4_Study Guide

By Gerald Kennedy,2014-07-06 21:31
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4_Study Guide

Medieval Britain

After the Norman Conquest

    ; After William the Conqueror dies, his descendents rule under the feudal system put in



    ; Established in England under William the Conqueror

    ; Power was assigned and upheld through the exchange of land for services

    ; People were often born into positions and social mobility was fixed

    ; Social mobility: The ability to move from one position in society to another

Henry II

    ; Takes the throne in 1153

    ; At the height of his power, he controlled England, Normandy, and Aquitaine

    ; Gained control of Aquitaine through his marriage to Eleanor

    ; Sons: Two of their four sons survived to make a mark on history: Richard and John

Beginnings to a Legal System

    ; Henry II establishes permanent courts and travels around England acting as judge

    ; 1180: First legal textbook is printed and used by judges acting in Henry II’s name

    ; There is a struggle for power between the king in the church over whether or not people

    of the church are above the law

Thomas Beckett

    ; Son of a merchant who becomes chancellor to the king

    ; Henry II and Becket form a brotherly relationship

    ; King makes Beckett the Archbishop of Canterbury in the hope that he could have more

    control over the church

    ; Beckett and the Henry II have many power struggles

    ; Finally, Beckett angers the king so much that it leads to his murder

    Henry II's Legacy

    ; People are outraged at the murder of the Archbishop of Canterbury (which is done in the

    church) and Henry is known for this deed

    ; In 1189, Richard seizes the throne from his father and Henry dies days later ; Richard (the Lionheart) goes off on the crusades and is captured

    ; John, his brother, seizes the throne and rules the country through force and lets the

    country fall to ruins

    Magna Carta (1215)

    ; The lords/barons rise up against John and make him sign a document called the Magna

    Carta, which would limit the power of the king

    ; When John dies, the barons ensure that his nine year old son will follow this document

    Hundred Years War

    ; (1337 1453 )

    ; Series of war with France

    ; The king of France (Charles IV) dies and the English King (Edward III) wants to seize


    ; Series of wars continue under French and English kings

    ; 1453: Treaty of Arras ends the war (French victory)

    Black Death (The Plague)

    ; Began in 1348 in England

    ; Half of England’s population is killed

    ; Symptoms:

    ; Fever

    ; Vomiting of blood

    ; Swelling of skin filled with pus and blood

    ; Pain

    ; Death

War of the Roses

    ; 1455 1485

    ; Series of civil wars between Edward III’s many sons

    ; Struggle between commercial minded middle-upper class and those who

    supported feudalism

    ; Two houses of York (white) and Lancaster (red) were represented by different

    colored roses

    ; Ends with Henry VIII’s claim to the throne in 1485

Medieval Britain: A time of knights and chivalry


    ; The Pope calls for Christians to “retake” the holy land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims.

    Persecution of other groups, such as Jews also occurred. ; Knights went on the crusades for many reasons:

    ; To obtain wealth

    ; To obtain power and glory

    ; To guarantee their position in heaven


    ; A code that knights had to follow that set forth specific customs and traditions that they

    should follow.

    ; Knights should be:

    ; Courteous/Polite to women

    ; Brave

    ; Generous

    ; Good at fights

    ; Religious/Pious

Present use of the term chivalry:

    ; Mostly used in regards to a man’s manners towards women

    ; Many people say that: “Chivalry is dead”

    ; This phrase refers to the present idea that men do not act in special or courteous ways

    towards women

The Real King Arthur?

    ; A Celt?

    ; A Roman?

    ; A Samartian?

    ; Although King Arthur is associated with Medieval Britain, his legacy has pre-medieval


    ; No one really knows who the real Arthur was, but during Medieval Britain his stories

    spread across England and knights wanted to be like this king of legends

The Legend of King Arthur

    ; King of a kingdom called “Camelot”

    ; Knights of the Round Table

    ; Married to Guinevere

    ; Merlin the magician

    ; Search for the Holy Grail

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