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Energy AUDITS Walk-Through and Analysis

By Maurice Baker,2014-12-28 11:07
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Energy AUDITS Walk-Through and Analysis

Energy Audits: Walk Through & Analysis

    The best way to determine exactly how to cut your energy costs is to conduct an audit of your facilities’ energy use. An energy audit will help you understand where and how energy is used and pinpoint areas for you to focus on in making energy-saving improvements. There are two types of energy audits. A Walk-Through Audit is the place to start because it deals with basic information and actions that are generally low cost or no cost. After implementing actions recommended by the Walk-Through Audit, you may want to have a computerized Analysis Audit done. An Analysis Audit identifies more comprehensive, capital-intensive energy-saving improvements.

    WALK-THROUGH AUDIT

    A Walk-Through Audit is the easiest and least expensive means of identifying and

    evaluating energy use in your school. Since people have a major affect on how energy is

    used, this audit pays particular attention to identifying habits and procedures that can be

    adopted to use energy more efficiently. Basic information about the systems in your

    building is also collected.

    There are two ready-resources for performing a Walk-Through Audit. Your operations/

    maintenance personnel can gather the data, or your local electric utility may provide this

    service. Once the audit has been completed, you will be able to identify energy-saving

    improvements.

    The expense associated with this audit generally falls under the operations and

    maintenance budget. Encouraging employees to develop energy-efficient habits can be

    accomplished by setting new procedures. Equipment-related expense is generally for

    repairing or replacing small items that are in poor working condition.

    The first step in any audit is performed at a desk pulling together energy use and cost

    information. The Energy Planning Ledger on the following page is provided to help

    lead you through what information is needed to begin the audit process. Then you are

    ready to take a walk through the facilities. Use the Walk-Through Checklist to identify

    the easy, low- to no-cost improvements you can make in your facilities. Use it as you

    walk through the building and check-off each suggestion as you consider its application

    to your situation.

ENERGY PLANNING LEDGER

    Building Statistics

    Heated Sq. Ft. _____________________________

    Cooled Sq. Ft. _____________________________

    Number of Stories:_________________________

    Building Age: _____________________________

Energy Use and Cost

    Last Year’s Current Prices Use Cost

    Electricity - Consumption kWh $ $ per kWh

     - Demand kW $ $ per kW/month

    Natural Gas units* $ $ per gallon

    Heating Oil gallons $ $ per unit

    Other units $ $ per unit

    TOTAL $

    *units may be “therms” (100,000 Btu/therm) or “ccf” (hundred cubic feet) or “mcf” (thousand cubic feet)

    Energy Source

    Electricity: ___________________________ % of total cost

    Gas: _________________________________% of total cost Hot Water Uses: ______________________________________ Predominant Type of Lighting: __________________________ Occupancy Data: ______________________________________

    Time Period: _____________________________

    Max Number of People: ___________________

    Weekdays/Saturdays/Holidays: ___________

    CHECK LIST ACTION LIST OBSERVATION OPERATION

    Check building __ Monitor outside air use. temperature and __ Avoid heating and cooling at the same time. humidity levels. __ Use modular, localized heating/cooling units where possible.

     __ Control system by time-of-use when possible.

     __ Use ceiling fans to increase comfort.

     __ Shut off chiller during winter if possible.

     MAINTENANCE

    Check ductwork __ Seal ductwork leaks. and airflow. __ Clean filters and allow free air-flow to grills.

     __ Seal unused building openings.

    Check condition of __ Install vinyl curtains in loading areas. windows and doors. __ Weather-strip doors and windows, caulk cracks.

     __ Insulate: doors, pipes, ductwork. __ Cover and lock thermostats and ventilation controls to prevent unauthorized adjustments.

    __ Clean boilers, chillers and condenser coils Check refrigerant

    levels. regularly, straighten fans.

     PROCEDURES

    __ Do not heat/cool in low traffic areas, hallways or Check thermostat

     readings. unoccupied areas.

