On the reform and opening up of China's tremendous achievements in the administrative system
【Papers Key words the achievements of the administrative system
【Abstract】 20 years, great achievements of China's administrative system has been basically out of the old planned economic management system of the shackles of a socialist market economy needs to adapt to the new administrative system is taking shape. Major achievements in four areas: a major step towards the democratization of the administration, the
administration has made great progress in scientific, administrative law-
based legal system has taken shape, the administration's modernization is being carried out gradually.
Since 1978, China's reform and opening up policy, China's
administrative reform has been engaged in an in-depth and lasting, and has
made great achievements.
1, a major step towards the democratization of the administration
The implementation of reform and opening up, especially the establishment of a socialist market economic system, effectively promoting the process of democratization of our administration.
(A) the democratization of China's economic management. Economic management, democratization and modernization, China's reform and opening
up the major issues, significant results have been achieved. Deng Xiaoping as early as in August 1980 pointed out: to "effective reform and improve the Party and the country's system, which guaranteed life of the party and the country's political democratization, economic management,
democratization, democratization of society as a whole life to promote the modernization of construction of the smooth development. " he economic management of democratization as a party and the country an important
reform of the system.
The implementation of the democratization of China's economic management is to right past the old planned economic management system and a deep and painful reflection to draw scientific conclusions. Since the founding of New China, the planned economic management system has been on China's economic development had a positive effect on the rapid recovery of New China, caused by the war severely damaged, and establish a new China's independent modern industry, agriculture, science and technology
and defense systems, not be withheld. However, the old administrative system in too many, tube too dead serious shortcomings, as well as excessive concentration of power brought about a serious bureaucratic style of work, so that enterprises and undertakings and other grassroots organizations in rural areas as well as little autonomy in the areas of production and operation the people's enthusiasm for production, wisdom and creative spirit severely depressed and the slow pace of national
economic development and improved living standards hardship; the same time, the growing bureaucracy is also to the government servants of the public image of the lead to serious injury. The old planned economic management system must be reformed, with the new market economic system to
replace the old planned economic system; At the same time the democratization of economic management must be implemented. Deng Xiaoping pointed out: "I would like to focus on to talk about economic democracy. Now our country's economic management system of power is too concentrated, should have planned a bold decentralization, otherwise not conducive to give full play to national, local, business and workers in four areas of active individual not conducive to modern economic management and improve
labor productivity. " the basic content of China's decentralization is this: the central to local decentralization, the Government to rural areas, enterprises, streets and other grass-roots level of
decentralization, delegation of authority to the masses, so that local, enterprises and other grass-roots level and the masses have the necessary and sufficient autonomy in production and operation, "so that they can participate in the management, regulatory democratization."  This is to
mobilize the enthusiasm of all aspects of the fundamental measures.
20 years in China, first in rural areas, and then in the magnificent cities of the economic reform, China's administrative system reform, it is with the economic reform carried out in depth. In rural areas, a household contract responsibility system for the unit to ensure that the majority of farmers have production and management autonomy, fully mobilize the enthusiasm of the broad masses of the peasants; in the city gradually
implement a "separate government from enterprises," "separation of political affairs," and enterprises and other establishments to ensure the full exercise of autonomy in the areas of production and management reform measures. China's economic reform are closely linked with the
administrative system reform. This is the central to local, national levels of government agencies to rural areas, state-owned enterprises and
institutions, decentralization of administrative reform in a difficult. Ensure that local and enterprise reform, such as grass-roots level as well
as the broad masses of people to fully exercise their democratic rights the economy to achieve the democratization of economic management, in order to fully mobilize local governments, enterprises and other grass-
roots level and the majority of peasants, workers, intellectuals, the enthusiasm of the national economy in rural and Cities have been the rapid development of rapidly rising living standards, national stability and well-being. 20 years, China's economic management, this should be said that democratic reform has made significant achievements.
(B) the administration of the major decisions in a democratic China. 20 years of reform and opening up, China has been the democratization of
the administration of major decisions made gratifying achievements.
