Green Oxidation(311) - Transfer Hydrogenation of Olive Oil

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Green Oxidation(311) - Transfer Hydrogenation of Olive Oil

Winthrop University CHEM 311 Laboratory

    Department of Chemistry

“Green” Oxidation of 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde


    Benzaldehydes can easily be converted to benzoic acids by oxidation with aqueous KMnO or 4+hot HNO, but the most common reagent used is acidic chromium trioxide (CrO/H): 33


    +CrO, HHOH3

    oacetone, 0 C

This reaction is very fast at room temperature or below.

     Stoichiometric amounts of transition-metal oxidants (such as chromium trioxide) are widely employed for these types of oxidations, resulting in the generation of very large amounts of waste that must be disposed of or recycled. In addition, trace amounts of these compounds often remain in the wastewater from the process or the product itself, potentially leading to significant health and environmental risks. Often, the oxidation state of the metal affects its toxicity. For example, although Cr(III) is an essential nutrient, Cr(VI) the oxidation state of chromium in chromium

    trioxide is carcinogenic.

     Many processes have been devised to substitute less toxic (“greener”) oxidizing agents for the heavy metal oxidants, including the use of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide in combination with transition metal catalysts. In this experiment, you will carry out the oxidation of a substituted benzaldehyde to a substituted benzoic acid using a potassium triple salt containing potassium peroxymonosulfate (KHSO), potassium hydrogensulfate (KHSO), and potassium sulfate (KSO) in 5424

    a 2:1:1 molar ratio. This product is sold under the trade name Oxone?, its formula weight is 614.8, and it is considered a “green” oxidizing agent because it is non-toxic, and the by-products of its use

    are also environmentally benign. You will then analyze your product by both melting point and TLC.

Required Reading:

    Lehman “The Student’s Lab Companion”:

    “Planning an Experiment” (pp. 288 – 290)

    Vacuum Filtration” (pp. 65 68)

    “Heating: Hot Water Baths” (pp. 43 – 44)

    “Heating Under Reflux” (pp. 48 – 52)

    “Calculations for Organic Synthesis” (pp. 286 – 288)

    “Melting Point” (pp. 186 – 192)

    Thin-Layer Chromatography” (pp. 104 – 111)

Winthrop University CHEM 311 Laboratory

    Department of Chemistry

Special Safety Notes:

    Oxone? is an oxidizing agent, and as such can cause eye and skin burns. Handle with care and avoid spilling it on yourself.

    Spotting capillaries are made of very fine glass and should be handled with care and disposed of in the glass bins.



    o Prepare a hot water bath by heating 125 mL of water in a 250-mL beaker to 65 70 C on a

    hotplate. Insert a thermometer into the water bath and clamp as shown below to provide temperature measurement.

     Assemble a microscale apparatus for reflux with an air condenser as shown in the figure below.

     Place 0.15 g of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, 1.1 g of Oxone?, 5 mL of 5:1 water:ethanol, and a spin vane in the 10-mL round bottom flask. Connect the air condenser, clamp the apparatus as shown and carefully lower the reaction flask into the water bath. Immerse the bulb of the flask (but not the neck)

    oin the water bath. Heat the mixture at 65 70 C with stirring for 60 min. After the heating period is

    complete, cool the reaction flask in an ice-water bath for 15 min. Remove the spin vane with forceps and collect the acid product by vacuum filtration using a Hirsch funnel. Transfer the product

Winthrop University CHEM 311 Laboratory

    Department of Chemistry

    completely by rinsing the flask with minimal amounts of ice-cold water, then give the product a final wash with 2 mL of ice-cold water. Allow air to pass through the product for 10 min, then spread the product on a piece of dry filter paper. Blot the product dry with a clean paper towel. Weigh the product and analyze it by melting point and TLC. The TLC analysis is described in the next section.

TLC Analysis

    Preparation of the TLC Plates

    (NOTE: Handle TLC plates by the edges only!)

     Obtain one (1) 5 cm x 5 cm TLC plate. USE A PENCIL TO MAKE THE FOLLOWING

    MARKINGS ON EACH PLATE. Do not push down on the pencil; simply drag it across the plate to make a faint line. On the plate draw a line 0.5 cm from the bottom of the plate (the “origin”). Draw

    another line 0.5 cm from the top of the plate (the “solvent front”). On the bottom line of each plate

    (the “origin”), starting ~1.25 cm from the side, make 3 tick marks at ~1.25 cm intervals. Label the three "lanes" as shown below to designate where your sample solution as well as each standard solution will be spotted (“S” = sample, “Al” = 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, “Ac” = 4-nitrobenzoic acid).

