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Hi Peter,

By Bertha Martin,2014-12-28 11:03
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Hi Peter,

Topic plan 2a Efficiency

    Activity Specification objectives S/M/Type Reference Time

    P/Hw (mins)

     1 All kinds of energy Review of KS3 work: Using energy efficiently S Book: read/answer Phys 2.0, Q111 10 Activity notes

     2 Does energy get used HSW 13.2: Describe the intended energy transfers/transformations and the main S/M Book: read/answer Phys 2.1, Q19 30 up? energy wastages that occur with a range of devices. Activity notes Energy becomes increasingly spread out and … more difficult to use …

     3 What happens to wasted HSW 10.6: Presenting data S e-learning e-phys 6/15 20 energy?

     4 How is energy wasted? HSW 13.2: Describe the intended energy transfers/transformations and the main S/Hw Book: read/answer, Phys 2.2, Q17, 1015

    energy wastages that occur with a range of devices. cloze WYNTR

    Energy which is not transferred/transformed in a useful way is ‘wasted’. Activity notes

     5 Everyday energy HSW 13.2: Describe the intended energy transfers/transformations and the main M Individual activity Activity notes 10 changes energy wastages that occur with a range of devices.

     6 Energy circus HSW 13.2: Describe the intended energy transfers/transformations and the main M Practical Activity notes 25

    energy wastages that occur with a range of devices.

     7 Keeping track of energy When energy is transferred and/or transformed only part of it may be usefully M Book: read/answer, Phys 2.4, Q18, 30

    transferred/transformed. cloze WYNTR

    Both wasted energy and the energy which is usefully transferred/transformed … Activity notes

     8 Effective appliances HSW 13.2: Evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of methods used to M Book: read/answer Phys 2.2, Q89 15

    reduce energy consumption. Planning, practical Activity notes

    HSW 10.4: Designing and investigation Fair test

     9 Correcting mistakes Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only be transformed from one form P Correcting statements Activity 9 15 to another form.

    Energy becomes increasingly spread out and … more difficult to use …

    10 Topic map for energy HSW 13.2: Describe the intended energy transfers/transformations and the main P Topic map Activity 10 1520 transfers energy wastages that occur with a range of devices.

    11 Increasing efficiency HSW 13.2: Evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of methods used to P Group activity Activity notes 20

    reduce energy consumption.

    12 Sankey diagrams HSW 10.6: Presenting data P Data handling Activity 12 2025 13 Does energy get used Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only be transformed from one form P Book: cloze Phys 2.1, WYNTR 5 up? to another form.

    Energy becomes increasingly spread out and … more difficult to use …

    14 My energy transfers HSW 13.2: Describe the intended energy transfers/transformations and the main Hw Questions Activity 14 2025

    energy wastages that occur with a range of devices.

    18 SF Science original material ? Cambridge-Hitachi 2006 Physics

Activity notes 2a Efficiency

    8 Effective appliances 1 All kinds of energy Demonstrate wasted energy using a lamp with no shade. Explain what is meant by energy and energy sources.

    Discuss changes to make it more effective at lighting a Brainstorm the main sources of energy. Discuss answers to

    small area, and how you could evaluate the changes. the class book questions.

    Ask students to design a fair test to find out the most

    effective lampshade. 2 Does energy get used up?

    Ask students to identify energy transfers involving each

    11 Increasing efficiency energy type. Show these as flow diagrams.

    In small groups, one person chooses an appliance (e.g ; Try Phys 2.1, questions 1 and 2.

    washing machine). Another person suggests the main form Ask students to think of unwanted energy transfers and add

    of wasted energy (e.g. noise and vibration) and the third these to their flow charts.

    person suggests a way to reduce the energy loss (e.g. wedge ; Try questions 36.

    the machine in firmly to stop movement). Explain why we always need an energy source.

    The group should agree on the answers, write these down ; Try questions 79.

    and do several examples.

    The answers can be discussed in a whole-class setting. 4 How is energy wasted?

    Ask students to draw flowcharts for energy transfers in the

    Answers to class book questions pictures in Phys 2.2, parts 13, showing the main and the

    unwanted energy transfers. Make one suggestion to reduce 2.0 (KS3) All kinds of energy unwanted energy transfer for each picture. Discuss answers 1 Plants trap the energy of sunlight with their green for questions 27. Students could do written answers for leaves. They store the energy in chemicals as they homework. grow.

