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EMS Policy and Strategy Working Group

By Lucille Powell,2014-06-17 04:41
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EMS Policy and Strategy Working Group ...

TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Glossary of Terms .................................................................................................................. 2

    Preface ................................................................................................................................. 3

    Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................... 4

    Executive Summary .............................................................................................................. 5

    Tourism in Jamaica ............................................................................................................... 7

The Bauxite/Aluminum and EMS:The Global Perspective .................................................... 19

Coffee Production and EMS: The Global Perspective .......................................................... 26

    Sugar ................................................................................................................................... 32

    Rum ..................................................................................................................................... 33

Appendicies

     Appendix 1 List of Documents ........................................................................................... 35

Appenxidx 2 Persons Contacted (by Telephone, Fax and E-mail) ...................................... 36

     EMS Policy and Strategy Working Group “Key Economic Sectors” Research 1

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

CARICOM Caribbean Community

    CCA Caribbean Conservation Authority

    CEHI Caribbean Environmental Health Institute EAST Environmental Audits for Sustainable Tourism ECO-OK Ecologically Okay Program

    EMA Environmental Management Authority

    EMS Environmental Management Systems

    EPA Environmental Protection Agency

    GNBS Guyana National Bureau of Standards HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point ISO International Organization for Standardization JAS Jamaica Agricultural Society

    JBS Jamaica Bureau of Standards

    JEA Jamaica Exporters’ Association

    JMA Jamaica Manufacturers’ Association

    NRCA Natural Resources Conservation Authority PSOJ Private Sector Organization of Jamaica QMS Quality Management System

    SRC Scientific Research Council

    TTBS Trinidad & Tobago Bureau of Standards WRA Water Resources Authority

     EMS Policy and Strategy Working Group “Key Economic Sectors” Research 2

PREFACE

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    The target sector research results are summarized in the table below. With the exception of bauxite/alumina, no sector is trending towards the implementation of EMS. Drivers are not sector specific, except for the agro/food sector where regulations on residual agrichernicals are increasing worldwide. In most sectors, larger companies are tending towards EMS implementation at a greater rate than medium and smaller companies, hence the trend in the bauxite/alumina industry. The tourism sector has adopted the Green Globe EMS system, particularly for the hotel industry.

Tabular Summary Presentation of Target Sector Results

     World Trends Regional Local Drivers Obstacles Examples

     Rum Emphasis on Emphasis on Emphasis on Global Lack of Mount Gay in wastewater wastewater wastewater Competition, awareness, Barbados, and J. treatment rather treatment rather treatment rather public recognition, unwillingness to Wray & Nephew than EMS than EMS than EMS anticipated buy in, amount of have commenced government policy, documentation implementation marketing tool, required, state of internal the economy, efficiencies perceived cost to anticipated, known implement and benefits of ISO cost to certify 9002; increased regulations of residual agrichemicals and soil erosion (agro/food sector) Sugar Emphasis on Emphasis on Emphasis on Same as above Same as above None reported wastewater wastewater wastewater treatment rather treatment rather treatment rather than EMS than EMS than EMS Agro/Food Increased demand Reactions to Reactions to Same as above Same as above Advanced Farms for health food regulations on regulations on has commenced worldwide. Trend residual residual an EMS towards organic agrichemicals agrichemicals farming and eco- labelling

     EMS Policy and Strategy Working Group “Key Economic Sectors” Research 5

World Trends Regional Local Drivers Obstacles Examples

Bauxite/Alumina General move General move Alcan and Alcoa Same as above Same as above Alcan worldwide towards EMS towards EMS have commented has commenced implementation implementation implementation of implementation EMS and certification of ISO 14000. Alcan and Alpart locally have commenced implementation and intend to get certified. Alcoa has implemented an EMS but will not seek to be certified Coffee Trend towards Not much The Coffee Board Same as above Same as above None reported more shade happening is developing EMS grown, less use of program chemicals and eco-labelling Tourism Trend towards CHA is promoting EAST project Same as above Same as above Negril Cabins, ecotourism and Green Globe assisted 5 hotels Sandals Negril, eco-labelling. certification. in Negril to be Mocking Bird Hill, Hotel industry has Several hotels Green Globe Sea Splash, embraced Green have achieved or certified Rondel Village in Globe to certify attempting to Jamaica, Blue their EMS achieve Waters in Tobago, certification others in Aruba, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica and Barbados

EMS Policy and Strategy Working Group “Key Economic Sectors” Research 6

TOURISM IN JAMAICA

EMS - The Key To Tourism's Future In Jamaica?

    The tourism industry has been literally forced into adopting and promoting EMS, as the trend has been toward eco-tourism. The Environmental Audits for Sustainable Tourism (EAST) project initiated the implementation of the Green Globe EMS in several hotels in the Negril area. The drivers to implementation (in addition to external support from the EAST project), were customer requests global, competition and public recognition. The obstacles have been the difficulty in training staff and finding recycling and other partners. The benefits to implementation has been increased awareness use as a marketing tool and greater operational efficiencies resulting in increased financial benefits. Five hotels in Jamaica have been certified and two others have submitted statements of intent (SOI). None has been certified in Barbados, however two have been audited in the hope of moving towards certification while another has submitted a SOI: One hotel four in Aruba, and one in Puerto Rico have all been certified.

