Deng Xiaoping's concept of socialist market economy and culture-based Analysis
〔 Papers Words Deng Xiaoping's market economy legal system, culture, ethical culture and cultural values
〔 Abstract〕 emergence and development of a market economy need
to adapt to a certain degree of cultural foundation, the need for a culture of start-up and cooperation. From the cultural perspective, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the inherent values, the rule of law and ethics awareness etc. The establishment of the socialist market economy and
development of a deep cultural foundation in China from a planned economy to a market economy in the process of Deng Xiaoping has conducted some creative elaboration.
Since the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Party, under the
guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, China's economic reform goal is to establish and perfect the socialist market economic system. Meanwhile, Deng Xiaoping Theory as the dominant ideology, there is no doubt that people's cultural values of its impact is enormous. From the cultural perspective, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the inherent values, the rule of law and ethics awareness etc. The establishment of the socialist market economy and development of a deep cultural foundation in China from a
planned economy to a market economy, the process of transition Deng Xiaoping has conducted some creative elaboration. Study of Deng Xiaoping's concept of socialist market economic and cultural foundation, will help us from another dimension to understand and grasp the Deng Xiaoping Theory and the cause of socialist construction of China's guiding significance.
First, the value of the socialist market economy and cultural foundation
Deng Xiaoping's concept of socialist market economy is the core
value of culture, collectivism, and on this basis, the main contents in the following aspects: first, the idea of emancipating the mind, seek truth from facts and realize the work of center of gravity. A person, an enterprise, a country, a nation can not be rigid if the thought
consciously to solve the problem, we can not take the initiative and creativity to engage in a variety of economic activities. Deng Xiaoping said: 'there are 10 next year, Lin Biao and the' Gang of Four 'spiritual shackles shackled people's minds, limiting people's wisdom and creativity into full play. Now, we advocate the emancipation of the mind, to reiterate the Chairman Mao Zedong put forward the 'hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools contend' principle aim is to create conditions for
the mobilization of popular enthusiasm, the Chinese people's wisdom into full play. '〔 1〕 establishment of a socialist market economic system, the key lies in the fact that people seek truth from facts is that it is recognized that a market economy is to achieve effective allocation of
resources, the best way to promote development of productive forces. Deng Xiaoping, to emancipate the mind, seek truth from facts, everything from reality, and eventually implement the standard starting point in terms of
productivity, the implementation of socialist modernization, thus established the building of socialism with Chinese characteristics, value-
oriented era. For this transformation, with Hegel's words to describe it is appropriate: This is a magnificent sunrise, and all of the organisms can be thought to celebrate the arrival of this era.
Second, to promote independent personality, creativity and economic democracy. Market economy, stressed that enterprises should make their own decisions, in the full realization of the principle of equal exchange of personal values, to encourage individuals and enterprises in economic activities in the freedom of choice and inventions in order to achieve the best interests of the pursuit. As early as 1978, for a highly
centralized planned economy, Deng Xiaoping vigorously promoted economic democracy. He pointed out: 'At present the most pressing is to expand the factories and mines the autonomy of enterprises and production teams so that each factory and production team to do everything possible to play a proactive creative spirit. ... ... The country hundreds of thousands of enterprises, production teams are millions of brains, able to increase the number of wealth, ah! '〔 2〕 In addition, Deng Xiaoping also believes
that:' enterprises to lower levels, separating the economic reform, but also the political system reform. '〔 3〕 in our view, this is also a
change of values. Recognized as the real existence of personal self-
interest entities to recognize the lawful private property of self-
recognition of the freedom of every citizen has equal rights, which is the practice of contemporary economic life, the basic premise, at present our country's socialist market economy is through forward to this train of
Third, advocacy and capacity-based and fair sense of competition.
