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7_Study Guide

By Dolores Mcdonald,2014-07-06 21:31
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7_Study Guide

th20 Century Britain

    Edward VII

    ; Reign: (1901 1910)

    ; Takes the throne when Victoria dies

    ; “Edward the Peacemaker”

    ; Created good relations between the UK and other European countries, especially France ; Referred to as the first true constitutional monarch

    George V

    ; Reign: (1910 1936)

    ; Highlights under George V:

    ; Political Unrest in Ireland

    ; Statute of Westminster

    ; World War I

    Labor Union and Strikes

    ; 1911: Industrial unrest in Britain's history

    ; Nationwide strikes of dock workers, railway men and miners brought the country to a

    standstill

    ; The National Insurance Act: ensured that the worker, the employer and the government

    all contributed to a general fund to pay for medical treatment, sick pay, disability, and

    maternity benefits.

    ; Unemployment benefits, free meals for school children and medical exams ; Labor Exchanges where the unemployed worker could sign on for vacant jobs. ; Increased welfare for citizens

    Unrest in Ireland

    ; Irish people wanted Home Rule

    ; British government worried about the idea of Britain splitting up in the face of increasing

    German hostility

    ; Government was aided by the Protestant forces in Northern Ireland, who didn’t want to

    be under Home Rule

    ; A major civil war loomed in Ireland

    ; 1914: the Home Rule Bill was finally pushed through, but the outbreak of the Great War

    pushed everything else aside; it was said that "the public had forgotten the Irish for the

    Belgians."

    World War I (1914 1918)

    ; Europe was perched on the brink of war

    ; Countries began to assemble armies and the military leaders of many nations were all

    ready to go to war

    ; June 1914: Assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand plunged Europe into war ; With the support of the German leader, Wilhelm Kaiser II (King George V cousin),

    Austria declared war on Serbia.

    ; Germany declared war on Russia and on France, creating a huge dilemma for Britain.

    ; Should Britain help France or stay out of the war entirely?

    ; Eventually Britain decided to go to war to help France

"A Good Riddance" (1917)

Warfare

    ; Chemical Warfare

    ; Trench Warfare

    ; The slaughter continued with no significant gains in territory by either side

The End of the War

    ; Further allied successes on the Eastern front, military successes, a revolt by the German

    people against their military leaders, all convinced the German high command to enter

    into peace negotiations.

    ; Kaiser left power and an armistice was set by the allies

    ; They were accepted on November 11, 1918

Treaty of Versailles (1919)

    ; Victorious allies (Britain, France, the USA, Italy, Japan and to a lesser extent Russia) was

    to hammer out the peace terms to be presented to the defeated powers (Germany, Austria,

    Bulgaria, Turkey and Hungary).

    ; Germany was required to take full responsibility for the war and pay large sums of

    money to certain countries, putting the country into debt

The High Cost of War

    ; Loss of an entire generation

    ; People from all walks of life fought, not just soldiers

    ; So “many of Britain's physical and intellectual best were killed off in the endless fighting

    to gain a few yards of muddy ground.”

    Women's Suffrage

    ; 1897: Local groups of women who demanded the vote joined to form the National Union

    of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS)

    ; 1903: A more radical organization was formed called the Women’s Social and Political

    Union (WSPU). Its members were called suffragettes

    ; This group used more aggressive tactics, including: breaking windows, throwing stones,

    burning slogans on golf greens, cutting telephone and telegraph wires, and burning or

    bombing empty buildings.

    ; The WSPU stopped their actions during World war I and recruited women to help in

    wartime production of goods

    ; By 1918 it was impossible to deny women's contribution to the war effort and The

    Electoral Reform Bill of that year granted voted rights to all women property owners of

    thirty or more

    ; 1928: Age limitation became the same as that for men: 21

    Ireland

    ; The war had presented the opportunity the Irish nationalists had been waiting for since

    the postponement of the Home Rule Act of 1914

    ; Seized their opportunity to attack British rule in Ireland after the execution of many of

    their leaders

    ; Reconciliation between the two countries impossible.

    ; War against British rule lasted until December 1920

    ; Government of Ireland Act: Divided Ireland into Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland,

    giving both parts Home Rule

    ; No one in Ireland was satisfied and warfare intensified

    ; The coalition government in London called a truce in July, 1921

    ; Anglo-Irish Treaty of December

    ; The Irish accepted the offer of Dominion status within the Commonwealth ; Bloody civil war between Northern and Southern Ireland

    ; Ended in April 1923

    ; Ireland became a republic in April 1948

    ; Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom

The Great Depression

    ; Downturn in the British economy since the end of World War I

    ; Government promises of a better life after the war were not fulfilled.