    The Tourism Product Development Company (TPDCo) is concerned that environmental programmes are non-existent in the majority of tourism entities in Jamaica. While the drivers include customer requests global competition and marketing identity. The main obstacle is the unwillingness of the private sector to buy into the program. TPDCo recommends that the Government enacts a policy for all accommodation, attractions and other tourism enterprises to have. EMS implemented within their establishments. If this were so, TPDCo would incorprate elements of the EMS into the existing checklist, which would assist with their monitoring ftifttion.

    Similarly the Caribbean Hotels Association (CHA) believes that all properties should be EMS certified to increase competitiveness. In this regard it has formed a marketing alliance with Green Globe and in addition has collaborated with USAID subsequent to the EAST programme in Jamaica to raise funds to assist resorts in the wider Caribbean towards getting EMS.

    Jamaica's Economy has become increasingly dependent on tourism. As an industry, tourism represents great growth potential since it increases foreign exchange earnings and expands employment opportunities. While tourism brings visitors to Jamaica attracted to its natural beauty and environmental and cultural attractions, the industry's growth poses special problems to the nation's environment and culture.

    As Jamaica has seen tourism surge, so too have other Caribbean destinations that compete with Jamaica for a share of the tourist's dollar. Jamaica must move to the forefront in conserving its natural resources so that it can maintain or expand its tourism draw.

    This report will suggest ways that environmentally responsible, economically viable tourism can be developed, both in Jamaica and in selected other venues. The report then seeks to clarify the role of an EMS policy and strategy in ensuring that tourism maintains its vital role in the Jamaican economy.

The Role of Toutism in Jamaica's Economy

    In 1996, tourism contributed 20% of Jamaica's gross domestic product. Since the 1970s, the total number of visitors to Jamaica has more than tripled. The sheer number of visitors to this island destination poses a challenge to the nation's environment.

    The tourist industry makes many demands on the environment, such as pressure on beaches, use of wetlands for facilities and waste disposal, removal of sea grass beds at swimming beaches, and blocking of visual and public access to the coast. Steps must be taken to improve the ecological balance and diversify Jamaica's tourism product to attract and capture the growing

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    number of travelers whose idea of a vacation includes more than soaking up the sun's rays. Ecotourism fits well with Jamaica's natural beauty and need and desire to be sensitive to its environment.

What is Ecotoutism?

    Ecotourism has been given many definitions over the years, but the basic themes of the majority of the definitions is that ecotourism is responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people. Ecotourism is more than tourism to natural resources. Real ecotourism has the following seven characteristics:

1. It involves travel to natural destinations;

    2. It is tourism that minimizes its impact;

    3. It builds environmental awareness;

    4. It provides direct financial benefits for conservation;

    5. It provides financial benefits and empowerment for local people;

    6. It respects the local culture; and

    7. It supports human rights and democratic organizations.

    Not all destinations are suitable ecotourism destinations. Preferred characteristics of ecotourism attractions include the following:

    1. Intact Natural Resources - Ecotourists want to visit unspoiled natural environments with

    abundant flora and fauna. Areas must be well-preserved and a conservation program

    should be in place to address any degradation that occurs.

    2. Environmental Education - Ecotourists want to learn about the areas that they visit.

    Information centers and well-trained guides are essential.

    3. Conservation Activities - Ecotourists want to know how the areas that they visit are being

    protected. Conservation activities, research programs and environmental monitoring

    systems add significantly to the site.

    Additionally, ecotourists enjoy sites that allow them to view unique species. Ecotourists also value sites that are "off-the-beaten path" and relatively unknown.

    Jamaica has many such sites to offer visitors. In order to be successful, such sites must, among other things, be developed in harmony with natural and cultural surroundings with an

    environmentally friendly infrastructure, have environmental policies in order to protect natural resources, be well integrated into the surrounding community, provide well-trained guides who are knowledgeable about the natural and cultural history of the site, and provide employment opportunities to the surrounding community.

The Role an Environmental Management System can Play in Creating Ecotourism

    Ecotourism and environmental management systems are a natural fit. An EMS can help a destination accomplish some of the goals of ecotourism.

An EMS can help minimize impact. Clearly, one of the chief goals of an EMS is to reduce the

    impact of an activity on its surrounding environment. AN EMS can be instituted at oil pciints along the "tourism delivery chain"-from the hotels that ecotourists stay in, to the restaurants they eat in, to the sites that they visit.

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What can hotels, restaurants and sites do? An EMS that has been instituted by a hotel,

    restaurant or particular site will allow, among other things, the facility to use water judiciously and to minimize its waste generation. An EMS is tailored to a particular site.