First, my administration's major policy decisions, not only in the State Department system itself needs to solicit the views of democratic form, and most importantly, must be submitted to the annual National
People's Congress discussed and passed. These include the annual national economic development plans, financial budget and final accounts and other important matters, in addition to including some people's livelihood, major construction projects such as the Yangtze River Three Gorges Project. In the provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions, local economic development plan the annual financial budget and final accounts of the decision-making and other major issues also need to submit at the
same level People's Congress discussed and passed. Second, even in the State Department itself, the various departments necessary to draft a new administrative system, generally have a lead in several departments of the State Council, while also have the NPC and the relevant departments of the CPC Central Committee and people's organizations to participate. These major management system making process is to extensively promote the democratic process itself embodies the spirit of democratic decision-
(C) to carry out a broad political participation and the activities of the masses. In accordance with national laws and government regulations, according to the law by all levels of government to provide channels so that the masses of our people to participate in the activities of government administration channels is increasing. First, for government administration activities, including for the administrative decision-
making, decision-making to implement and so on, in particular the
relationship between themselves and their communities in the management of interest to express their views and suggestions, these comments and suggestions either directly to the government agencies to reflect their own , some NPC deputies or CPPCC National Committee members by government
authorities to reflect; second is to supervise the administration of government institutions and civil servants working for the criticism of the phenomenon of corruption and bureaucracy, the struggle until justice; the use of promotional tools and mass media, monitoring the government organs and their the administration of civil behavior. Third, because government agencies are taking the administrative affairs, service pledge system and other modern management system, so that the people up broader
channels for political participation, but also more conducive to strengthening government institutions and their staff supervision.
(D) the grass-roots democratic management system was established. Deng Xiaoping pointed out: to "give full scope to people's democracy, ensuring all the people really enjoy a variety of effective forms of administering the country, particularly in the management of grass-roots
level of local political power and the power of the enterprises and undertakings to enjoy their civil rights."  China's grassroots democracy management, from the early 80s have begun to create a more stable and more democratic management of the power system, the latter has always been the Party Central Committee and the State Council attention.
September 12, 1997 party congress, Jiang Zemin pointed out in the report: "urban and rural grass-roots political power organizations and grass-roots
mass self-government organizations should improve the democratic electoral system, the implementation of government and financial disclosure, let the masses participate in the discussions and decisions of the grass-roots
public affairs and public welfare undertakings, and exercise democratic supervision over cadres. "
China to expand rural grassroots democracy in rural areas, the villagers of the General Assembly directly elected village committees to promote village self-government, the implementation of village affairs. State-owned enterprises and institutions in urban areas, according to the
State "Enterprise Law" requirement, state-owned enterprises (including
utilities) units generally implemented the enterprise and shop workers congress system of democratic management, organization of workers involved in the reform and management, and safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests. Collectively owned enterprises and institutions, carry out their democratic management and democratic electoral unit leaders, business unit of production and operation of democratic decision-making on
major issues. In urban areas, serious people to play the role of democratically elected neighborhood.
In short, after 20 years of reform, previously undertaken by government agencies who act as the basic unit of production, supply and other aspects of property management authority has now handed over to the grass-roots units to exercise their own. In other words, the state has the autonomy to the grass-roots grass-roots level and the masses of workers to exercise.
(E) the reform of government institutions through four. Streamline the administrative body is to ensure the realization of democratization, economic management, the organizational basis for democracy. 20 years, our government has made great achievements in institutional reform, one can
adapt to the needs of the socialist market economic development, government institutions are taking shape.
Deng Xiaoping decentralization as a political second major component of structural reform to streamline the institutions as the third element of
political reform, he said: "This is related to the decentralization of
power." This is sharply revealed the deep-seated institutional reform
reasons. Only streamlining their organizations, be able to make the central to local, government to business undertakings and other grass
roots and the devolution of power to the masses of workers are implemented, the democratization of economic management can become a reality.