    5 Everyday energy changes 2 Animals eat plants; they use it as food for movement, Give out photographs and magazine pictures or show a growth and other body functions. video clip of a typical domestic scene, e.g. inside a house or 3 Coal, gas and oil are fossil fuels. These fuels contain shop. Each picture should include several appliances. energy stored in the bodies of plants and animals Students should identify energy transfers, both wanted and millions of years ago. unwanted.

     4 Energy from the Sun heats the ground. Hot air rises. 6 Energy circus Cool air takes its place. This is wind. Students observe energy transfers using a range of

     5 Water trapped behind a dam stores some of the energy equipment. They should identify the main form of input

    that makes rain clouds form. energy, as well as identifying different outputs as wanted or unwanted. Beware if you use a battery, students may want 6 A surfer uses wave energy to produce motion. to identify the energy input as chemical or electrical.

     7 We can use the radioactive substance uranium as a Decide in advance which answer is acceptable (weaker

    nuclear fuel. Energy taken from hot rocks is called groups may struggle with a two-stage transfer).

    geothermal energy. The pull of the Moon’s gravity is

    the main cause of the tides. Experiment Input Output energy 19 energy 8 Wanted Unwanted Machine/device Main form of energy produced energy energy generator electrical energy Dropped ball engine kinetic (movement) energy loudspeaker sound energy Suggested equipment: torch, candle, motor, balloon (blow cooker thermal (heat) energy up and release), Bunsen burner, hairdryer, radio, kettle, toy LED light energy car on ramp, pull-back toy car, solar-cell calculator, radio, toaster, mass on a spring, etc.

     9 The water trapped behind a dam has gravitational 7 Keeping track of energy potential energy. A squashed spring has elastic Introduce Sankey diagrams as a way of showing energy potential energy. losses as percentages. Then ask students to answer the 10 Chemical energy. questions on Phys 2.4.

    11 Chemical energy, wind energy. SF Science original material ? Cambridge-Hitachi 2006 Physics

Activity notes 2a Efficiency

2.1 Does energy get used up? b Using an unshaded bulb which sends out light in all

    1 1. KINETIC 2. ELECTRICAL 3. SOUND directions. 4. LIGHT 5. HEAT

    2.4 Keeping track of energy

    2 chemical thermal kinetic 1 The energy put into the television set is 100% energy in energy (motion) electricity. The useful energy transferred is 40% as ? ? fuel in steam energy in light and 10% as sound. There is 50% wasted as flywheel thermal energy. 2 a 3 Energy put in Useful forms of Other forms of energy given out energy given out (waste energy) electrical light and sound heat (thermal energy)

     4 Slots in the top let out waste heat by convection.

     b 5 To thermal energy in the brakes as it slows down.

    6 It finally spreads out as thermal energy, which will

    make the theatre a little bit warmer.

     7 All the energy we use eventually spreads out as thermal energy. It is impossible to reuse thermal energy once it has spread out in the surroundings. 8 Because energy cannot be created. 3 It is spread out and wasted as heat.

    9 Gas (a source of chemical energy) is used for heating 4

    and cooking.

    2.2 How is energy wasted?

    1 On the bike: wheel bearings, crankshaft (bottom bracket), rear sprocket, chain. On the skateboard:

    5 wheel bearings. (There is also friction as the

    bike/skateboard and riders move through the air. This Machine Energy Transferred energy (J)

    is air resistance or drag.) in (J) Thermal Movement Sound

    energy 2 By lubricating the moving parts (cuts down friction). electric 100 5 90 5 Streamlining reduces air resistance. motor 3 Daily saving = 8p 2p = 6p diesel 100 45 40 15 4 Annual saving = 365 × 6p = ?21.90 engine

    petrol 100 65 25 10 5 ?6.90 more.

    engine 20 6 Metal has a higher conductivity than plastic. More steam 100 73 7 20 energy will therefore be transferred from the water to engine the surroundings by conduction in the old design.

    6 7 Because the surface area of water through which

    energy can be lost is smaller.

    8 The microwave oven transfers electrical energy as radiation that heats the food. It also transfers some

     energy as sound, light and movement. But it does not

    waste much energy because only the food gets heated 7 Petrol engine. up. The electric oven transfers electrical energy only

    8 To heat up the car (warm air is blown into the car as thermal energy. But lots of thermal energy gets lost

    using a fan). by being conducted, radiated and convected through

     the sides and top. So the microwave oven is more

    efficient than the ordinary electric oven.

    9 a Using a lampshade with white/shiny surfaces

    which reflect light in one direction.

    SF Science original material ? Cambridge-Hitachi 2006 Physics

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