    An example of how an EMS can be used at a hotel illustrates the importance of an EMS for ecotourism destinations. After electricity, water is the second most expensive utility in most hotels. Considering that water is usually paid for twice-once for piped-in water and once for sewage treatmen - the savings from conservation are automatically doubled. A hotel that institutes an EMS will target reducing the quantity of water it uses and will aim to use different qualities of water for different purposes.

    An EMS may include a more rigorous maintenance program so that a hotel will ultimately reduce its water usage. For example, one leaking toilet may waste 15,000 gallons of water a year. And remember, that loss actually occurs twice because the 15,000 gallons that gets piped in to the

    hotel and is wasted also must run through the sewage treatment plant for no purpose whatsoever. It may also include a towel and linen reuse policy.

    An EMS may also include ways to use rainwater and recycled water for uses other than drinking, cooking and dishwashing. For example, laundry, toilet flushing, cleaning and bathing do not require the use of high quality drinking water.

    An EMS may also include a strategy for dealing with the generation of solid waste. Solid waste needs to be dealt with in an EMS because it can contaminate groundwater, give off unpleasant odors at landfills and lead to littered beaches. A hotel can take responsibility for lowering its own production of garbage. Most garbage is packaging materials which accounts for about 45% of the total, while organic waste is estimated at about 40%. Tins and metals account for 10% of the waste and the last 5% is made up of paper and other waste. The goal of an EMS might be to reduce the quantity and size or volume of certain waste and phase out or replace certain materials. For example, if each hotel guest consumes four pats of butter a day, all hotels will dispose of 650 cubic feet of aluminum-coated foils a year, enough to fill four trucks. A hotel might decide to provide unpackaged butter pats. Promotion of recycling might reduce the amount even further.

    All of these efforts that are part of an EMS will lead to a hotel that puts less stress on its environment. An EMS can also be instituted across an entire destination to create a green destination. (See examples below.)

What Has Been Done in Jamaica with EMS-based Initiatives?

    Some sectors of the tourism industry and some communities have already taken steps to evacate their environmental impact and institute some changes. The following discussion highlights some of those initiatives, but in no way, is a complete listing of all of the efforts across the island.

EAST program (Negril)

    The Environmental Audits for Sustainable Tourism (EAST) program has been one of the major initiatives by the hotel industry to-date. EAST activity is a program of environmental audits within a corporate environmental management System aimed at the tourism and hospitality

    industry. The objective of the program is:

    1. To develop greater awareness and understanding of the benefits of environmental

    management systems and audits among hoteliers, restaurateurs and allied tourism

    businesses.

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2. To upgrade the technical skills of Jamaicans who are expected to conduct the audits and

    advise on EMSs

3. To assist a select, representative number of tourism-related establishments in carrying

    out environmental audits.

4. To help finance in the tourism industry selected audit recommendations to demonstrate

    the financial benefits of the systematic application of environment-friendly practices.

The focus of the EAST approach shifted from an ISO 14000 EMS Standard to the Green Globe

    Standard. Green Globe is a new environmental standard supported by the World Travel and

    Tourism Council with a specific focus on the hotel and tourism industry. The standards are

    similar but it is slightly easier to attain Green Globe certification. The new measure of success

    for EAST project participants, then, is achieving Green Globe certification after an audit and

    institution of an environmental management program.

The EAST program actually audited 15 Jamaican hotels. The audits focused on energy use,

    water use, wastewater generation, solid waste generation, use of chemicals and management

    and staff practices. The audits found, among other things, that hotels used water and energy

    inefficiently, used chemicals excessively and unnecessarily, generated excessive amounts of

    solid waste, and had poor or no monitoring of energy and water expenditures. Findings of the

    EAST project include, among other things, the following:

    1. Hotels participated for the cost benefits offered. Potential cost savings was the paramount

    reason hotels were interested in the program. While hotels understood the importance of

    the environment, it is interesting to note that, for the most part, hotel guests do not appear to

    be concerned with the environment friendliness of their hotels.

    2. All participants considered the audits valuable. The audits served as an eyeopener because

    it focused on hotel operations that are not scrutinized usually.

3. Audits are expensive. The EAST project audits would cost about $10,000. Program

    participants felt that an audit costing more than $1,000 would be to expensive.

4. Participants learned that little things count.

5. Understanding and use of EMS is limited. The lesson that savings will result only after

    priority actions are identified, planned, implemented and monitored has not been universally

    understood. One explanation for this lack of understanding is that EMS concepts were

    introduced AFTER the audits and recommendations.

Some of the lessons learned from the EAST project have important ramifications for ecotourism.

    They include the following:

1. Understanding of EMS among hoteliers is inconsistent. The majority of the hoteliers

    remained unclear about what an EMS is beyond a manual and a series of activities. It will

    be difficult to convince the community of the importance of an EMS without a broad

    educational outreach.

2. Those that understand systems approaches are most likely to adopt EMS. Management

    must be committed to EMS approaches for them to be successful.

3. EMS should serve as a framework to which energy and water consumption audits fit. The

    EMS framework should include a series of recommendations that recognizes priorities and

     EMS Policy and Strategy Working Group “Key Economic Sectors” Research 10

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