Academic Competition Federation
National Championship Tournament
March 31, 2007
Packet by Editors #1
1. One of them ends with an unnamed character spurning his European lover, Luz, and then contracting gonorrhea from a sales girl in a department store. Another concerns a yellow horse and concludes with a young boy’s father being taken away by George Gardner. Those works, “A Very Short Story” and “My Old Man,” like all of the pieces collected in it, are prefaced by a short vignette. In a better known story,
“Soldier’s Home,” a mother asks her son, Harold Krebs, to pray, but he can’t bring himself to do it. In that way he resembles a character who recurs the most throughout these tales, Nick Adams. FTP, identify this 1925 work, a collection of short stories by Ernest Hemingway that includes “The Battler,” “Big Two Hearted River,” and “Indian Camp.”
ANSWER: In Our Time
2. As a result of this movement a special commission, or balia, was in power for six weeks. Its participants,
who were overwhelmingly members of the popolo minuto, sought the civil liberties they’d been denied by
creating three new guilds in which they could be inscribed. Precipitated by the dominance of the Albizi family and the lack of a response from the Signoria, those who took part in this event were led by such men
as Luigi di Guiccciardini and Michele di Lando. Ultimately, their brief success paved the way for the rise of the Medici, who turned the peasant population against these dissatisfied artisans. FTP, identify this 1378 revolt by the lower classes in Florence, an uprising named for the “wool carders” who led the events.
ANSWER: the Ciompi
3. The barotropic equation describing this quantity is used for forecasting the movement of Rossby waves in the atmosphere. In aerodynamics, the total amount of this quantity is used in the Kutta-Joukowski theorem to calculate the lift on an airfoil. The Biot-Savart law gives the velocity induced by it and the lack of this quantity, along with incompressibility, leads to d’Alembert’s paradox. For a fluid with rigid rotation, its value is twice the angular velocity of the fluid. FTP, identify this quantity, often given as the curl of the velocity field, that is related to the amount of circulation in a fluid.
4. On the left side a dark haired nude kisses an androgynous face, while on the bottom right a young boy seems to be biting his prone mother. Smoke rises from some buildings in the background and a naked woman with a snake wrapped around her left arm seems to be dancing next to a person covering their head. Almost 14 feet long, its center features a darker skinned man lying on his side in a loincloth. It was the artist’s second submission to the Salon and like its predecessor, Barque of Dante, it uses unblended colors
to great effect. FTP, a Turkish soldier on a rearing horse dominates the right side of the canvas, which was painted to stir up sympathy for the 20,000 Greeks who had been killed on the namesake island, in what work by Eugene Delacroix?
ANSWER: Massacre at Chios or Massacre of Chios or Le Massacre de Scio or Scènes des massacres de
5. Jerry Tugwell and Geoffry Wildgoose go on a “summer ramble” to meet George Whitefield in a novel about a “spiritual” one of these written by Richard Graves. Sir George Bellmour and Sir Charles Glanville
vie for the affections of Arabella in a novel about a “female” one of these written by Charlotte Lennox. Graham Greene wrote a book about a “Monsignor” of this name, while a fragmentary version of it was written by a man whose other works include an invective against Paul Valéry and a monograph on Leibniz’s Characteristica universalis, Pierre Menard. FTP, name this character who was most famously
written about by Miguel de Cervantes.
ANSWER: Quixote (accept Don Quixote or The Spiritual Quixote before the second sentence)
6. In his later work he distinguished between value that is invoked when an interpersonal exchange occurs and value as denoting the qualitative mental evaluation of elements. Using these definitions, he created an algebra of social exchange in his Sociological Studies. In his earlier work he argued that information
processing is guided by a need for equilibrium, which is restored by either assimilating new information into old patterns, or altering the old pattern to accommodate the new information. Known for his belief in instinctual “schemas” of behavior at birth, he sought to understand the formation of knowledge in terms of “genetic epistemology.” FTP, name this French developmental psychologist, best known for positing four
stages of development beginning with the sensorimotor.
