Energy Audits: Walk Through & Analysis
The best way to determine exactly how to cut your energy costs is to conduct an audit of your facilities’ energy use. An energy audit will help you understand where and how energy is used and pinpoint areas for you to focus on in making energy-saving improvements. There are two types of energy audits. A Walk-Through Audit is the place to start because it deals with basic information and actions that are generally low cost or no cost. After implementing actions recommended by the Walk-Through Audit, you may want to have a computerized Analysis Audit done. An Analysis Audit identifies more comprehensive, capital-intensive energy-saving improvements.
A Walk-Through Audit is the easiest and least expensive means of identifying and
evaluating energy use in your school. Since people have a major affect on how energy is
used, this audit pays particular attention to identifying habits and procedures that can be
adopted to use energy more efficiently. Basic information about the systems in your
building is also collected.
There are two ready-resources for performing a Walk-Through Audit. Your operations/
maintenance personnel can gather the data, or your local electric utility may provide this
service. Once the audit has been completed, you will be able to identify energy-saving
The expense associated with this audit generally falls under the operations and
maintenance budget. Encouraging employees to develop energy-efficient habits can be
accomplished by setting new procedures. Equipment-related expense is generally for
repairing or replacing small items that are in poor working condition.
The first step in any audit is performed at a desk pulling together energy use and cost
information. The Energy Planning Ledger on the following page is provided to help
lead you through what information is needed to begin the audit process. Then you are
ready to take a walk through the facilities. Use the Walk-Through Checklist to identify
the easy, low- to no-cost improvements you can make in your facilities. Use it as you
walk through the building and check-off each suggestion as you consider its application
to your situation.
ENERGY PLANNING LEDGER
Heated Sq. Ft. _____________________________
Cooled Sq. Ft. _____________________________
Number of Stories:_________________________
Building Age: _____________________________
Energy Use and Cost
Last Year’s Current Prices Use Cost
Electricity - Consumption kWh $ $ per kWh
- Demand kW $ $ per kW/month
Natural Gas units* $ $ per gallon
Heating Oil gallons $ $ per unit
Other units $ $ per unit
*units may be “therms” (100,000 Btu/therm) or “ccf” (hundred cubic feet) or “mcf” (thousand cubic feet)
Electricity: ___________________________ % of total cost
Gas: _________________________________% of total cost Hot Water Uses: ______________________________________ Predominant Type of Lighting: __________________________ Occupancy Data: ______________________________________
Time Period: _____________________________
Max Number of People: ___________________
CHECK LIST ACTION LIST OBSERVATION OPERATION
Check building __ Monitor outside air use. temperature and __ Avoid heating and cooling at the same time. humidity levels. __ Use modular, localized heating/cooling units where possible.
__ Control system by time-of-use when possible.
__ Use ceiling fans to increase comfort.
__ Shut off chiller during winter if possible.
Check ductwork __ Seal ductwork leaks. and airflow. __ Clean filters and allow free air-flow to grills.
__ Seal unused building openings.
Check condition of __ Install vinyl curtains in loading areas. windows and doors. __ Weather-strip doors and windows, caulk cracks.
__ Insulate: doors, pipes, ductwork. __ Cover and lock thermostats and ventilation controls to prevent unauthorized adjustments.
__ Clean boilers, chillers and condenser coils Check refrigerant
levels. regularly, straighten fans.
__ Do not heat/cool in low traffic areas, hallways or Check thermostat
readings. unoccupied areas.
__ Adjust building temperature by season: lower in winter /
higher in summer. __ Advise occupants to dress appropriately for seasonally maintained building temperature.
Check availability __ Utilize available passive solar heat during cooler months by of passive solar. opening blinds and drapes.
__ Close doors to outside and unheated or uncooled areas.
__ Use ventilation only when required.
__ Establish routine maintenance procedures.
CHECK LIST ACTION LIST OBSERVATION OPERATION
__ Use automated lighting controls. Check when lights are Photocells being used. All-night outdoor lighting
Parking lots Restricted-access areas
Check lighting __ De-energize fixtures/ballasts not in use. levels. __ Reduce lighting to minimum acceptable level forlevels.
Check cleanliness and __ Clean lamps for maximum illumination. condition of lamps and __ Repair broken fixtures.
fixtures. __ Replace non-working lamps/bulbs.
__ Install lowest acceptable wattage bulb. __ Install energy-efficient ballasts.
Check accessibility of __ Add reflectors to existing lighting.
switches __ Label panels and switches so lighting can be monitored
and controls can be accessed.
Check how lights __ Turn off lights not being used..
are being used. __ Use task lighting in place of area lighting where possible.
CHECK LIST ACTION LIST OBSERVATION OPERATION
Check equipment __ Operate food warmers/cooking equipment only when needed. operating timers __ Preheat cooking equipment only when needed. and location. __ Direct cooling fans towards workers and not cooking
__ Stagger turn-on times for equipment.
Check equipment __ Set water heater thermostat to minimum acceptable
settings. sanitation level.
__ Locate refrigerator away from cooking equipment. __ Use booster heater in dishwashers to achieve hot rinse
temperature required for sanitation. __ Avoid refrigerator temperature settings lower than necessary. __ Locate refrigerator condenser coils in cooler place. Check motor operation __ Use timers or other devices for elevator motor start/stop. for efficiency and use __ Use automatic temporary elevator shut-off for low-use patterns. periods.