    __ Adjust building temperature by season: lower in winter /

     higher in summer. __ Advise occupants to dress appropriately for seasonally maintained building temperature.

     Check availability __ Utilize available passive solar heat during cooler months by of passive solar. opening blinds and drapes.

    __ Close doors to outside and unheated or uncooled areas.

    __ Use ventilation only when required.

    __ Establish routine maintenance procedures.

    CHECK LIST ACTION LIST OBSERVATION OPERATION

    __ Use automated lighting controls. Check when lights are Photocells being used. All-night outdoor lighting

     Timers

     Parking lots Restricted-access areas

     Motion sensors

     Low-traffic areas

     Dimmers Auditoriums

     Meeting rooms

    Check lighting __ De-energize fixtures/ballasts not in use. levels. __ Reduce lighting to minimum acceptable level forlevels.

     safety/security.

     Parking areas

     Storage areas

     Corridors

     MAINTENANCE

    Check cleanliness and __ Clean lamps for maximum illumination. condition of lamps and __ Repair broken fixtures.

    fixtures. __ Replace non-working lamps/bulbs.

    __ Install lowest acceptable wattage bulb. __ Install energy-efficient ballasts.

    Check accessibility of __ Add reflectors to existing lighting.

    switches __ Label panels and switches so lighting can be monitored

     and controls can be accessed.

     PROCEDURES

    Check how lights __ Turn off lights not being used..

    are being used. __ Use task lighting in place of area lighting where possible.

    CHECK LIST ACTION LIST OBSERVATION OPERATION

     OPERATION

    Check equipment __ Operate food warmers/cooking equipment only when needed. operating timers __ Preheat cooking equipment only when needed. and location. __ Direct cooling fans towards workers and not cooking

     equipment.

     __ Stagger turn-on times for equipment.

    Check equipment __ Set water heater thermostat to minimum acceptable

     settings. sanitation level.

    __ Locate refrigerator away from cooking equipment. __ Use booster heater in dishwashers to achieve hot rinse

     temperature required for sanitation. __ Avoid refrigerator temperature settings lower than necessary. __ Locate refrigerator condenser coils in cooler place. Check motor operation __ Use timers or other devices for elevator motor start/stop. for efficiency and use __ Use automatic temporary elevator shut-off for low-use patterns. periods.

     MAINTENANCE __ Clean and polish heat reflectors. Check equipment

     __ Clean burners and check regularly. condition and

    cleanliness. __ Recalibrate broiler thermostats.

    __ Repair leaky toilets, faucets and showerheads.

    __ Insulate waterv heaters and pipes.

    __ Install flow restrictors.

    __ Clean refrigerator coils, replace worn seals, defrost regularly.

    __ Maintain proper refrigerant charge in refrigerator systems. Check how equipment __ Cook during off-peak periods when possible.

    is being used. __ Cook food in large volumes, close together and cover for

     faster cook time.

    __ Minimize use of rangetops, griddles and broilers by using

     ovens, steamers, fryers, and microwave oven when possible.

    __ Load and unload ovens quickly to avoid heat loss.

    __ Use properly-sized pots with flat bottoms and tight-

     fitting lids.

    __ Shut off exhaust hoods when leaving.

    __ Run dishwasher with full loads

    __ Use chemical rinse instead of hot water for sanitation.

    __ Refrigerate items only when necessary: do not

     overload units.

    __ Label items so they are easy to find in refrigerator or cooler.

    __ Cool hot items on counter before refrigerating.

    __ Thaw frozen items in refrigerator.

ANALYSIS AUDIT

    A computerized Analysis Audit gathers detailed information about the systems and equipment used in your building. Your school’s energy data is run through a computer program and interrelated. The resulting analysis provides specific recommendations for energy-savings that include determining the most economical rate for your facility, equipment replacements or retrofits and building structural or design modifications.