The market economy is the core of the establishment of a competitive mechanism, competition must be fair competition, is under the same
conditions of competition. In this case, the size of human capacity is especially important. In the reform and opening up, Deng Xiaoping put great emphasis on cultivating a strong criticism of the real-life
phenomenon of seniority, pointing out that according to economic laws, we
need a large number of experts, knowledgeable people. 'We say that capitalist society is not good, but it was found that the use of human resources is a very bold. It has one characteristic, not seniority, any qualified person the use, and think that this is taken for granted. In this respect, our selection of cadres of the system is backward. Seniority is a force of habit, is a backward force of habit. '〔 4〕 market economy
and free competition environment, gives the ability to play, providing the
best venue for talent is the market economy, the most valuable resource. Deng Xiaoping's 'respecting knowledge and talented people' exposition, regardless of past, present and future, are flashing with the splendor of truth. His affirmation of human capacity, emphasizing the ability to select according to talents, and help us to break the pot, seniority-based
phenomenon, for our country through science and education, this strategy put forward, especially for China's socialist market economy, the process
of competency-based laid the foundation for the establishment of values.
Fourth, the equal emphasis on justice and interests, taking into account efficiency and equity. Fundamentally speaking, the market economy
the main goal is to maximize the benefits of the pursuit, therefore, must recognize the interests of the legal status of individuals and enterprises to encourage the rational pursuit of interest. However, profit-
maximization also leads to some negative impact in the process of building
a socialist market economy, we must carry forward the fine tradition of national culture, justice and interests equal emphasis, as far as possible to eliminate the market economy have brought about the negative impact. Also before the Third Plenum of the Eleventh Party, Deng Xiaoping pointed out: 'do not speak who work hard and do not attach importance to material interests, for a small number of advanced elements can, for the masses not, a period of time can be long-term not work. '〔 5〕 Since then, he
pointed out: in economic policy, I think we should allow some areas and enterprises, as part of the workers and peasants, due to hard work while the income of the first big success with more of life before better. According to Deng Xiaoping's thought, the Sixth Plenary Session of the CPC 12 via the 'CPC Central Committee on the guiding principles of socialist spiritual civilization Resolution' states: Under such historical conditions, it should surely the resulting distribution of people reasonable differences, while encouraging people to carry forward the national interests, collective interests, individual interests of combining the spirit of socialist collectivism, carry forward the overall interest of honesty and trustworthiness, mutual love, the spirit of
helping the poor. Socialist morality is to be opposed to all the selfish, Sungongfeisi, money first, abuse of power, fraud, extortion, thoughts and actions, but by no means negate the distribution according to work and the commodity economy, must not egalitarian as a code of ethics of our society. In the process of building a socialist market economy, we only insist on justice benefit equally important values, in order to achieve economic growth and social equity, the ultimate goal of achieving common
Second, the socialist market economy, legal system and cultural foundation
In modern times the historical development of the market economy proved a more mature market economy, which inevitably calls and have a relatively complete legal system. The operation of market economic activities, market competition and maintain market order, the state's macro regulation and control of economic activity, require the guidance and regulation of legal norms in international economic exchanges is also
needed in accordance with international practice and international economic law rules. Market economy, by its very nature is an economy ruled by law. Therefore, the market economy first requires people to have a rights-based, equality and autonomy, openness and transparency of the legal concepts, there is no such concept, there can be no equality before the law, market economy will not be able to develop a sound.
In China from a planned economy to a market economy in the process
of the importance of building the rule of law of Deng Xiaoping made a lot of discussion. He repeatedly described the relationship between democracy and the rule of law, pointing out that 'socialist democracy and socialist legal system can not be divided' 〔 6〕 , is complementary with the
socialist legal system, 'in order to protect the people's democracy, we must strengthen the rule of law. The need to institutionalize democracy, the law of '〔 7〕 , democracy and the rule of law will be organically combine; clearly put forward the building of the rule of law's guideline
that' laws are followed, law must be strictly enforced, and illegal will study '〔 8〕 , from the legislative, judicial, law enforcement,
compliance and other links, pointed out the direction for the legal
system; repeatedly stressed on the one hand building, on the one hand the rule of law, clarifying the rule of law in the socialist modernization drive in the strategic position of ; profoundly revealed the party's leadership and the relationship between the legal construction that 'the party must manage the issue of discipline within the party, the legal scope of the management of state and government should be' 〔 9〕 , the
party must be within the scope of the Constitution and laws, etc. .