ANSWER: Jean Piaget
7. They won a victory at Ardebil when forces led by Barjik defeated an Umayyad army, though the Umayyads retaliated by attacking their capital and killing Hazer Tarkhan. That capital, Itil, was later thdestroyed by Sviatoslav of Kiev, whose attacks weakened them in the 10 century. They were ruled by
chieftains known as “begs” and by a supreme ruler known as a “khagan,” who may have had a palace on
the Volga River. Constantine V and Justinian II both married women from this culture, and Constantine’s son, the Byzantine Emperor Leo IV, was known by this epithet. FTP, name this Turkish people whose thrulers converted to Judaism in the 8 century.
ANSWER: the Khazars
8. A non-Abelian version of this theorem has been used to show the relationship between the Wilson loop and magnetic monopole in QCD. This theorem can be thought of as an expression of duality between the homology of chains and the de Rham cohomology, and it is used extensively in the proof of the Poincare-Hopf theorem. It is the real-plane generalization of Cauchy’s integral theorem. The most general form of this theorem relates the integral of a differential form over a manifold boundary to the integral of the external derivative of that manifold, and it can also be reduced to the Ostrogradsky-Gauss theorem. FTP, name this theorem whose best known form relates the integral around a boundary of a vector field to the surface integral of the curl of that vector field, a three-dimensional analog of Green’s theorem.
ANSWER: Stokes’ Theorem
9. It may have derived from an Arabic concoction that used rose petals and had a similar sounding name, though it wasn’t until 1803 that it was described in print in America. Some recipes call for a bit of grated
nutmeg on top, while another mixes in orange juice. Recently Early Times has come out with a pre-mixed version. Perhaps the most important step involves using a wooden mallet to crush the ice and using the ice to fill the traditional silver cup completely. Then one adds simple syrup and three ounces of a liquor such as Woodford Reserve or Maker’s Mark. FTP, identify this drink, a mix of bourbon and the green fragrant leaves of its namesake plant.
ANSWER: Mint Julep
10. In this work’s final chapter, we learn that Saint Paul didn’t condemn lawsuits as such, but only objected to the excessive litigiousness of the Corinthians. In book 1, the author offers the fact that Moses says bad things about his ancestors as a “rational proof” of the veracity of Scripture. Its final book includes chapters on the misery of taking vows rashly, a discussion of five ceremonies that are “falsely called sacraments,” and a defense of paedobaptism. It consists of four books in all, which consider God the father, Christ the redeemer, the Holy Spirit as man’s bond to Christ, and the Church. In the dedication addressed to King Francis, the author explains his reasons for leaving France. FTP, name this work by John Calvin. ANSWER: The Institutes of the Christian Religion or Institutio Christianae Religionis
11. The Llovizna Falls mark its confluence with the Caroni River, and it is divided into upper and lower courses by the Ature [Ah-to-ray] and Maipures [My-poo-ress] cataracts. Its banks are often littered with a type of Brazil nut and its rare namesake crocodile can reach a length of 12 feet. Although its source in the Parima Range was only explored in 1951, Columbus discovered its mouth near the Gulf of Paria, at what is now called the Delta Amacuro. This waterway flows in a wide arc through the Llanos [ya-nos] or plains region, passing by Ciudad Bolivar. FTP, identify this river which joins the Amazon via the Rio Negro and is mostly located in Venezuela.
ANSWER: Orinoco River
12. This book opens with a “packet” for another author, who is shown walking out at night and feeding cats with pieces of meat from his pockets. The book itself begins by quoting Empedocles on Discord and Concord before discussing Simplicius’s commentary on Empedocles, and notes that Flaubert wanted to
write a story called “The Spiral” which would have employed a similar concept. That opening section, “The Great Wheel,” includes a discussion of the 28 Incarnations, which correspond to the Phases of the
Moon. The idea for the book emerged on October 24, 1917, four days after the poet’s marriage to a woman who practiced automatic writing. FTP, name this 1925 book that discusses the author’s theory of gyres, which propounds a bizarre theory of history and was written by William Butler Yeats. ANSWER: A Vision
13. After a treaty involving it was withdrawn from the Senate, the president appointed James Blount to investigate the situation. Blount determined that the behavior of Minister John L. Stevens, who had ordered marines to be landed from the cruiser Boston, was unacceptable. Later Albert Willis was sent as
the new minister, and instructed to maintain the liberal constitution of 1887. When a republic was proclaimed in 1894, Lorrin Thurston declined the presidency in favor of Sanford Dole. FTP, name this territory which was annexed by the U.S. after a power struggle was lost by Queen Liliuokalani. ANSWER: Hawaii
14. It is synthesized by cleaving the aromatic heterocycle of tryptophan, which rearranges the alpha amino group, and forms the intermediate known as kynurenine. A deficiency of it in the body results in maculopathy, and it is known to promote HDL increases in the blood. However, it is better known for its derivatives, which include NAD, NADH, and NADP. First discovered in nicotine, it is also known as nicotinic acid, and a deficiency in it can cause pellagra. FTP, identify this water-soluble vitamin otherwise known as B. 3
ANSWER: niacin (accept early nicotinic acid or vitamin B) 3
15. This man’s Opus 16, a set of three “fantasies or caprices” for piano, was written after a visit to Coed-du
in Wales. His Etude in F minor was written for a pedagogical work by his teacher, Ignaz Moscheles, while his three piano sonatas include a work in G minor he composed at the age of 12 and a work in E which was the only one published in his life, after being written in 1826. His other keyboard works include the six Christmas Pieces, the youthful Andante and Rondo Capriccioso, and the Variations Sérieuses, as well as a
collection of pieces in eight books which includes several “Venetian Boat Songs.” FTP, name this composer of the Songs Without Words who also wrote the Italian and Scottish symphonies.
