White, while in others, this same individual would classify as Black.A lingering relic - depicting our history of legislating race - is the "one drop rule" which stipulated that a person with any amount of Black blood was to be classified as Black regardless of appearance. More recently, however, celebrities of mixed race backgrounds, such as Tiger Woods and Mariah Carey have challenged us to adopt less of a black or white approach to the concept of race.

     Despite the ongoing challenges with racial classification, race nonetheless continues to hold significant social implications across the globe.On the whole,race is a false classification of people that is not based on any real or accurate biological or scientific truth. In other words, the distinction we make between races, has nothing to do with scientific truth.Race is a political construction. A

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    political construction is something created by people;that is not a natural development; is constructed or created for a political purpose.The concept of race was created as a classification of human beings with the purpose of giving power to white people and to legitimize the dominance of white people over non-white people.

2.1.2Racial Problem

     Racism is a belief that human races have distinctive characteristics that determine their respective cultures, usually involving the idea that one’s race is superior and has the

    right to control others.It is the basic reason of racial problem.

     The race problem refers to the detuning and the contradictory condition of the relationship which between the different race groups. The main performance is conquered for the minority Caucasian ruling clique, non-white race's discrimination which is enslaved, and even extinguishing kills, but the non-white race who oppresses to the minority Caucasian racist's racial discrimination, the racial segregation, the race oppression and genocide carries on the struggle.

2. 2Several Existent Ways of Racial Problem

     There are four existent ways of race problem: racial discrimination, racial segregation, racial genocide, and racial oppression.

    2.2.1 Racial discrimination

    There are four main types of racial discrimination: direct, indirect, victimisation and harassment. 2.2.1.1 Direct racial discrimination

    This occurs when you are able to show that you have been treated less favourably on racial grounds than others in similar circumstances. To prove this, it will help if you can give an example of someone from a different racial group who, in similar circumstances, has been, or would have been, treated more favourably than you. Racist abuse and harassment are forms of direct discrimination. 2.2.1.2Indirect racial discrimination

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    Indirect racial discrimination may fall into one of two categories depending on the racial grounds of discrimination. The first is on grounds of colour or nationality, under the original definition in the Race Relations Act.

    2.2.1.3Victimisation

    This has a special legal meaning under the Race Relations Act. It occurs if you are treated less favourably than others in the same circumstances because you have complained about racial discrimination, or supported someone else who has. A complaint of racial discrimination means that someone has:

    ; brought proceedings under the Race Relations Act against the discriminator or anyone else

    ; given evidence or information in connection with proceedings brought by another person

    under the Race Relations Act

    ; done anything under the Race Relations Act or with reference to it

    ; alleged that a person has acted in a way which would breach the Race Relations Act. The complaint does not need to expressly claim discrimination when making the complaint. 2.2.1.4 Harassment

    The definition of harassment introduced by the Race Relations Act 1976 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 applies when the discrimination is on grounds of race or ethnic or national origins, but not colour or nationality. Harassment on grounds of colour or nationality amounts to less favourable treatment and may be unlawful direct discrimination.It is also an unlawful form of discrimination in education, planning, within public authorities, in the provision of goods, facilities, services and premises, and in relation to the training and employment of barristers and advocates. 2.2.2Racial segregation

    Racial segregation is the separation of different racial groups in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies,

    [1]or in the rental or purchase of a home. Segregation may be mandated by law or exist through social

    norms. Segregation may be maintained by means ranging from discrimination in hiring and in the

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    rental and sale of housing to certain races to vigilante violence (such as lynchings, e.g.) Generally, a situation that arises when members of different races mutually prefer to associate and do business with members of their own race would usually be described as separation or de facto separation of

    the races rather than segregation. In the United States, legal segregation was required in some states and came with "anti-miscegenation laws" (prohibitions against interracial marriage). There were laws passed against segregation in the USA in the 1960s.

    Segregation in hiring practices contributes to economic imbalance between the races. Segregation, however, often allowed close contact in hierarchical situations, such as allowing a person of one race to work as a servant for a member of another race. Segregation can involve spatial separation of the races, and/or mandatory use of different institutions, such as schools and hospitals by people of different races.

