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3_Study Guide British History Part 1

By Daniel Stephens,2014-07-06 21:31
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3_Study Guide British History Part 1

British History Part 1

Prehistoric Britain

Initial Occupation

    ; Homo species arrive around than 700,000 years ago

    ; Homo sapiens (Modern Humans) begin populating what is now Great Britain when the

    island is attached to the continent of Europe by a land bridge around 30,000 BC

    ; 10,000 years ago: Holocene

    ; 6500 BC: The sea levels rise and the land bridge is flooded, creating the island of Great

    Britain

Neolithic (c. 5,000 2,500/2000 BC)

    ; First evidence of farming communities

    ; 3,000 2,500: Earliest construction of mounds and stone circles begins

    ; Skara Brae: Near Orkney Scotland

    ; Neolithic community

    ; 3000 BC: Weather gets warmer

    ; People were part of larger communities

    ; Evidence: stone circles, burial mounds, grave goods

Bronze Age (c. 2,500/2,000 750 BC)

    ; 2500 BC: Weather gets colder/wetter, Northern areas are abandoned

    ; 2,500 1,500: Most stone circles are constructed during this time

    ; Small villages constructed

    ; Domesticated animals

Stonehenge

    ; Built in three phases (2950, 2600, 2300 BC)

    ; First phase: circular hedge with ditch, holes for either posts or stones

    ; Second phase: Blue stones were erected in a circle

    ; Third phase: Large sarsen (sandstone) blocks transported and erected

    ; http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/programmes/stonehenge/panorama.shtml

    ; Purpose? 1. Ritual site 2. Possibly used for astronomy 3. Possibly seen as a place of

    healing

    ; What does Stonehenge show about the people of the Neolithic/Bronze Age?

    ; Prosperity, relations, social stratification

Iron Age (750 BC AD 43)

    ; Use of iron revolutionizes tools for agriculture, daily use, and weaponry

    ; Huge increase in trade across Europe

    ; 500 BC: Celtic people gradually arrive and settle

    ; Farmers who lived in small villages

    ; Druids: intellectual leaders

    First Roman "Invasion"

    ; News of the island’s bounty spreads to Rome

    ; 55 BC: Rome decides to try and conquer the land of Great Britain ; Julius Cesar sends troops to Britannia to gain glory and riches ; Ships are caught in a storm

    ; 54 BC: Romans try again

    ; Romans barely make an impact other than a handful of small victories on the island and

    return home essentially empty-handed

    Second Roman Invasion

    ; AD43

    ; The new emperor of Rome, Claudius, decides to try again to gain prestige and validate

    his position on the throne

    ; Tens of thousands of troops are sent to Britannia

    ; Those who resisted the Romans were conquered and those who accepted and supported

    the Romans were rewarded with land and power

    Roman Britain

    Under Roman Rule

    ; Romans refer to their land on the island as “Britannia”

    ; Britons had to follow Roman laws and pay taxes

    ; Forts grew into larger settlements and townships appeared.

    ; Local governments are bribed to keep country in control

    ; Influence in some architecture and many buildings, such as baths, are constructed in

    Romanesque style

    ; Chartered towns

    ; Some native Britons integrate Roman culture into their ways of life ; Highly stratified in towns(classified by rank)

    ; Christianity brought in from Rome

    ; Outside major settlements, Britons did not become Romanized

    Boudiccan Rebellion

    ; AD 60/61

    ; King of the Iceni dies and tries to leave land for his wife, Boudica ; Local government decided to take all of the land

    ; When his family resists, Boudica is beaten and her daughters are raped ; The Iceni rises up led by Boudica and marches to Colchester, London, and St Albans ; They defeat the army that was there and burnt all of the Roman buildings to the ground. ; In Colchester, many Romans tried to take sanctuary in the Temple of Claudius. ; The rebelling natives simply burned the church to the ground

    ; The rest of the army returns from campaign and slaughters Boudica’s followers

    ; Rather than being taken by the Romans, Boudica takes her own life

Hadrian's Wall

    ; AD 122: Emperor Hadrian orders the construction of a wall to separate Roman Britain

    from the “barbarian” tribes in the North

    ; A 73-mile wall that stretched across Great Britain from coast to coast ; Forts built at intervals across the wall where men were posted ; Forts became economic and social centers of trade, perched between the two realms

    Diminishing Power in Rome th; In the 4 century, Rome was facing hardships both financially and politically ; Invasions of Picts and Scots were occurring in the North, causing more forts to be built (~

    AD 450)

    ; Roman leaders in Britain begin to flee to Rome

    ; Local governments hire Germanic “barbarians” to fight off the Picts and the Scots

    ; Barbarians rebel

    ; Barbarians take land as their “payment” and begin to settle

    ; More “barbarians” which consist of Germanic (North Germany and Denmark) tribes

    called the Angles and the Saxons pour into Britain and settle ; King Arthur th; 5 Century, Rome pulls out of Britain

    ; AD 410: Fall of the Roman Empire

Lasting impact of Roman Rule

    ; Construction of many building and roads

    ; Later architecture was built on top or incorporating previous structure ; Later generations wishing to return to the glory of Roman Britain