ANSWER: Felix Mendelssohn
16. This creature produces three signals corresponding to the various stages of a climactic martial buildup. To enter its abode one must pass over a river named Gjoll and stop before its home, Gnipahellir. This mythological character performs its duties alongside an enormous eagle named Hraesvelg which flaps his wings to make a cold wind blow throughout its kingdom, when it isn’t devouring corpses. Described as having slavering jaws and a chest covered in blood, some visitors can appease it with cake. At Ragnarok this four-eyed creature will kill and be killed by the one-handed god of Justice, Tyr. FTP, identify this Norse counterpart to Cerberus, an enormous hound who guards Hel.
17. Thrasyllus wrote a “prolegomena to the readering of the books” of this man, and also arranged those
books intro tetralogies. This man’s ethical writings include The Horn of Amalthea and Tritogeneia, though
he is better known for works about nature, such as On Flavors and The Little World-ordering. Among the
maxims attributed to him is “To be ruled by a woman is the final insult for a man,” but he is better known for views criticized in a lost essay on him by Aristotle, which noted that this man thought that substances remain together in the way that bodies become entangled together. The best-known doctrine of this native of Abdera derived from his teacher Leucippus. FTP, name this ancient Greek philosopher known for his atomism.
18. Molecular factors that establish identity of these structures are the class B genes such as DEFICIENS
and GLOBOSA in snapdragons and AP3 and PI in the model system Arabidopsis. The products of the AP3
and PI genes interact with a set of eponymous E class genes to promote development of these structures by transcription of specific targets. Eudicots often have four or five, while monocots often have three, and collectively they are called the corolla. Arising from the second whorl in the perianth along with sepals, FTP, name these highly modified leaves of the flower, the showy parts which attract pollinators. ANSWER: petals
19. It began after one side sent the other a telegram that demanded they be allowed to search for a deserter thon the premises. When they were denied entry and a shot rang out, the 117 Battalion sprang into action.
The escalation at the namesake site was facilitated by the establishment of the East Hebei Autonomous Council, which gave Colonel Matsui’s forces nearby support. The KMT army fought to defend the city of Wan Ping, but they were eventually driven back. FTP, identify this July 7, 1937, occurrence which prompted the Chinese and the Japanese to enter the Second Sino-Japanese War, an incident which takes its name from a structure dedicated to an Italian explorer.
ANSWER: Marco Polo Bridge Incident or Equivalent
20. One character in this work is followed around Montreal by a Pinkerton detective after inadvertently robbing the saloon Fitzgerald and Moy’s. That character dreams of leaving his vain daughter, Jessica, and his wife, Julia, behind forever. Yet by the end of the novel he must accept the comfort provided by the Captain in a homeless shelter in New York. During his days as a railroad scab worker, that character reflects on his love for the title figure, a woman he’d seen perform at his rival’s Elks Lodge before she hit it
big under the stage name Madenda. First published in 1900, it ends with the title figure being rejected by Mr. Ames and sitting in her favorite rocking chair. FTP, identify this work about a girl who romances Charles Drouet and George Hurstwood, the first novel by Theodore Dreiser.
