TYPES AND MEANINGS OF TRAFFIC SIGNS AND PAVEMENT MARKINGS
I. International Traffic Signs
Traffic Signs have important messages to convey. Their shapes and colors carry the same
A. Danger Warning Signs – are intended to warn road-users of a danger on the road and to inform
them of its nature.
Shape : Equilateral, Triangular with one side horizontal
Color : Red
CAUTION : School Zone
CAUTION : Road Narrows Ahead
II. DRIVER’S SIGNALS
The law requires every driver to signal to the other driver when planning to turn left or right, slow down or stop, to change from one lane to another, to leave the roadway or to move out from a parked position.
PROPER LANE – LEFT TURN
Vehicles making a left turn should be in the lane to the right of the center of the road. Vehicles making a left at an intersection should wait for a green light, move with caution into the intersection and when all on-coming traffic has cleared the intersection, complete the left turn.
PROPER LANE – RIGHT TURN
Drive in the lane at the right edge of the roadway before making turn, unless signs or markings indicate otherwise.
MAKING A STOP
Slow down and give the proper light or arm signal. Lightly tap pedal to slow down and signal with brake lights as a warning. Signals maybe given by the hand-and-arm position or by brake or signal lights. If vehicle is built so that hand-and-arm signals cannot be easily be seen, signal lights must be used. Signal your left or right turn during at least the last 100 feet before reaching the turning point, at highway speed it is best to signal at least five seconds before you change lanes. Check that you have safe clearance to the side, ahead and behind your vehicles, in addition to giving proper signals. Watch for signals from other drivers. Bicycle riders may give right turn signals with their right arm held straight out, pointing right.
Motorists should be aware of pedestrian signal indications. They
are used to control pedestrian traffic at intersections where there
is conflict between vehicle and pedestrian movement. While
these pedestrians are crossing the roadway, they have the right-of-
way over all vehicles.
A pedestrian facing the green walk signal may proceed across the roadway in the direction of the signal.
A pedestrian facing a steady flashing “Don’t Walk” signal should not start to cross the roadway.
If a pedestrian has entered the roadway on the “walk” signal and the “Don’t Walk” signal appears, he/she should proceed as quickly as possible to a safe area. While doing this, pedestrians still have the right of way over vehicles.
Also a pedestrian should not cross the roadway when vehicular traffic has flashing green signal, unless he/she is facing a “Walk” signal.
III. TRAFFIC SIGNALS
A red signal means you must bring your vehicle to a
stop at a clearly marked line, crosswalk or intersection.
Wait until the signal changes to green and the
intersection is clear before proceeding.
Unless a sign indicates otherwise, a right turn may be made on a red signal or from a one-way street to a one-way street provided the vehicle is first brought to a stop, and always subject to the right of way of pedestrians and other traffic.
FLASHING RED SIGNAL
A flashing red signal means bring your vehicle to a stop and proceed only when it is safe to do so.
FLASHING RED BEACON
The flashing red signal maybe an overhead beacon used in conjunction with a stop sign, or a beacon located directly above a stop sign.
A yellow signal indicates that the red signal is about to appear. Stop the vehicle if you can do so safely, otherwise you may proceed with caution.
FLASHING YELLOW SIGNAL
A flashing yellow signal means proceed with caution.
FLASHING YELLOW BEACON
When a flashing yellow signal is incorporated with an overhead beacon or a beacon located directly above a warning sign, it warns you to proceed with caution.
In some traffic control signal, a yellow arrow appears after a green arrow. When the yellow arrow appears, it means the red or solid green signal is about to appear. Therefore, stop the vehicle safely, if can be done otherwise, proceed with caution.
C A green signal means you proceed, provided you yield to pedestrian and other traffic lawfully using the intersection.
When making a turn on a green signal, remember that the pedestrian crossing on the green signal have the right-of-way. Be sure that you do not block the traffic.
FLASHING GREEN SIGNAL
When a flashing green signal or a left turn green arrow with a green signal is used, it permits the vehicle facing that signal to turn left, turn right or go through while opposing traffic faces a red signal.
A pedestrian must not proceed on a flashing green signal or green left turn arrow unless a walk signal is shown.