20 years in China accelerated the reform of government institutions and administrative reform. At present, China has four times the reform of government institutions. Four basic reasons for institutional reform of the Common, because of over-concentration of central authority, government agencies at all levels of the large overstaffing, Zhengqibufen, and
bureaucratic abuse, inefficiency, directly prevented the deepening of reform and economic development, impact on the party and the relationship between the masses, as well as the state's financial burden and other issues. The fundamental purpose of institutional reform in order to meet the needs of the development of socialist market economy is to ensure that the masses under the leadership of the party in accordance with the Constitution and the law, through various channels and forms of management
of state affairs, manage economic and cultural undertakings, the management Social Affairs, the progressive realization of socialist democracy is institutionalized and written into law.
Four institutional reform to promote ongoing efforts to streamline
government agencies and in accordance with the requirements of the socialist market economy, transformation of government functions, in particular, changing the government's economic management functions. The Government has taken series of measures to real enterprise production and management autonomy to enterprises, the allocation of social resources of power from the planned economy system by the gradual transfer of government agencies monopolize the market, the original government agencies directly to the business of the many economic management transfer of power to the market, even if the companies still need to exercise the powers of government, but also largely in accordance with market economy laws, to play the role of economic levers to take indirect, economic
measures mainly the same time, supporting the necessary administrative means. Is now generally form a "market-led enterprises, government
regulation and control market," the overall pattern.
Four institutional reforms has also vigorously promoted the
streamlining of government agencies themselves. According to the Central Office compiled introduced in 1982, institutional reform, to the principle of streamlining administration, significantly reducing the number of government departments, as well as government departments and bureaus within the department, division, section number of agencies, reducing the number of deputies at all levels of administrative leadership and in the compiled the number of personnel. Under the State Council ministries and
commissions directly under the agencies, offices reduced to 61 from 99; the provinces, autonomous regions and government departments have been reduced from 50-60 to 30-40 months, little more than a few municipalities,
institutions; prefecture offices reduced from 40 or so 30 or so; county departments from more than 40 was reduced to 25 or so. In staffing, the various departments under the State Council from the original 5.1 million people was reduced to 30000 people; provinces, autonomous regions,
municipalities, officials of party and government organs to reduce from 18 million to 12 million people. County office personnel reduction of about 20%, regional authorities to streamline the steeper. The promotion of institutional reform is also a strong contingent of cadres,
"revolutionary, professional, better educated, younger," construction, such as leadership cadres, both the average age of the general decline in ministerial-level leaders from the 64-year-old down to 60-year-old from
the 58 departmental reduced to 54 years old; the same time breaking the real life-long tenure of leading cadres.
1988, institutional reforms, economic restructuring in order to meet the gradual deepening of the voice on the autonomy of state-owned
enterprises carried out in a high position. This reform focused on vigorously push forward the transformation of government functions. The government's economic management departments from the direct management-
oriented to mainly indirect control, strengthen macro-management
functions, to play down micro-management functions. Directly under the
State Council ministries and agencies, offices from 72 to 68 reduced, institutions reduce the number of 9700 people. As the unrest took place in 1989, the reforms failed to achieve the desired objectives.
The institutional reform in 1993, faced with the urgent demand to speed up economic structural reform, the institutional reform of the State Council ministries and affiliated agencies, offices from 70 to 59 reduced,
organ size from 36700 people were reduced to 29200.
Institutional reform of the State Council in 1998, through the "pull down the temple of God move," greatly streamlined the number of agencies and staffing, so as to change the functions of government agencies to
create the conditions. The smooth progress of the reform to achieve its stated goal. Component departments of the State Council was reduced from 40 to 29, departments, streamlining the organization inside the 1 / 4, transferred to enterprises, intermediary and local functions of the 200 items, total staffing has been reduced by half, office building and work style of the emergence of new weather. The scope of this streamlining the organization, the intensity of the large, rapid progress has aroused
worldwide attention. In 1999 the provincial government's institutional reform will also be carried out across the country. From the central to local 800 million people in the civil service, will be the end of 2001 to streamline the 400 million people, while establishing the socialist market economy and the development needs of the new administrative system.