    0.5 cm0.5 cm0.5 cm0.5 cm

    4.0 cm4.0 cm4.0 cm4.0 cm

    1.25 cm1.25 cm1.25 cm1.25 cm

    1.25 cm1.25 cm1.25 cm1.25 cm

    0.5 cm0.5 cm0.5 cm0.5 cmAlAcAlAcSS

    1.25 cm1.25 cm1.25 cm1.25 cm1.25 cm1.25 cm1.25 cm1.25 cm

    TLC Plate

Analysis of Your Product

     Place about 10 mg of your product into a clean, dry 3-mL or 5-mL conical vial. Add ethanol

    until the level is slightly above the 2.0 mL mark on the vial (anywhere between the 2.0 and 3.0 mL marks should be fine). Cap the conical vial and shake it (shake it hard!) for 1 min. Do not be concerned if there is some solid left in the mixture after the shaking period. Using a 1 ;L micropipet,

Winthrop University CHEM 311 Laboratory

    Department of Chemistry

    spot 1 ;L each of your sample solution, the 4-nitrobenzaldehyde standard solution, and 4-nitrobenzoic acid standard solution in the proper “lanes” at the origin on your TLC plate, and allow the spotting solvent to evaporate. Prepare the TLC developing chamber by adding 4 mL of 2:1 (v/v) hexanes:ethyl acetate to a 400 mL beaker and cover with a watch glass. Elute your sample plate until the solvent reaches the “solvent front” line at the top of the plate. Remove the plate from the chamber using tweezers and wave it back and forth in the air to assist in the evaporation of the developing solvent from the plate. Examine the plate under UV light (254 nm) and GENTLY circle each spot with a pencil.


Hart, H.; Craine, L. E.; Hart, D. J.; Vinod, T. K. Laboratory Manual for Organic Chemistry, a Short thCourse; 12 ed.; Houghton Mifflin: New York, 2007; pp. 265 269.

Matlack, A. S. Introduction to Green Chemistry, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001; pp. 67 96.

McMurry, J. Organic Chemistry, A Biological Approach, Thomson/Brooks-Cole: Belmont, CA,

    2007; p. 561.

    Name: _______________________________ Date: _____________________

    Lab Instructor: _________________________ Lab Section: _______________

    “Green” Oxidation of 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde: Pre-Lab Worksheet

1. What is the purpose of this experiment?

2. What is “green” chemistry?

    3. Prepare a “Sample Lab Checklist” for this experiment like the example found on p.

    289 of your lab text.

Pre-Lab Worksheet: “Green” Oxidation of 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde Page 2

    4. Look up the structures and MSDS’s for the compounds used in this experiment (at the

    Fisher scientific website, for example) and complete the following table:

    Compound Structure/Formula LD Flash Point Corrosive? 50




    4-Nitrobenzoic acid


    Ethyl Acetate

Pre-Lab Worksheet: “Green” Oxidation of 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde Page 3

    5. Look up the physical properties for the compounds used in this experiment (at the

    Fisher scientific website, for example) and complete the following table:

    Compound Molecular Weight Melting Point Boiling Point Density




    4-Nitrobenzoic acid


    Ethyl Acetate

Pre-Lab Worksheet: “Green” Oxidation of 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde Page 4

    6. Write a chemical equation showing the conversion of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde to 4-

    nitrobenzoic acid by reaction with Oxone?.

    7. Calculate the theoretical yield in moles and grams of 4-nitrobenzoic acid when 0.2 g

    of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde is oxidized with a molar excess of Oxone?. Show your


    Name: _______________________________ Date: _____________________

    Lab Instructor: _________________________ Lab Section: _______________

    “Green” Oxidation of 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde: Post-Lab Worksheet

Recovery Data

1. Mass of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde used: _________________

2. Moles of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde used: ________________

     (show calculation)

    3. Theoretical yield of 4-nitrobenzoic acid: __________________

     (show calculation)

4. Isolated Mass of 4-nitrobenzoic acid: ______________

    5. Percentage Yield of 4-nitrobenzoic acid: ________________________________

    (show calculation)

Melting Point Analysis

6. Melting point of your product: ___________________

    7. Literature melting point of 4-nitrobenzoic acid: _____________________

8. If the melting point of your product is different from the literature value, why might it be different?

    (Hint: What does your TLC analysis show?)

Post-Lab Worksheet: “Green” Oxidation of 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde Page 2

    TLC Analysis

9. Draw a picture of your TLC sample plate. Identify the spots and include the R values for each f

    spot. Show your calculations for the R values. f

10. Is your product what you expected? Explain your reasoning.

    11. Is your product pure (only one component) according to your TLC analysis? Explain your reasoning. If your product is more than one component, can you identify any of the impurities? Explain your reasoning.

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