spiritual leadership

By Lucille Gomez,2014-07-15 14:13
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spiritual leadership

    Effective motivation in workshop


    The motivation of the leaders is an important skill to motivate the positivity and creativity of the employees. Besides, the core of the leadership is the motivation. Currently, the employees’ working performance is not only determined by the

    working abilities, but also is determined by the extent of the motivation. From the view of the leadership, the employees’ behaviors are motivated by the leaders’ motivation to some extent(Richard L. Daft& Patricia G. Lane, 2007). Taking advantage of the motivation in leadership has become an important symbol to evaluate the leaders’ performance. Therefore, it is necessary for the leaders to grasp an effective motivation method. In this essay, firstly it will explain spiritual leadership in employees’ motivation. Following this, it will explain the motivation art from the angle of Marslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory. Finally it will explain the motivation by

    applying Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory.

    Spiritual leadership in employees’ motivation in workshop

    The content of the spirituality in the workplace is about strengthening community in the workplace and people consider such connectedness as a critical resource for business in the 21st century by both academics (Gull and Doh, 2004) and management practitioners. Spiritual leadership plays a major part in building the environment and culture for spirituality in workshop. Spiritual leadership can be showed not only in practice but also by its impact on both employees and the organization. In different working conditions, the capabilities of the employees are different. To a great extent, the employees’ performance is determined by the

    motivation(Richard C. Maddock& Richard L. Fulton, 1998). In the workshop, there is a phenomenon that an employee with great abilities sometimes has poor working performance while those with normal abilities usually have better working performance. This has great relationship with the leaders’ motivation. If the leaders have correctly applied the motivation method, there will be surprised result in the employees’ performance. It is recommended that the leaders in the organization

    should grasp the spiritual leadership philosophy to express, communicate, and

    implement truly meaningful and authentic core values(Semercioz, F& Ayranci, E. , 2011). From the perspective of the spiritual leadership, it is more likely for the organizational executives to develop values that attach importance on both the mental and emotional aspects of people and thereby explore the employees’ inner needs,

    energy, and commitment. In the opinion of Fry (2003), what the spiritual leadership has done is to explore the fundamental needs of both leaders and employees for spiritual survival for the purpose of making their becoming more organizationally productive and committed. In some cases, the employees may lack enough confidence in their abilities and could not clearly know and evaluate themselves, especially their abilities. The employees usually could not know their advantages and disadvantages as well as the possibilities for realizing their aims. Therefore, the spiritual leadership as an effective motivation method can be taken good advantage to motivate the employees in increasing the working efficiency, because the employees need the respect and belief from the leaders, which means that the organization executives will supply opportunities and necessary assistance to their individual development. This in spirit will be a suggestion for the employees to work hard. Hence, the leaders should positively assist the employees to build self-confidence and make them see the hope. When the employees have self-confidence, energy and good attitude, they will make great commitment to the company. Besides, the spiritual leadership can be used as an effective motivation method because it can play an effective role in promoting the organizational commitment, productivity, as well as sales growth. However, there should be a precondition that the employees have the need and desire to do something they can devote themselves to, something the employees consider it is worthy with their best efforts. In the opinion of Fry (2003), spiritual leadership includes values, behaviors and attitudes that play a major role in intrinsically motivating the employees so that they could form a sense of spiritual survival by calling and membership.

    The motivation art from the angle of Marslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory in


    According to Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory, the needs of human beings can be

    divided into five parts, with and the need for self-actualization at the top, the largest and most fundamental levels of needs at the bottom(Ricky W. Griffin, 2006). The five needs contain self-actualization, esteem, love and belonging (social needs), safety needs and physiological needs. According to the Need Hierarchy Theory, the need can be the original energy to motivate behaviors and be the source of individual enthusiasm(Ferdinand F. Fournies, 2000). The organization executive leaders can explore the method of motivation based on the needs. It is an effective way which can meet the spiritual leadership. Among the five needs, the psychological needs are to guarantee employees’ needs for survival. Only when these kind of basic needs have

    been satisfied, the left several kind of needs can become new motivation factors. The safety needs include the personal safety, labor safety, career safety, property safety ands so on. After the satisfaction of the psychological needs, the leaders should take measures to satisfy the employees’ safety needs, because if the basic safety needs can not be guaranteed, the workers’ working satisfaction will not be improved. Besides, this will have negative effect on the workers’ working enthusiasm. After the