Governments at all levels in accordance with the spirit of the party's congress, are under the simplification, unification and efficiency, the principle of institutional reform, the establishment of an
efficient, well-coordinated and standardized administrative system, improve the level of serving the people; the comprehensive economic departments were reorganized into the macro-control departments, to adjust
and reduce the professional sectors of the economy, strengthening law enforcement and regulatory departments, nurturing and development of social intermediary organizations. In deepening administrative reform process, will be the achievement of national institutions and
organizations, functions, establishment of the statutory procedures, and strictly control body swelling, and resolutely redundancy; deepening the reform of personnel system, the introduction of competition and incentive
mechanisms, improve the civil service system and build a branch of state administration of high-quality professional cadres.
Second, the administration has made great progress in scientific
(A) adhere to economic construction as the center, which is the
scientific basis for government administration. Government management is scientific, first, to see whether the objectives of the administration of rival management methods are correct. Since the reform and opening up, our party and state since the re-establishment of "realism" of the Marxist
ideological line, adhere to the "one center and two basic points" of the basic line, that is, adhere to the modernization of the center, persist in reform and opening up the correct policy. It should be said that the past
two decades, China has always insisted the administration of such a right track, this is a seeking truth from facts, adhere to the scientific management of the correct line. This was the scientific basis for the administration can be achieved where.
Government administration to achieve the scientific, we must focus on the center to carry out economic development, to effectively change the government's economic management functions. Deng Xiaoping pointed out: to "learn how to use economic methods to manage the economy." To "change the management of industrial and agricultural enterprises and state management of industrial and agricultural enterprises." As the market economy conditions the role of government to correctly understand and positioning,
as well as economic management system and administrative reform in depth, China implemented a "separate government from enterprises," "separation of political affairs", the Government will no longer monopolize specific issues of enterprises and institutions, enterprises and other basic units have the management autonomy. In the management of the national economy, the Government is the main function is to guide enterprises through the market, the government regulating the market; do a good job of
macroeconomic regulation and control, do a good job of social insurance, social welfare.
(B) proper handling and stability, reform and development of the relations between, which is an important task of scientific administration. Past 20 years, China has always insisted the
administration since the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Party's
line, principles, policies, without wavering, the key is to adhere to the "one center and two basic points" of the Party's basic line. Always adhere to socialism, persist in reform and opening up, adhere to economic development and continuous improvement of people's lives. Correctly handling the relations between consistently and clearly reform is the driving force, and stability is the key to development is the foundation.
"Development is the last word." Always take economic construction as the center, the continuous development of the national economy, improve social stability, its reform and opening up, so that China's socialist modernization cause forward.
(C) the construction of a high-quality civil service and civil
service management in accordance with modern ways of doing things, which is to ensure the implementation of administrative and scientific personnel. Deng Xiaoping pointed out: "body fat duplication, unclear, and
many personnel are not competent, is not responsible for the lack of energy, knowledge and efficiency of the state ... ... indeed reached an intolerable point, the people can not tolerate, our party can not tolerate." He emphasis on streamlining the agency must work with the
reform of personnel system combined, he also pointed out: You can not let "the elderly, the patient stopped relatively young, energetic, capable people the way"; "the selection to be selected, to selecting and appointing capable. "He said:" resolutely emancipating the mind, overcoming obstacles, breaking with old traditions, boldly reforming outdated organizational system, personnel system ... ... "Reform" The key is to improve the cadre of election, recruit, appoint and remove,
assessment, impeachment, the rotation system , for leading cadres at all levels and categories (including elected, appointed and employed by) the term of office, as well as retirees, according to the different situations, make appropriate and clearly defined. "He stressed the need to strengthen supervision, prevention and to overcome the bureaucracy and corruption. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
20 years, China's government agencies at all levels of direction
along the guidance of Deng Xiaoping, and deepen the reform of personnel system, the introduction of competition and incentive mechanisms, according to "revolutionary, knowledgeable and professional, younger" standard selection of civil servants from central to local government
agencies at all levels generally establish and gradually improve the civil service system in order to build a high-quality professional state
administration of cadres.