GREEN ARROW WITH OR WITHOUT A RED SIGNAL
When a green arrow is shown with or without a red signal, you may enter the intersection to move only in the direction shown by the arrow.
IV. PAVEMENT MARKINGS
Lines and symbols on roadways are used to warn and direct drivers and to control the flow of
WHITE LANE LINES
White lane Lines are white lines separating lanes of traffic moving in the same direction.
Crossing of solid white line requires special care and is discouraged.
A solid broken white line means passing to the left or right is allowed provided the way is
YELLOW LANE LINES
Yellow lane lines are dividing lines separating traffic traveling opposite directions.
A solid yellow line at the left lane means, it is not safe to pass.
A broken yellow line means passing is allowed if the way ahead and rear is clear.
Solid double yellow lines at the left lane mean it is unsafe to pass. Never cross it to pass
another vehicle. The line maybe crossed only to enter or leave a driveway or private road or to
make a permitted “U” turn.
Double-line with both broken and solid markings. A double line consisting of a single
broken yellow line parallel to a single solid yellow line is used to show a two-way road or
highway where passing is permitted on the side of the broken line, but not on the side of the solid
line. This type of marking is often seen on two and three-lane roadways. Traffic on the left side
of the solid line may cross this marking only when making a left turn.
CLIMBING AND PASSING LANES
This sign is usually installed two (2) kilometers in advance in an approaching location
where a climbing or passing lane has been provided and is marked on the highway.
Passing lanes allow slower vehicles to move into the right hand lane, permitting faster
vehicles to pass safely in the left lane.
When approaching the end of the climbing or passing lane, the driver in the right-hand
lane must merge with other traffic in the center lane in the same direction.
LEFT TURN CENTER LANES
Left turn center lane is the lane in the middle of a two-way street. The lane is bordered
on either side by two (2) painted lines: the inner broken line and the outside solid line. Use the
lane only when you want to turn left to leave a street, when turning left into the street or to start a
permitted “U” turn.
To turn left from street, signal for a left-turn and drive completely inside the lane. Don’t
stop at an angle with the rear of your vehicle blocking traffic. Turn only when it is safe. Look
for vehicles approaching in the same lane to make their turn turns.
To turn left from a side street or driveway, drive into the lane when it is safe then signal
your intent to move into the normal flow of traffic and make the move when it is safe.
You may drive across the left turn center lane. You must also use this lane to start a “U”
turn, if it is permitted and safe.
Although bike lanes are seldom in our highways, this is painted on the pavements by a
solid white line along either side of the street, four (4) feet or more from the curb. The line is
usually broken near the corner. The letters “BIKE LANE” are painted on the pavement at
Any person driving a motor vehicle on a highway shall drive the same at careful and
prudent speed, not greater nor less than what is reasonable and proper, having due regard for the
traffic, the width of the highway and any other condition then and there existing, and no person
shall drive any motor vehicle upon a highway at such speed as to endanger the life, limb and
property of any person, nor at a speed greater than will permit him to bring the vehicle to stop
within the assured clear distance ahead.
PRESCRIBED RATE OF SPEED AS PER SECTION 35 OF REPUBLIC ACT 4136 KNOWN AS THE
LAND TRANSPORTATION & TRAFFIC CODE:
Maximum Passenger Cars Motor Trucks
Allowable Speed & Motorcycles & Buses
On open country roads with no “Blind 80 km./hour 50 km/hours
Corners” not closely bordered by
On “Through Streets” or Boulevards, clear 40 km/hour 30 km./hour
of traffic with no “Blind Corners”, when so
On city and municipal streets with light traffic, 30 km./hour 30 km/hour
When not designated “Through Streets”.
Through crowded streets approaching 30 km./hour 20 km./hours
Intersections at “Blind Corners”, passing
School zones, passing other vehicles which
Are stationary or for similar dangerous
THE HEREIN PRESCRIBED RATE OF SPEED SHALL NOT APPLY TO THE FOLLOWING:
1. A physician or his driver when the former responds to emergency calls.
2. The driver of a hospital ambulance on the way to and from the place of accident or other emergency.
3. Any driver bringing a wounded or sick person for emergency treatment to a hospital, clinic or any
4. The driver of a motor vehicle belonging to the armed forces while in use for official purposes in times of
riot, insurrection or invasion.