In addition, Deng Xiaoping said that in establishing and developing the socialist market economy, we must not only have a sound legal system, but also in the formation of self-conscious members of
society the concept of rights and obligations. The authority of the
Constitution and laws require the maintenance of society as a whole. Our laws reflect the will of the people and interests, therefore, improve the socialist legal system and not force people to accept the law, but rather a conscious use by the vast majority of citizens, abide by and uphold the law process. Since China is a very long feudal history, a country deeply rooted in the concept of the rule of man, to enhance citizen awareness of the law is a very difficult task. People can consciously use, abide by and
uphold the law, to a large extent with their legal awareness has a direct relationship. In a society where the rule of law concept, it is impossible for the rule of law economy.
In 1980, China's legislative work has just started a large scale
when, Deng Xiaoping pointed out: 'talk about the rule of law, the real everyone knows the law, so that more and more people do not break the law, but also to actively uphold the law. '〔 10〕 With the development of the
legal system, he pointed out that strengthening the rule of law is
important to education, the fundamental issue is educating people. According to Deng Xiaoping's thinking, Comrade Jiang Zemin made a further elaboration, he said: improve legal education, to enhance the legal
awareness of all citizens and legal concepts are the foundation for building a socialist legal system works, but also to strengthen the building of socialist spiritual civilization important aspect of strengthening the socialist legal system must also start from two aspects,
it is necessary to strengthen its legislative work, constantly improving and perfecting the legal system; and also to strengthen legal education, and constantly improve the cadres and the masses of law-abiding, law-based
quality and conscientious sex. And neither is dispensable, at any time can be neglected.
In short, under the guidance of Deng Xiaoping's thoughts on legal system, China has gradually changed over the past 30 years, a very incomplete state law, established in line with their national conditions,
including the Constitution as the core of civil law, criminal law, economic law, administrative law, procedural law, etc. including the legal system, and basically formed the legal basis for the situation, but the scope of the law is still expanding at all levels of positive social and economic life of the infiltration of the fundamental rights of citizens are guaranteed in accordance with law to safeguard their rights and interests of citizens awareness has also been greatly enhanced. All of the
socialist market economy and a real sense of the rule of law has laid a solid economic basis for the rule of law culture.
Third, the socialist market economy, the moral and cultural foundation
In our country to establish and perfect the socialist market
economic system, which means a profound change in social thought. Rule of law and market economy is the economy, but also moral economy. Virtue is a kind of a market economy norms and conservation mechanisms, it is based on
it provides a code of conduct to carry out various economic activities with a view to reduce transaction costs. Can be said that under the conditions of market economy, the economic order is a legal and moral norms and constraints of the dual realization. Reposted elsewhere in the
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Morality in the role of building a market economy, chiefly in recognition of human values and freedom of development, and promote honest and trustworthy, abide by the law, stressing moral character, behavior
noble, hard-working and frugal, carry forward the humanitarian spirit. However, in China's economic system transition process, once faced with the moral construction of landslide phenomena, resulting in a number of negative effects, such as the material desires of (money worship and hedonism), cold-based (nothing about them and interpersonal indifferent), agitation of (profit-oriented and unscrupulous), but not the
responsibility of (just want to profit rather than assume their
responsibility), hypocritical (Personality hypocrisy and shoddy products), etc., which are clearly related to the performance required by the socialist market economy deviates from the ethical culture.