    There is usually a fee for an Analysis Audit. In many cases, your local electric utility may provide this service for you. If your utility does not provide this service, there are independent resources available. Guidelines are provided later in this book to help you select a qualified, reputable firm to conduct a reliable energy audit for your school.

    For your reference, the following outlines discuss what

    to look for during an Analysis Audit. An overview of

    recommended follow-up actions is also included. The

    ANALYSIS AUDIT actual audit process is more detailed and provides more

    specific information than high-lighted here. • collects detailed energy-

     use information

     • analyzes system and

     equipment operations

     • must be performed by

     qualified energy auditor

     • implementation involves

     capital expense.

Check List

    __ Check building insulation values.

    __ Evaluate ability of system to meet heating/cooling requirements.

    __ Determine useful life of existing HVAC equipment.

    __ Calculate potential energy savings realized by switching to more efficient heating/cooling equipment. __ Assess possible applications for new technology - such as thermal energy storage, heat recovery or heat pipes.

    __ Compute impact of degree days.

    Action List

    __ Automate system operation.

    __ Install electronic ignition.

    __ Install/modify system zoning if necessary.

    __ Changeout heating/cooling equipment to more energy efficient source.

    __ Install ceiling fans.

    __ Recover and utilize waste heat.

    __ Install/upgrade building insulation.

    __ Install storm windows.

    __ Install reflective glass in windows with east, west or south exposure.

    RECOMMENDED SPACE TEMPERATURE IN FACILITIES

    Occupied Unoccupied

    Heating 68F 55F

    Cooling 78F

    Relative Humidity 55%

    APPROXIMATE AIR CONDITIONING LOAD FOR FACILITIES

    Facility Sq. Ft./Ton

    Educational 225-275

Check List

    __ Check illumination levels.

    __ Evaluate output efficiency of existing lamps and fixtures.

    __ Determine impact of lighting on heating and cooling load.

    __ Calculate potential energy savings realized by conversion to more energy efficient

     light sources.

    Action List

    __ Install local switches for area lighting.

    __ Use light finishes on ceilings, walls, floors, desks, furnishings. __ Changeout bulbs and lamps to more efficient light source. __ Lower ceiling height.

    __ Install skylights.

Check List

    __ Assess cooking loads, noting equipment use and amount of heat loss. __ Evaluate useful life of existing cooking equipment.

    __ Determine cooking exhaust air requirements, minimize and balance against supply. __ Evaluate the type and the remaining life of existing water heating system. __ Evaluate efficiency and useful life of existing refrigeration equipment. __ Evaluate motor performance and efficiency.

    __ Match compatibility of motor and load.

    __ Determine remaining useful service life of motors.

    __ Calculate potential energy savings realized by switching to higher efficiency motors __ Analyze potential savings from installing motor speed control devices.

Action List

    __ Replace conventional cooking equipment with high-efficiency cooking equipment when possible.

    __ Install custom-designed ventilation hood.

    __ Replace outside kitchen ventilation air with cafeteria air.

    __ Install heat pump water heaters.

    __ Install heat recovery water heating from refrigeration and HVAC. __ Increase hot water storage if warranted by electric demand charges. __ Select refrigerators that have the smallest doors for practical operation. __ Replace refrigeration system with higher efficiency model when possible. __ Downsize motors when possible.

    Finally, at a minimum, CHECK THESE OUT

    Here are the quickest and easiest ways to save energy, and they cost little or nothing. You may get half of the energy savings potential for your building by doing just these things:

1. Reduce heating and air conditioning during unoccupied hours.

    2. Lower your heating settings, raise your air conditioning settings during

    occupied hours.

    3. Turn off unneeded lights, remove unneeded lamps and disconnect their ballasts. 4. When replacing bulbs, use lower wattage or more efficient ones.

    5. Turn off heating and AC somewhat before the end of your operating hours. 6. Have your heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems periodically serviced

    and adjusted.

    7. Keep machines and equipment turned off when not needed.

    8. Check to be sure automatic controls are in good working condition and are

    properly set.

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