    2.2.3racial genocide

    Racial genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy,in whole or in part,a national,ethical,racial or religious group as such:killing members of the group,causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of group,deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part,imposing measures intended to prevent births with the group,forcible transferring children of the group to another group. 2.2.4racial oppression

    Racial oppression takes place in the poorest and the richest countries, including America. Racial oppression is characterized by the majority, or the ruling race, imposing its beliefs, values, and laws on the minority, or the ruled race. In most areas, the ruling race is upper class whites that run the “system”, and have a disproportionate amount of power. In other areas, it may not be the white race, but it is still the race that is comprised of the majority, makes the laws, or has the most money. These are the keys to domination over the weaker minorities that don’t have the power to thrive under the majority’s system according to their own cultural beliefs, values, and laws. One of the countries in

    which oppression is apparent is South Africa, a country that practices apartheid.

    2.3 The Existent Reasons of the Racial Problem

    2.3.1 Historical Reason

     At the beginning of the 17th century,in united state, the first group of black slaves were trafficked

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    to North America, for capturing the land along with the Caucasian colonialist to slaughter the indigenous Indian, and treated the African Americans as the slave, forced them to work on these lands, racism started. At that time, the Caucasian occupied majority (majority of is the European immigrants), they were authorized the black when the slave carried on business, 1787 American constitution settled this kind of right as legality. When to American Revolution, the black population for at that time immigrated approximately the total Amount 2,500,000 of 1/5,becomed the important constituent of the American population, After the war of independence, immigrated by the European Caucasian primarily, is composed the country by the multi-national and multi-race immigration and the descendant to begin to take shape.

    2.3.2 Economical Reason

    Being not balanced as a result of the various countries' economy development, the capitalism developed country economic potentiality is abundant, but the developing nations as well as the African Underdeveloped countries economy level of development is low, the economical development restricts the development of education inevitably.

    The root cause of modern race-prejudice is the capitalist system of Society, a society of competition and struggle; struggle between capitalist and worker; struggle between capitalist and capitalist; struggle between worker and worker. For the working-class, who constitute the overwhelming majority of its population, it is a society of poverty and insecurity; to most of them it offers not the slightest chance of escape from a lifetime of constant, heart-breaking effort to earn a living. For the working-class, it is a society which breeds war and strife, in which their masters, on whose behalf they fight, use every device to stimulate antagonism and hatred between them. From the cradle to the grave, they are subjected to a mass of propaganda which deadens their minds, works on their prejudices, and endeavours by every means possible to turn their thoughts away from the real cause of their troubles. They are the tools of political leaders and demagogues who make them promises which they do not keep. Disappointed, they exchange one set of political leaders for another, whose promises are no more fulfilled than the promises of those before them. They become disillusioned, bitter, and cynical; fair game for dictators and “strong men” who promise to lead them to a “promised land”, but instead lead them into greater disasters and misfortunes. All the time they are experiencing unemployment, poverty, insecurity, competition for jobs, struggles to “rise up the ladder”. They seek to escape from the harsh world of reality in dreams and games of make-believe, in football pools and cinemas, but only for brief moments, for capitalism soon brings them back to things as they are, and

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    not as they would wish them to be. They still have to contend with poverty, unemployment, insecurity, and war. For the working-class, Capitalism is a society of mental, social and economic frustration; as such it breeds race-prejudice as a swamp breeds pestilence.

    It can breed it in many ways. There are its direct economic effects, when worker competes against worker to obtain a job, or retain it against others who would take it away. Such an effect operates, as we have see, in the United States or in South Africa when White workers seek to exclude Negro workers from the skilled occupations, hoping as a consequence to lessen the competition. Or it may be that no such “accepted” discrimination exists, and workers irrespective of race or nationality, all compete on “equal terms” for employment. Then prejudice still arises, as it did, for example, before the War, when Welsh workers came to London looking for work, or when Irishmen come to this country with the same object. It may be in New York during bad times, when Jewish workers compete with others for jobs and anti-Semitism becomes more pronounced, or when Mexicans compete with Negroes in the Southern States, or when the “poor whites” compete with Natives in South Africa.

    It may make its efforts felt between a ruling-class of one “race” and an exploited class of another, as,

    for example, in Kenya and the other territories of British East Africa, where a dominant White group acquires large tracts of land at the expense of the Natives and exploits them for profit, at the same time causing a “land problem” giving to bitter resentment and hostility. Or like the West Indies, where White absentee capitalists exploit Negro workers and condemn them to abject poverty and degradation. It would surprise nobody if, as a result, the tension which now exists between worker and capitalist should flare up into a conflict between White man and Negro.