5. The driver of a vehicle, when he or his passengers are in pursuit of a criminal.
6. A law-enforcement officer who is trying to overtake a violator of traffic laws.
7. The driver officially operating a motor vehicle of any fire department provided that exemption shall not
construed to allow useless or unnecessary fast driving of drivers aforementioned.
KEEP DISTANCE FROM OTHER VEHICLES – LEAVE YOURSELF A SPACE
Be sure there is sufficient space for your vehicle to fit into the traffic flow. Do not follow other vehicles too easily.
Avoid tail-gaiting. Staying too close to a vehicle leaves no room for maneuvering. It limits you to braking when things begin to stack up in the lane ahead.
Maintain a car length distance when following a car. This will give you adequate space, time to react and to stop safely if necessary.
Give motorcycles the same distance you would give to any other vehicles. Motorcycles are entitled to the same full length, width as all other vehicles on the road.
RIGHT OF WAY
FIRST TIME VEHICLE RULE
At all intersections without “stop” or “yield” signs, slow down and prepare to stop. Yield to vehicles
already in the intersection or about to enter it.
SAME TIME VEHICLE RULE
At all intersections without “stop” or “yield” signs (or with stops in all directions), yield to the vehicle on your right if it has reached the intersection of same time as your vehicle.
Stop at any limit line or cross walk. Yield to all
approaching vehicles on the thought street, go only when it is safe
for you to cross. Approaching vehicles should slow down and
allow you to get across safely.
Signal left turn and yield to approaching traffic until it is
completely safe to finish the turn.
Vehicles around the rotunda have the right-of –way over vehicles
which are just about to enter.
When entering a highway from a driveway, yield the right-of-way to traffic on the highway. Never insist on taking the right-of-way if other drivers are not following the rules, let then have the right-of-way even if it belongs to you to prevent possible accidents, however, do not always insist on others going ahead of you, the slowing and stopping may delay the flow of traffic.
The law places the responsibility on the driver of the passing car. If the driver makes mistakes in passing, the driver is held liable.
Three important points to remember in passing:
1. It is illegal to speed up when being passed. Continue at the same speed, or reduce your speed.
2. Help other driver to pass safely. Move to the right side of your lane to give the other driver more room
and a better view ahead.
3. Show the passing driver the same courtesy that you would expect from other drivers.
WHEN NOT TO PASS – ESPECIALLY ON ROADS MARKED BY SIGNS
1. At no-passing zone marked by signs or by solid yellow line-lanes or double-solid yellow lines which
indicate no passing.
2. On blind-curves where you would not be able to see oncoming cars. Always stay in your own lane on
any curve, out of the way of oncoming traffic.
3. On going up a hill, passing is not allowed from 700 to 1,000 feet from the top of a hill.
4. At intersection or railroad crossings-where other vehicles or pedestrians may suddenly appear or unless
such intersection is controlled by traffic signal.
5. Near a bridge or underpass that may cut-off a road, shoulder. You or the car passed might need to use
the shoulder road in case emergency arises.
IN SOME INSTANCES WHERE PASSING IS NOT SAFE SUCH AS:
1. When there is a long line of cars ahead.
2. When you intend to turn or stop very soon.
3. When an incoming car is too close.
4. When the car ahead is going at or near the speed limit. Speed limit is still applied when passing.
5. When sight distance ahead is limited.
6. When the maneuver would have to be completed in a no-passing zone such as a hill, cure or
Passing on the right is permitted only –
- when overtaking another vehicle making or about to make a left turn or signaling intent to make a
- On streets and highways marked for multi-lanes and,
- On one-way traffic streets.
1. Reduce speed in anticipation of making a turn.
2. Look behind and on both sides to see where other vehicles maybe before changing lanes, then signal
3. Move into the proper lane as soon as possible. The faster the traffic is moving, the sooner it is to
reach for the proper lane for making a turn.
Give a signal before making turns, changing lanes or moving right or left to warn motorist about the
intention of getting the right position on the road.
