By John Kennedy,2014-11-04 10:19
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Unit 4 Astronomy: The Science Of The Stars

    Teaching aims:

    1. Enable students to improve their listening skills and reading ability.

    2. Enable students to understand the development of gravity and how gravity affects us in different times and places.

3. Arouse students’ interest to search for the mystery of space.


    1. Words and expressions: gravity, float, cheer up, now that, break out, etc

2. Astronomic knowledge like gravity and black hole.


    1. Help the students to understand the development of gravity.

2. Help the students to know how gravity influences us.

    Teaching methods: skimming, scanning, discussing.

    Teaching aids: a tape recorder, a projector and a computer.

    Teaching procedures:

    The first period reading

    Step I Presentation

    T: Hello, everyone! Today we’ll come to Unit 4 Astronomy. Before that I have a question: Where do we come from? Or we can say: Who are our ancestors? S1: Monkeys!

    S2: Beijing Ren who lived many years ago.

    S3: Reptiles.

    S4: Mammals.

    S5: Amphibians.

    S6: Dinosaurs.

    T: Very good! Can you put them in right order?

    S7: Amphibians, Reptiles, Dinosaurs, Mammals, Beijing Ren. T: Do you know what it was like before life appeared on earth?

S8: It was full of water, perhaps.

    T: Before that, what was it like?

    S9: Sorry, I don’t know.

    T: Do you want to get more information? Today we’ll learn something about How Life Began on the Earth. Turn to Page 25. Let’s come to Warming up first.

    Step II Warming up

    1. Read the three questions, while the students listen and follow.

    2. Give the Ss several minutes to discuss the questions.

    3. Collect answers from the whole class.

    4. Check the answers while discussing.

    T: I’ll read the three questions for you. You should listen to me carefully. (If students don’t know how to discuss, show them an example.) For example, medicine. When

    someone gets serious illness, he will go to the hospital. The doctor will examine him. He will take his temperature, measure his blood pressure and give him an X-ray, or a CT. For the whole process of the examination, what kind of science has been used? S1: Biology.

    S2: Chemistry.

    T: So we can say medicine combines biology and chemistry. What about biochemistry and geophysics?

    S3: I think biochemistry combines biology and chemistry.

    S4: Geophysics combines geology and physics.

    T: What about astronomy?

    S5: Physics.

    S6: Mathematics.

    T: Very good. We should know that astronomy is a multidisciplinary subject and if we want to do some research on it, we should know many science subjects related to it. Now discuss the second question:

    What do we mean when we say we are studying a subject scientifically? Or what’s the correct attitude towards science?

    S7: We should be objective, not superstitious.

T: What’s the correct way to prove a scientific idea?

    S8: We should design experiments to test it for several times.

    S9: Then we can analyze the results and draw a conclusion at last.

    T: Let’s sum up the answers. To study a subject scientifically, we must try to be objective. In order to test our idea, we should design experiments, then analyze the results and draw a conclusion. Now let’s talk about the third question.

    What are the most important skills we need to be real scientists?

    S10: We should be very careful.

    S11: Be objective and logical.

    S12: We should be wise enough to design an experiment and write the reports clearly. S13: We should be able to draw conclusions from the experiments and not impose conclusions on the data.

    T: I think you have done great work. From the discussion we know that it’s not easy to be a scientist. So you should work harder if you want to be a scientist. Step ? Pre-reading

    Get the Ss to discuss the questions on Page 25 with their partners. Then ask the Ss to tell their stories. Encourage the Ss to tell different stories. If they don’t know any, tell

    them some.

    T: Now please look at the slide show. And discuss these questions with your partners. Then I’ll ask some students to tell us their stories. Are you clear?

    Ss: Yes, Sir/Madam.

    1. Do you know each religion or culture has its own ideas about the beginning of the universe? Please give an example if you know.

    2. Do you know what a scientific idea is?

    After the Ss’ discussion, teacher says the following.

    T: Now who’d like to tell us a story? Volunteer!

    S1: Let me try. In China, we all know that Pangu separates the sky from the earth. T: Can you describe the story in details?

    S1: Sorry, I can’t remember clearly.

    T: Who can? Nobody? Now I’ll tell you. Look at the screen.