    Then again, there is no doubt that the general effects of the system upon the working-class help to foment race antagonism. What, for example, is the main reason for the growth of anti-Semitism in this and other countries but the resentment of the workers against capitalism being deflected against the Jews? That, in other words, the Jews are the scapegoats for capitalism? The workers see rich Jews, and imagine that, once rid of them, things will be all right, yet the facts are that if the Jews were all taken off the earth tomorrow, the conditions of the working-class would not change; the working-class would still be propertyless and exploited.

2.4Attitude of China on Racial Problem

    China is a united and multi-ethnic country.China holds a non-racial discrimination, a non-tribal grouping discrimination in its " cultural nationality " idea .

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2.4.1Chinese policy on minorities

     There are 56 ethnic groups. The Han account for 92% of the country's population, the other 55 accounted for 8% of the nation. The achievement of equality, unity and common prosperity, which is China's treatment of the basic principles of ethnic relations.China's Constitution dictates that the People's Republic of China of all nationalities are equal. The State protects the minority's lawful rights and interests, maintain and develop the equality, unity and mutual relations of each nation. Prohibit any discrimination and oppression of the nation ; prohibit the destruction of national unity and to prohibit ethnic divisions. The Constitution also clearly stipulates that in the struggle to safeguard national unity, it is not only to oppose the majority nationalism, mainly Han chauvinism, but also against the local nationalism.

    Since 1949, a number of areas have been designated as autonomous regions wherein the minorities are guaranteed, within limits, the rights to express and develop their local cultures and representation in the political arena. There are five large autonomous regions (Tibet, Inner Mongolia, Guangxi Zhuang, Ningxia Hui, Xinjiang Uigur), each named after the predominant minority group. These regions contain multiple nationalities, the Han now being the largest group in all but Tibet. In addition, by 1985 there were thirty autonomous prefectures and seventy-two autonomous counties, or "banners," often of mixed ethnicity and sometimes listing two or three minority groups in their official name. Under continuing pressure to grant minorities greater autonomy and representation, the government organized minzuxiang (minority townships) in the 1980s for areas of mixed settlement

    outside of the larger autonomous units. These townships incorporate Han and minority villages under one administration at the lowest level of government. Minority representatives are thus guaranteed seats at various administrative levels from the township up through the county and prefecture, and there are reserved seats for minority representatives in the provincial and national peoples' congresses. The State Nationalities Affairs Commission, directly under the State Council, also includes minority representatives, as do provincial and prefectural branches.

    2.4.2Chinese harmonious ideal

    In pursuit of human's harmony, pursue harmony of inside mind and human's outside body , harmonious idea of human and the natural , which is the Chinese culture basic value orientation and the basic spirit. Take “the benevolence” as the foundation and for the highest pursue goal, "Personal

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    not desire, not in person" and “the personal desire sign but sign a person, the personal desire reaches but reaches a person" carries out a harmonious basic principle. In the present age, the harmonious idea may become a basic standard of value which can process the relationships between human and human, the human and the society, the nationality and the nationality, the country and the country, between the different culture and between the human and the natural environment. The Chinese culture is well established, is the Chinese nation wisdom crystallization. Pursuing the harmony is the Chinese culture basic value orientation and the basic spirit.

     The Chinese culture initiative harmonious idea, seeped Chinese nation's worldview and the outlook on life, has formed the Chinese nation advocating doctrine of the mean thinking mode, trained the Chinese nation to give precedence out of courtesy, the benevolence, to take the entire situation into account, working unselfishly for the common good and peaceful spirit, became the cultural root that the Chinese nation have the formidable vitality and the cohesive force.

    2. 5The Attitude of the West on Racial Problem

    In the western society, the American has formed racial superiority feeling of World outlook, taking ego as the center. Is one kind of self-central manner, thought the racial difference decided the human society and history and the cultural development, reveals the oneself respective association, for example race, nationality or country, are superior in other associations. Since modern times, mainly has been modern times colonialism and the expansion, race's understanding question then concentrates between the race whether has in the height distinction between high and low class question, Then appeared between race's questions and so on discrimination. The American Caucasians thought oneself inborn on is more superior to the person of other races. The black is called “Negroes”, is the inferior race. The Anglo landlord in the southwest of the United States believed, Sometimes the Oriental and the Mexican inborn do suitably these barbarically, have the farm work which the disabled person does, But the Caucasian not suitably does the farm work in the physical requirements.

    2.5.1 American's Racial Discrimination

     America is a country of multi-nationality and racial discrimination is a serious and complex problem in America. It has existed since the nation begins, and it is now woven into many facets of society. And discrimination towards the blacks particularly proves has been rooted in the whole society for a long time.

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