In turning, obey traffic signs and signals and yield the right-of-way to pedestrians and vehicles in the
Turn into the right-hand lane when entering a roadway. Check traffic approaching from the left. Follow the general curve of the curb while making the right turn. Stay as close as possible to the curb.
Point the wheels straight ahead until actually starting to turn. Complete the turn into any lane that is lawfully open. Look behind for traffic and check for blind spot. When the way is clear, move into the left hand lane keeping immediately to the right of the centerline. Make left from right of the centerline. Make left from right of point where the centerline meets the intersection Street.
LEFT TURN FROM ONE-WAY STREET TO TWO-WAY STREET
Signal your intention to turn left. Look behind for traffic when the way is clear. Move into the left hand lane keeping immediately to the right of the center line. Look ahead to the rear, to the left and right before starting to make your turn.
Enter the intersection one-way street into the left-hand lane. If the lane in the one-way street are unmarked, keep immediately to the right or the left curb or edge of the roadway.
LEFT TURN FROM ONE-WAY STREET TO ONE-WAY STREET
Signal intention to turn left. Move the left side of the one-way street when the way is clear. Look ahead, to the right and left before starting to make a turn. Enter the intersecting one-way street into the left hand lane. If the lanes are unmarked, keep immediately to the edge of the roadway.
LEFT-TURN FROM ONE WAY STREET TO ONE-WAY STREET ON RED SIGNAL
A left turn may be made from a one-way street into a one-way street on a red signal, provided the vehicle is first brought to full-stop, and subject always to the right-of –way of pedestrians and other traffic.
U-turns are hazardous and are prohibited in some areas. When doing “U” turns, start turning from the extreme right side of the roadway. Check for traffic in both directions and make the proper turn signal. When the way is clear, turn the steering wheel sharply to the left while moving slowly forward. When the wheels are turned completely left, continue driving forward slowly until close to the left curb or edge or roadways.
After having turned the wheels completely on the right side, continue backing up slowly until close to the opposite curb. Repeat these maneuvers until turn is completed.
A driver of a motor vehicle is considered stopped when passengers and cargoes were loaded and unloaded for about ten (10) minutes or more.
A driver of a motor vehicle is considered parked after a full stop on the shoulder of the road or in a parking lot, leaving the vehicle with the engine and ignition stopped and hand brake on.
PLACE WHERE PARKING IS PROHIBITED
1. Parking is prohibited on a highway in such a manner as to obstruct a sidewalk, a crosswalk, an entrance
to the highway to or from a private road or lane, on entrance to the highway to or from a private road or
lane, on entrance-way for vehicles to pass between the highway and land adjoining the highway.
2. Within 3 meters of a point at the edge of a roadway.
3. Within 4 meters nearest a fire hydrant.
4. On or within 100 meters of a bridge, over or under or across the highway.
5. Within 10 meters of the nearest rail of railway crossing.
6. In any area where signs prohibiting parking are displayed.
7. Within an intersection on a highway or if the intersection is controlled by a traffic signal.
8. Within 6 meters of a point at the edge of the roadway and nearest to a public entrance to a hotel, theater
or public hall while open to the public.
9. On all places where “no parking” signs are posted.
PARKING ON HILLS
When car is parked on a hill, take precautions to make sure it stays there. A car not properly parked on a hill could roll down into the traffic.
PARKING HEADED UPHILL
When parking headed up hill, turn front wheels from the curb and let your vehicle roll back few inches until the rear of one front wheel gently touches the curb. Then set the parking brake. If there is no curb, turn the wheels toward the side of the road so the car will not roll away from the center of the road if the brakes fail.
PARKING HEADED DOWNHILL
When parking headed downhill, turn front wheels into the curb or toward the side of the road. When parking on a sloping driveway, turn the wheels so that the car will not roll into the street if the brakes fail. Always set the parking brakes. Leaves the vehicle in gear.
Success in backing a car depends on correct driving posture, seeing, steering and speed control. THINGS TO CONSIDER IN BACKING A CAR
1. When backing around a corner to the right or out from a driveway, check first for traffic and pedestrian.
2. Turn body to the right and put right arm over the back of the seat. Look at the back window as well as
the rear and front of the vehicle.
3. While backing stay at the right side as much as possible.
4. During all maneuvers make quick traffic checks to the frond sides