    satisfaction of the lower level of needs, it will be necessary for the leaders to satisfy the workers’ higher level of needs, namely the spiritual needs. Obviously, everyone has the need to establish friendship with others and has the desire to be supported and loved as well as having the belonging feeling. Besides, everyone hope to be respected by others and achieves the due reputation when achieving some targets. As for the self actualization, everyone has the need to complete the work that is matched with their individual abilities and makes their potential abilities be developed. According to Marslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory, it is suggested that the satisfaction of the employees’ need varies from one another because of the difference of their

    works, ages, culture backgrounds and other factors. Hence, when the leaders motivate the employees, they should implement different kinds of motivation for different objects and needs. For example, as for the senior managers, the leaders can provide part of the company’s equity interest to them or by spiritual motivation such as reward

    while as for the common workers, the leaders can give them bonus as reward to motivate the workers’ working enthusiasm and promote production. Only by grasping

    the needs of different employees can the leaders implement effective motivation methods can create conditions to satisfy the employees’ needs. Besides, the leaders

    should guide the employees’ needs purposely, which can realize the purpose to motivate the employees’ working enthusiasm.

    Applying Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory to motivation in workshop

    The Two Factor Theory can also be called the Motivation-Hygiene factor, which is put forward by the American Behaviorist Herzberg. According to his investigation, it is suggested that the factors that influence the workers’ satisfactory have relationship

    with the work content(Erik Van Praag, 2004). Herzberg called this as Motivation factor, including achievement, acknowledgement, the work, responsibility, promotion and the development. The factors that make the workers feel dissatisfied have relationship with the working environment, which Herzberg called them as hygiene factors. The hygiene factors are mainly the policies, administration, and supervisation, the relationship with the leaders, the working conditions, and the payment and so on. If these hygiene factors are not satisfied, the employees will have dissatisfaction or negative emotion(Bruce J. Avolio, 2005)). Hence, as for the leaders, they can take measures to improve these factors which can bring the increase of the employees’ satisfaction and the good working performance. However, if the employees’ needs are

    satisfied, they will feel satisfied and have enthusiasm to work. When these factors are lacked, the satisfaction of the workers will reduce or lose. But in this situation, there will not be such phenomenon that the workers are dissatisfied. That is to say, the Hygiene Factors can only cause dissatisfaction, which can not cause satisfaction. However, the motivation factors can only cause satisfaction, which can result in dissatisfaction(Peter R. Taylor, 2007). The two factors are separate from each other. Hence, what the leaders should do is to take advantage of the motivation factors and meet the employees’ needs in this side, which will motivate the employees to work

    hard. In addition, during the process of the management, the leaders can also take effective measures to transform the Hygiene factor into the motivation factors. In this situation, the range of motivation can be expanded and the working efficiency will accordingly be improved and increased.


    In conclusion, the motivation is the core of leadership. The leaders can make best use of the motivation system to attract talents and make them have the desire to commit to the development of the organization. By applying the motivation system, the organization can improve the working environment and strengthening the enterprise cohesion. In the physical and spiritual levels, the leaders should guide the employees to show their creativities and enthusiasm in work, which can do benefits to the development of the organization. Hence, the leaders should not only take advantage of the spiritual leadership to motivate the employees, but also the leaders in the organizations can grasp the motivation theories and apply these theories into practice to improve the workers’ working performance.


Bruce J. Avolio.(2005).Leadership development in balance: made/born.


Erik Van Praag.(2004). Spiritual Leadership: Wisdom for Work, Wisdom for Life.

    Illustrated. Cosimo,;316-322.

Ferdinand F. Fournies.(2000). Coaching for improved work performance. 3edt,

    illustrated, revised. McGraw-Hill

    Peter R. Taylor.(2007). Motivating Your Team: Coaching for Performance in Schools.

    Illustrated. SAGE.

Richard C. Maddock& Richard L. Fulton.(1998). Motivation, emotions, and

    leadership: the silent side of management: The Combination of Leaders and

    Motives Creates a Return to Action Performance and Productivity Beyond all

    Expectations. Greenwood Publishing

Richard L. Daft& Patricia G. Lane.(2007) The leadership experience. 4edt, illustrated.


Ricky W. Griffin.(2006). Principles of Management. Illustrated. Cengage


    Semercioz, F& Ayranci, E. (2011) The Relationship between Spiritual Leadership and

    Issues of Spirituality and Religiosity: A Study of Top Turkish Managers,

    International Journal of Business and Management, pg: 136-149

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