MAINTENANCE __ Clean and polish heat reflectors. Check equipment
__ Clean burners and check regularly. condition and
cleanliness. __ Recalibrate broiler thermostats.
__ Repair leaky toilets, faucets and showerheads.
__ Insulate waterv heaters and pipes.
__ Install flow restrictors.
__ Clean refrigerator coils, replace worn seals, defrost regularly.
__ Maintain proper refrigerant charge in refrigerator systems. Check how equipment __ Cook during off-peak periods when possible.
is being used. __ Cook food in large volumes, close together and cover for
faster cook time.
__ Minimize use of rangetops, griddles and broilers by using
ovens, steamers, fryers, and microwave oven when possible.
__ Load and unload ovens quickly to avoid heat loss.
__ Use properly-sized pots with flat bottoms and tight-
__ Shut off exhaust hoods when leaving.
__ Run dishwasher with full loads
__ Use chemical rinse instead of hot water for sanitation.
__ Refrigerate items only when necessary: do not
__ Label items so they are easy to find in refrigerator or cooler.
__ Cool hot items on counter before refrigerating.
__ Thaw frozen items in refrigerator.
A computerized Analysis Audit gathers detailed information about the systems and equipment used in your building. Your school’s energy data is run through a computer program and interrelated. The resulting analysis provides specific recommendations for energy-savings that include determining the most economical rate for your facility, equipment replacements or retrofits and building structural or design modifications.
There is usually a fee for an Analysis Audit. In many cases, your local electric utility may provide this service for you. If your utility does not provide this service, there are independent resources available. Guidelines are provided later in this book to help you select a qualified, reputable firm to conduct a reliable energy audit for your school.
For your reference, the following outlines discuss what
to look for during an Analysis Audit. An overview of
recommended follow-up actions is also included. The
ANALYSIS AUDIT actual audit process is more detailed and provides more
specific information than high-lighted here. • collects detailed energy-
• analyzes system and
• must be performed by
qualified energy auditor
• implementation involves
__ Check building insulation values.
__ Evaluate ability of system to meet heating/cooling requirements.
__ Determine useful life of existing HVAC equipment.
__ Calculate potential energy savings realized by switching to more efficient heating/cooling equipment. __ Assess possible applications for new technology - such as thermal energy storage, heat recovery or heat pipes.
__ Compute impact of degree days.
__ Automate system operation.
__ Install electronic ignition.
__ Install/modify system zoning if necessary.
__ Changeout heating/cooling equipment to more energy efficient source.
__ Install ceiling fans.
__ Recover and utilize waste heat.
__ Install/upgrade building insulation.
__ Install storm windows.
__ Install reflective glass in windows with east, west or south exposure.
RECOMMENDED SPACE TEMPERATURE IN FACILITIES
Heating 68F 55F
Relative Humidity 55%
APPROXIMATE AIR CONDITIONING LOAD FOR FACILITIES
Facility Sq. Ft./Ton
__ Check illumination levels.
__ Evaluate output efficiency of existing lamps and fixtures.
__ Determine impact of lighting on heating and cooling load.
__ Calculate potential energy savings realized by conversion to more energy efficient
__ Install local switches for area lighting.
__ Use light finishes on ceilings, walls, floors, desks, furnishings. __ Changeout bulbs and lamps to more efficient light source. __ Lower ceiling height.
__ Install skylights.
__ Assess cooking loads, noting equipment use and amount of heat loss. __ Evaluate useful life of existing cooking equipment.
__ Determine cooking exhaust air requirements, minimize and balance against supply. __ Evaluate the type and the remaining life of existing water heating system. __ Evaluate efficiency and useful life of existing refrigeration equipment. __ Evaluate motor performance and efficiency.
__ Match compatibility of motor and load.
__ Determine remaining useful service life of motors.
__ Calculate potential energy savings realized by switching to higher efficiency motors __ Analyze potential savings from installing motor speed control devices.
__ Replace conventional cooking equipment with high-efficiency cooking equipment when possible.
__ Install custom-designed ventilation hood.
__ Replace outside kitchen ventilation air with cafeteria air.
__ Install heat pump water heaters.
__ Install heat recovery water heating from refrigeration and HVAC. __ Increase hot water storage if warranted by electric demand charges. __ Select refrigerators that have the smallest doors for practical operation. __ Replace refrigeration system with higher efficiency model when possible. __ Downsize motors when possible.
Finally, at a minimum, CHECK THESE OUT
Here are the quickest and easiest ways to save energy, and they cost little or nothing. You may get half of the energy savings potential for your building by doing just these things:
1. Reduce heating and air conditioning during unoccupied hours.
2. Lower your heating settings, raise your air conditioning settings during
3. Turn off unneeded lights, remove unneeded lamps and disconnect their ballasts. 4. When replacing bulbs, use lower wattage or more efficient ones.
5. Turn off heating and AC somewhat before the end of your operating hours. 6. Have your heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems periodically serviced
7. Keep machines and equipment turned off when not needed.
8. Check to be sure automatic controls are in good working condition and are