    ; The productivity rate was falling rapidly behind that of other nations

    ; Many countries which had been dependent upon British manufactured goods were now

    making their own

    ; Millions were unemployed

Statute of Westminster (1931)

    ; Since the Durham Report of 1839, the white-settled colonies of Canada, Australia, New

    Zealand and South Africa had been virtually independent of Britain

    ; The Statute of Westminster: Established the independence of Dominions

    ; The Crown remained as a symbol of the free association of the members of the British

    Commonwealth

Another War Approaches

    ; Late1930's: Many domestic problems in the UK

    ; Britain hoped that the League of Nations, which was created after World War I would

    keep the peace

    ; Aggressive moves were slowly being made by Germany, Italy and Japan

    ; The signs of a forthcoming major war were mostly ignored in Britain

King Edward VIII

    ; Reign 1936

    ; Chose to give up the throne to marry a divorced American woman

King George VI

    ; Reign 1936 1952

    ; Edward VIII’s younger brother

    ; Suffered from a severe stutter

    ; Highlights:

    ; World War II

    ; Decline of British Empire

World War II (1939 -1945)

    ; Axis powers:

    ; Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria

    ; Allies:

    ; U.S., Britain, France, USSR, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark,

    Greece, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Yugoslavia

Events Leading up to the War

    ; 1934: Adolph Hitler became Chancellor in Germany and created the Third Reich

    ; Gained support through nationalism and economic unrest

; Nazi’s created concentration camp for Jews, gypsies and political prisoners

    ; Britain and France originally stood back for fear of precipitating a general European war ; This action made Hitler more confident and he invaded Austria in March, 1938, followed

    by Czechoslovakia and Poland

    The War Begins

    ; September 3, 1939: Britain declared war on Germany; two days after Hitler's armies had

    invaded Poland

    ; Nazi armies swept through Europe invading and defeating country after country ; Soon, German forces controlled France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg,

    Denmark, Norway and Romania, leaving Britain alone in the West to face the Nazi

    armies

    Blitzkrieg: Lightning War

    ; Germany's combination of:

    ; 1. Fast armored tanks on land

    ; 2. Superiority in the air,

    ; made a unified attacking force that was both innovative and effective ; New types of weaponry made World War II more killing easier and more destructive

    Winston Churchill

    ; Prime Minister of Great Britain during most of the war, from 1940 to 1945 ; Informed the British people that the Battle for France was over: the Battle for Britain was

    about to begin. He stressed that Hitler would have to break Britain in order to win the war,

    and that no nation would be safe from sinking into the resulting darkness ; Speeches brought hope to the people

    Life on the Homefront

    ; British industry mobilized every person not on military service into production. Even the

    old and retired were called on to play their part as plane spotters, air-raid wardens and

    night watchmen

    ; Single women played a major role. They had to report immediately to work in war

    industries or to work on the nation's farms in the so-called Women's Land Army ; Women also entered the armed services by the thousands, to work as radar operators,

    mechanics, truck drivers and pilots in non-combat roles

    Battle of Britain

    ; Battle of Britain: German bombers attacked England beginning in July 1940 ; All that stood between the German armies and the planned invasion of Britain was the

    Fighter Command of the Royal Air Force (RAF)

    ; Eventually, the heavy losses sustained by the German forced put an end to any real

    chances of Nazi armies crossing the Channel

    The Blitz

    ; September 7, 1940: German bombers appeared over London

    ; New shift in Hitler's attempt to subdue Great Britain

    ; Instead of targeting the RAF, Hitler turned his attention to destroying London in an

    attempt to demoralize the population and force the British to come to terms ; The Blitz: a period of intense bombing of London and other cities that continued until the

    following May

    ; Next 57 days: London was bombed either during the day or night

    ; Fires raged across the city and people took cover wherever they could ; Worst single incident: 450 were killed when a bomb destroyed a school being used as an

    air raid shelter. Londoners and the world were introduced to a new weapon of terror and

    destruction in the arsenal of twentieth century warfare.

    ; The Blitz ended on May 11, 1941 when Hitler called off the raids in order to move his

    bombers east in preparation for Germany's invasion of Russia.

    The War Continues

    ; After the bombing of the American naval base by Japanese forces, Pearl Harbor, America

    officially joined the war in 1941

    ; Millions of Jews in concentration camps are murdered by the Nazis

    ; Allied victory in North Africa led Italy to surrender in 1943

    ; D-Day June 6, 1944: Allies arrived in France

    ; Steady progress brought British, Canadian, French and American forces into Germany ; In the east, a new Russian offensive began with an unstoppable march to Berlin. ; In April, east met west as allied forces met with the Russians

    ; May 7, 1945: Germany surrendered

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