Anglo-Saxon Britain

; More Germanic tribes begin to pour into Britain to settle

    ; Religion of Anglo-Saxon: polytheism, many gods were taken from their home countries ; Rise and fall of kingdoms

Three Realms of Britain

    ; West: Remains of Britannia

    ; Community posed between Roman and non-Roman world

    ; North: Pagan tribes and Celts

    ; East: Kingdoms of Angles, Saxons, and Jutes

Christianity

    ; Missionaries come from Ireland, led by St. Patrick

    ; Original monasteries resemble strongholds instead of churches ; 597: St. Augustine sent by Pope Gregory to convert English Kings ; 590s English Kings incorporate Christianity into preexisting belief systems ; Christianity becomes more widespread throughout Anglo-Saxon Age and many churches

    and monasteries are established

    Venerable Bede (672 735)

    ; Historian and Father of “English” history and Literature

    ; Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation

    ; Jarrow, Northumbria

     th7 Century Britain

    ; Divided into kingdoms: Kent, Sussex, Wessex, East Anglia, Essex, Mercia, Northumbria ; However, kingdom boundaries were very fluid

    ; Kings rose and fell quickly

    ; Had to have military backing

    ; Had to have wealth to fund

    Sutton Hoo

    ; Burrow burial in East Anglia

    ; AD 620s

    ; Thought to be the tomb of King Raedwald

    ; Burial mound with a large wooden ship and magnificent grave goods.

    Beowulf

    ; Epic

    ; Hero Beowulf travels to Hrothgar to rid them of a monster named Grendel. ; Important: story reflects the integration of the Pagan and Christian world

    Vikings Arrive

    ; 793 Vikings arrive and terrorize everywhere

    ; Vikings raid, pillage, and plunder

    ; Capture people and sell them into slavery

    ; The North was hit the hardest with the plundering and desecration of three monasteries

    from 793-795

    ; Smash up Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms

    ; Why important: Disintegration of kingdoms meant forcing disparate kingdoms to band

    together

    ; 850s onwards, attacks came fast and hard

    ; Due to population growth, raids turned into complete plundering and settling on

    conquered land

    ; 865 Danish Army lands in East Anglia and takes down the kingdoms of Northumbria and

    East Anglia

    ; 870 Army attempts to invade Wessex, but were met with defeat

    ; 871 New Viking army arrives

    King Alfred

    ; King Alfred becomes the king of Wessex and bribes the invaders to leave the kingdom

    alone

    ; Vikings invade and conquer Mercia in the meantime and then the forces split up to

    invade other kingdoms

    ; 878: Vikings try to attack Wessex (with less men) and Alfred and his men are sent into

    refuge

    ; Alfred gathers together a large army and defeats the Vikings

    ; The two groups divide the land and create a boundary between them

    ; 886: Alfred goes on to take London

    ; Works to establish his power, sets up militia (army and navy), establish fortresses ; Alfred also devotes his time to spreading literacy

    ; Translates books from Latin to English, wrote his own books “Anglo-Saxon renaissance”

    ; Alfred Jewel

    King Edward

    ; King Edward takes the throne in 1043 after a power struggle

    ; Godwin, Earl of Essex becomes his consort

    ; Edward brings in Norman allies and accuses Godwin of killing his brother ; Godwin is exiled, until he sails back to Britain to take over the throne ; Edward promises his throne to William, Duke of Normandy, who was an illegitimate son

    to the previous King of Normandy

    Harold takes the Throne

    ; Godwin’s son, Harold, sails to Normandy and is captured by William

    ; William convinces Godwin swear fealty to him

    ; Harold returns to Britain and sells his brother into slavery because he is causing trouble ; 1065: As Edward “the Confessor” lays dying, he points to Harold

    ; This action is seen as Edward’s wish to pass to throne to Harold not William

    ; 1066: Harold becomes king

    ; William appeals to the Pope for support in his crusade against Harold, which is granted ; Both sides prepare for the attack and are stationed on the coasts waiting ; After months, Harold sends troops home for the harvest

    ; Suddenly, Harold’s brother who was exiled, returns with an army of Vikings

    ; Part of the Viking army is massacred by Harold’s men and 24 of the 300 ships that came

    returned back

    Norman Conquest

    ; The day after the massacre, the Normans sail to England and burn and pillage as they go ; Harold tries to gather together a new army and heads to meet William ; October 14 1066: Battle of Hastings

    ; English army is defeated and Harold is killed

    ; William plunders and pillages and eventually the people of Anglo-Saxon Britain cave to

    his power and ruthlessness

    ; William is coroneted

    ; The North rejects William and instead is loyal to the King of Denmark ; William mounts a campaign of terror throughout the land to demonstrate his power and

    builds castles as centers of control

    ; 1085: Campaign for information

Domesday Book

    ; Compilation of information from across the country

    ; People, livestock, land

    ; Data taken in less than 6 months

    ; 1087: Information given to nobles to use to rule

Fall of William the Conqueror

    ; 1087: William is injured in a border dispute with France and is mortally wounded

    ; William dies, his corpse is looted, and he is left to rot

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