China's reform and opening up, Deng Xiaoping was keenly aware of
this problem. It is in this context, he started on many occasions discussed the issue of socialist spiritual civilization, pointing out that 'so-called spiritual, not only refers to education, science, culture (which is absolutely necessary), but also refers to the communist ideas, ideals, beliefs, ethics, discipline, revolutionary stand and principles of interpersonal comradely relations, and so on. '〔 11〕 at the same time,
he repeated from the perspective of spiritual civilization, emphasizing
the moral and cultural construction of the socialist market economic development role. First of all, in socialist China, we must uphold the highest ethical communist morality. Deng Xiaoping once said with emotion: only material conditions, our revolution and construction may not be
triumphant. The past, our party, no matter how weak, whatever the difficulties, there have been a powerful fighting force, because we have a Marxist and communist beliefs. Development of the socialist market economy, we should also adhere to communist morality and beliefs, or economic development will encounter difficulties, loss of direction.
Second, adhere to the principle of collective morality, the correct handling of state, collective and the individual relationships
between the three. Deng Xiaoping said: 'We advocate the distribution according to work, recognition of material benefits, is to fight all the material interests of the people. Everyone should have a certain amount of material interests him, but this is by no means everyone set aside to
promote the state, collectives and others dedicated to the struggle for their own material interests, is by no means advocating everyone to 'money' look. If so, what difference between socialism and capitalism? We
have never argued that in a socialist society, the state, collective and individual interests, are fundamentally the same, if there are contradictions, and personal interests should be subordinated to national
and collective interests. '〔 12〕
However, in the market economy, society, is impossible to spontaneously produce the principle of collective morality. The market economy is a double-edged sword, it give full play to the initiative and creativity have a positive effect, but also self-serving tendencies, if
left unchecked, may become the principle of collective morality as opposed to force. If you abandon the principle of collective morality, so that individualism, money worship, hedonism, the prevalence of the socialist market economic system can not be established, the goal of common
prosperity ultimately impossible. In this regard, Deng Xiaoping also said it can not strengthen the spiritual civilization construction and the building of material civilization would be undermined, detours, 'if morals
decline, what is the meaning of economic success? Deterioration in the other hand, in turn, affect the entire economic deterioration, development will continue to form corruption, theft, bribery, rampant world. '〔 13〕
Therefore, in establishing a socialist market economic system, we must
firmly uphold the principle of collective morality, adhere to both hands with both hands.
Again, training with 'four' new. The principle of collective morality is ultimately rely on people to implement, and train with 'four'
new people, is the fundamental task of socialist spiritual civilization. Deng Xiaoping pointed out: 'building a socialist spiritual civilization, the most fundamental is to make the majority of the people with communist ideals, morality, culture, and discipline. '〔 14〕 He believes that'
four 'in addition to morality, culture, but also should have the ideals and discipline. Under the conditions of the socialist market economy, there are specific objectives of the ideal is to strive to achieve common
prosperity, the highest goal is to realize communism; a discipline is truly safeguard and implement the Party and state policies, according to market economy rules, because the market economy, is also a rule the economic, financial discipline. In 1996, the Sixth Plenary Session of the
CPC 14 via the 'CPC Central Committee on strengthening the building of socialist spiritual civilization, a number of important resolutions on the question,' Deng Xiaoping's thinking on the construction of spiritual
civilization have been summarized and development of China's socialist market economy the construction of moral compass.
To sum up, reform and opening up, Deng Xiaoping as China's socialist market economic system, the establishment of enormous efforts,
and made a cultural carefully prepared. The reason why China did not happen in other countries in the social transformation occurred in chaos and instability, and it is Deng Xiaoping's socialist market economy, inseparable from the cultural foundation laid, it is Deng Xiaoping's
vision of the Department, as time goes on, the the depth of the theory will be more to show.
〔 1〕 〔 2〕 〔 4〕 〔 5〕 〔 6〕 〔 7〕 〔 8〕 〔 10〕
〔 11〕 〔 12〕 Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping: the first two volumes
〔 M〕 . Beijing: People's Publishing House, 1994. 232 -- 233,146, 225,
146, 359, 146, 147, 254, 367, 337.
〔 3〕 〔 9〕 〔 13〕 〔 14〕 Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping:
Volume 3 〔 M〕 . Beijing: People's Publishing House, 1993. 192, 163, 154,
28. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://www .