Step ? Reading


    Get the Ss to read the passage quickly and accurately and meanwhile help the Ss to form a good habit of reading. Teacher gives the Ss a couple of minutes to look through the whole passage. Tell the Ss to read the text silently and then ask some detailed questions about the text on the slide show with their partners. Teacher should encourage the Ss to express their ideas.

    T: We’re going to learn a passage about how life began on the earth. Now let’s look at the slide show. Read the text quickly and find answers to the following questions. Show the questions on the screen.

    1. What was there on the earth before life could begin?

    2. Why do scientists think there has never been life on the moon?

    3. Why did animals first appear in the seas?

    4. Why did green plants help life to develop?

    5. Why were mammals different from other animals?

    T: Now who can answer the first one?

    S1: Water vapour, carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen and other gases. T: What about the second one?

    S2: Because there is no water on the moon.

    T: What about the third one?

    S3: Because water allowed the earth to dissolve harmful gases into the oceans and seas.

    T: The fourth one?

    S4: Because green plants can take carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and fill the air with oxygen.

    T: What about the last one?

    S5: They were different because they produced their young from within their bodies. T: Well done! Now turn to Page 26 Comprehending1, I think you may continue to read it again to get more details.


    In this part, Ss will read the text again and then finish Part1, 2 and 3. T: Now please skim the passage fast to finish Part1. Then we will check the answer. Key to Part1: BCBB

    T: Skim Paragraph 2, 3 and 4, and finish Part 2 and 3.


    T: For Part 3, discuss them with your partner.

    T: Why is it wrong in films and stories to show dinosaurs and people together? S: Because dinosaurs died out long before human beings developed on the earth. T: Do you agree with him?

    S: Yes.

    T: What about the answer to the second question?

    S: They are the cleverest animals because they have larger brains than any other creatures on the earth so far.

    T: Excellent job! I’ll check how much you have learned about the passage.

    Step V Listening

    Listen to the tape for the students to follow and have further understanding of the passage.

    T: Read after the tape, then answer me some questions with your book closed. Play the tape

    T: How did water come into being on the earth?

    If one student can’t answer completely, ask two or three or more students.

    Ss: The explosion of the earth produced water vapor, which turned into water when the earth cooled down.

    T: Why is water important on the earth?

    Ss: Because water allowed the earth to dissolve harmful gases into the oceans and seas.

    T: No.3, finish the following form.

    2 1 small plants in water

    3 green plants on land 4insects(on land)


    7 6 forests 8


    Key to the exercise:

    2. shellfish and all sorts of fish 5.amphibian(on land and in water) 7. reptiles (on land) 8.dinosaurs(on land) 9.mammals(on land) T: That’s all for this passage. Now let’s deal with some language points.


    T: Turn to Page 25. Let’s look at the sentences:

    1. It exploded loudly with fire and rock, which were in time to produce the water vapour.

    which leads non-restrictive attributive clause.

    in time: sooner or later; eventually

    I’ll see him in time.

    in time (for sth. /to do sth.): not late

    She will be back in time to prepare dinner.

    in / out of time: in/not in the correct time

    The audience clapped in time to the music.

    2. Nobody knew that it was going to be different from other planets going around the sun.

    be different from: not like someone or something else in one or more ways Note: We can use very, much, quite, entirely, totally to modify different City life is quite different from country life.

    going around the sun is-ing form that serves as attributive. Men breaking the law will be punished.

    Can you see the girl dancing with your boyfriend?

3. Whether life will continue on the earth for millions of years to come will depend on

    whether this problem can be solved.

    to come: serves as attributive

    She is the last person to do such a thing. depend on: something might only happen or be true if the circumstances are right for


    Our success depends on whether everyone works hard or not. 4. Walking does need a bit of practice now that gravity has changed.

    now that: because of the fact that

    Now that I’m free, I can enjoy music for a while.

    Now that you’ve grown up you can decide it yourself.

    Passage Analyzing

    Chart of the text

    How life began on the earth

     water 1 small plants in water

     2 shellfish and all sorts of fish 3 green plants on land

    4 insects (on land)

    4 insects(on land) 5 amphibians (on land and in 6 forests 5 amphibians(on land and in water) water)

7 reptiles (on land) 10. small clever animals 8 dinosaurs (on land) with hands and feet 9 mammals (on land)

    11. human Text Retelling

Retell the text using about 100 words.