Third, the legalization of the administration of the legal system has
20 years, China in strengthening the rule of law based on the administration has made great strides. Deng Xiaoping repeatedly stressed: "In order to protect the people's democracy, we must strengthen the rule of law, we must make democracy institutionalized and legalized, so that
laws are followed, the law, violators will be dealt." The Government must abide administration, the rule of law, the administration included in the legal system. Deng Xiaoping pointed out: "the rule of law means that the
broad masses of the people under the leadership of the party in accordance with the Constitution and the law, through various channels and forms of management of state affairs, manage economic and cultural undertakings and social affairs to ensure that all the work of the country according to law, the progressive realization of socialist democracy is
institutionalized and written into law. "Comrade Jiang Zemin pointed out:" cadres, making decisions, exercising administration is an important
foundation for the rule of law. "Rule of Law is the basic task of the administrative system and goals.
From 1978 the party since the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh National People's Congress and its Standing Committee have adopted a series of national institutions and improve the organizational system, and punishing corruption, and protect the civil rights laws; the state has promulgated a series of laws, such as the environment Protection Law, Education Law, Sports Law, the Nationality Law, statistical method,
science and technology law administrative law, and with the implementation of the civil service system, and implementation of the State Council issued the "Provisional Regulations on State Civil Servants." China to speed up the administration of legislation, especially in the economic management of legislation. As of September 1996, the NPC and its Standing Committee have successively examined and approved 300 laws and legal decisions. State Council formulated more than 700 administrative
regulations, local people's congresses and their standing committees formulated more than 4200 pieces of local laws and regulations. The State Council departments and local people's government also issued a series of administrative regulations formulated. In this group of laws and
regulations, a considerable part of the 14 since the set. Up to now, the Constitution as the core of China's socialist legal system has taken shape, the country's political life, economic life, social and cultural life of the main aspects of the laws to go basically.
With the "Administrative Procedure Law of The People's Republic of China," "The People's Republic of China Administrative Punishment Law," "The People's Republic of China Law on State Compensation," the
promulgation and enforcement of such laws, making large enterprises and undertakings and other basic units and the masses, you can and government agencies " court, "" the people "can sue" official. " This is reflected in citizens before the law, no special, everyone is equal. The implementation
of these laws is conducive to defuse the grassroots and the masses and the conflict between government agencies, close mutual relationships; are conducive to strengthening the government institutions according to law,
conscientiously implement the national laws and regulations; be conducive to safeguarding the grassroots and the masses the legitimate rights and interests; the clearance of government agencies in the bureaucracy and corrupt elements; are conducive to building a high-quality civil service.
Government agencies at all levels through the implementation of these laws, regulations, effectively improve the government management, scientific, democratic, ensuring the people's democratic rights and ownership status, to ensure government agencies staff to the people in his capacity as public servants to better serve the peoples.
At the same time, the state strengthened the work of popularizing and propagating, strengthened law enforcement efforts to significantly enhance
the legal awareness of citizens. For example, in 1989 the State promulgated the "Administrative Procedure Law," provides for "people" can sue "official" rights, enacted in 1994 the "PRC State Compensation Law," the composition of the state compensation, scope, methods and calculations standard requirements. Since then, the people's courts accepted the administrative litigation cases increased year by year, 1995 has reached about 50000. Many people through litigation, relying on law to safeguard
their own legitimate rights, the fight against criminal acts and criminals.
China will continue to expedite the administrative legal process. On the one hand, China will further improve the administration of the legal system building, so that each can be a legal basis for all aspects of the administration; the other hand, China's people's congresses at various levels of law enforcement will step up supervision and inspection, to urge the Government administration according to law , so that all levels of
government to seriously comply with the laws already established, so that administration according to law, the rule of law.
Fourth, the administration's modernization is gradually being implemented
20 years, the modernization of China's administration has made
First of all, our government carrying out international economic trade and economic cooperation, the widespread use of modern management practices in international economic law; the same time, the introduction
of modern administrative practices of the relevant international practice. Today's world is a world of economic globalization. China's market economy is growing rapidly and extensively integration into the world largest market economy. Deng Xiaoping pointed out: "As for economic management, administrative efficiency, the capitalist countries, in many ways better than us." In our economy to the world, opening up the case, building a socialist market economic system, the close connection China's national
conditions, use the capitalist countries, economic management and administrative experience, good experience, learn from foreign countries in order to enhance China's economic management and administrative efficiency, particularly necessary. This is not only in our country to
participate in the activities of the world market economy need to do, and