    Step ? Homework

    Retell the passage according to the form. Remember important language points.

The second period Extensive reading

    Step 1

    Show some pictures of the astronauts in the space Step 2

    Read the passage and fill in the form

    Step 3 Language points

    1. Last month I was lucky enough to have a chance to make a trip into space with my

    friend Li Yanping, an astronomer.

    Enough: pron adj adv

    The boy is old enough to do to school.

     He couldn’t run quickly enough to catch up with the cat.

    2. Then we were off.

     be off = set off

     I am off today.

     We are off today.

    3 get close to


     be close to


     The school is close to the post office 4. But when I tried to step forward I found I was carried twice as far as on the earth

    and fell over.

    1). “A + be + 倍数 + as +形容词原级 + as +


     This tree is three times as tall as that one.

     His father is twice as old as he.

    2). “A + be + 倍数 +形容词比较级 + than +

     B ”

    The Yangtze River is almost twice longer than the Pearl River.

    The number of students in our school is three times larger than that in theirs.

    3). “A + be + 倍数 + the +名词 (size, length, amount) + of + B”

    The newly broadened square is four times the size of the previous one.

    6. We watched, amazed as fire broke out on the outside of the spaceship as the earth’s

    gravity increased.

     break out

    1) 战争爆发

    2) 发生争吵

    3) (火灾)发生

    7. cheer up; cheer sb. up


8. masses of 许多,大量

    9. get the hang of 熟悉,掌握,理解

    10. exhausting (sth); exhausted (sb)

    Step 4 Homework

    Collect passages about gravity.

    Prepare for speaking.

     The third period Language Study Step 1 Revision

    Translate the following sentences

    1. 你迟早会成功的。

     You’ll succeed in time.

    2. 我的车与你的不一样。

     My car is different from yours.

    3. 站在门旁边的那个人是谁!

     Who is the person standing by the door? 4. 他总是第一个来,最后一个离开。

     He’s always the first to come and the last to leave.

     5. 既然你已经长大了,你自己决定吧。

     Now that you have grown up you can decide it yourself.

    Step 2

    Check the exercises in this part .

    Step 3 Grammar

    What part does the underlined part serve as in each sentence?

     A tree has fallen across the road.

     You are a student.

     To find your way can be a problem.

     Smoking is bad for you.

    “How do you do?” is a greeting.

     What she said is not yet known.

     That we shall be late is certain.

     It is certain that we shall be late.

     We can see from these sentences that a sentence serves as subject, so we call it

    Subject Clause

    1. Noun Clauses as the Subject

    To tell what it is and the importance with some examples

    What the teacher said today was quite right. That they are badly in need of help is quite clear. Whether they will sell the house is not yet decided. Whatever was said here must be kept secret. 2 it 作形式主语

    It is a pity that she has made such a mistake. 1) It is + adj. / n. +从句

     It is a pity/shame that... 遗憾的是……

     It is possible that... 很可能……

     It is unlikely that... 不可能……

     2) It +不及物动词+从句

     It seems/appears that... 似乎……

     It happened that... 碰巧……

    3) It + be +过去分词+从句

     It is said that... 据说……

     It is known to all that...


     It is reported that... 据报道……

     It is believed that...


     It is suggested that... 有人建议……

    1. Ask the students to do some exercises

    Step 4 Homework

    Finish the exercises about Noun Clauses as the Subject

    The Fourth period Listening

    Step 1 Pre-listening

    Introduce Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein

    Step 2 Listening

    1. Listen to the tape and fill the form

    2. Hand out the listening materials and listen to the tape again, then fill the bracket

    with the right answers. At last ask some students to read the passage Step 3 Listening on P62

    1. Discuss the following questions

    1)_. Who’s Yang Liwei?

     He’s our hero who traveled into space on October15, 2003.

     2). What’s the name of the spaceship?

     Shenzhou V.

     3). Do you know what education and experience you need to become an astronaut?


    2.Listen to the tape and answer some true or false questions 3. Give the students listening material and ask them to complete the passage while


    Step 4 Homework

    After class, you should listen to them again and sum up what you have learnt from

    them. For the homework, think about one question: What needs to be an astronaut?

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