ANSWER: Sister Carrie
21. Now housed at Hertford House, London, it was originally known as Portrait of a Man, but got its now-
standard name after Richard Seymour-Conway purchased it at auction in 1865. The title figure’s sleeve has
ten buttons and he sports a black cumberbund and cravat, both of which match his hat, which is slightly askew. It was painted three years before its artist completed his Banquet of the St. Hadrian Civic Guard
and from the writing in the upper right, we know that its subject is 26 years old, though he doesn’t seem to be affecting the titular expression. FTP, identify this best-known work of Franz Hals. ANSWER: The Laughing Cavalier
22. This people's first recorded major war with Rome was settled by the peace treaty of Cassius Vecellinus after the Battle of Lake Regillus, which established an equal alliance between Rome and their namesake League, which was centered on Aricia [uh-REE-kee-uh]. The second war lasted from 341 to 338, when the League and their allies the Volsci were crushed. After their political extinction, their name still referred to a form of second-class Roman citizenship. In the Aeneid, the husband of Amata and father of Lavinia is their
namesake king, and the survival of their name is guaranteed by a compromise between Juno and Jupiter that explains why Romans don't speak Trojan. FTP, name this Italian people who have lent their name to the region of Italy containing Rome, and to the Western Hemisphere south of the Rio Grande. ANSWER: Latins
23. Shorter works by this writer include “The Blue Lenses,” about a woman who sees animal heads on everyone around her, and “The Pool,” about a magical world in the woods. This author’s Frenchman’s
Creek, a novel about pirates, was followed by the story of Philip, a young man obsessed with his dead uncle Ambrose Ashley’s wife, who may or may not be a murderer. That work, My Cousin Rachel, was
published before The King’s General, a historical novel set at the author’s Cornwall estate Menabilly. A
historical estate would also be at the center of this writer’s best-known work., which, like her short story
“The Birds,” was filmed by Alfred Hitchcock. FTP, name this author of Jamaica Inn and a novel about
Maxim de Winter’s dead wife, Rebecca.
ANSWER: Daphne Du Maurier
Packet by Editors #1
1. Answer the following about a work of literature, FTPE:
 This 2006 short story collection features such works as “In the Blink of an Eye” and “The Devil Swims Across the Anacostia River.” Like its author’s first collection, Lost in the City, most of the stories
are centered in and around Washington, D.C.
ANSWER: All Aunt Hagar’s Children
 This Pulitzer Prize-winning author of The Known World wrote All Aunt Hagar’s Children.
ANSWER: Edward P. Jones
 The title of the collection comes from a novella by thts turn-of-the-century black author, whose best known work, besides Hagar’s Daughter, is the novel Contending Forces.
ANSWER: Pauline Hopkins
2. This 1962 work includes chapters on “Occupational Licensure” and “The Role of Government in
 Name this book, which argues that government intervention is unnecessary in racial discrimination, and proposes a negative income tax and the expansion of the money supply.
ANSWER: Capitalism and Freedom
 Like many economists, this author of Essays on the Great Depression and current head of the Federal
Reserve was influenced by Friedman’s polemic in Capitalism and Freedom.
ANSWER: Ben Bernanke
 Much of Bernanke’s research focuses on this phenomenon, which occurs when compensation fails to fall despite a drop in demand for the product.
ANSWER: wage stickiness
3. Identify the following about a class of organic compounds FTPE.
 This functional group is characterized by an oxygen atom bonded to two alkyl groups. ANSWER: ether
 This reaction for synthesizing ethers was developed by its namesake in 1850, and involves the reaction of an alkoxide ion with primary alkyl halides and tosylates.
ANSWER: Williamson ether synthesis
 This condensation is a variation of its namesake reaction and is used to produce aryl ethers. It involves a phenol coupled to an aryl halide and a diaryl ether in the presence of a copper compound. ANSWER: Ullmann condensation or ether synthesis
4. One ruler of this name was known as the “great” and was killed fighting Rudolf of Habsburg at the battle of the Marchfeld. FTPE:
 Give this name shared by two Premyslid kings, the first of whom ruled from 1198 to 1230. ANSWER: Ottokar
 Both Ottokars were kings of this Eastern European nation, whose other rulers included Boleslav I and Bretislav the Restorer.
 Boleslav I took the throne of Bohemia in 929 by murdering this king, who happened to be his brother. This Christian monarch was later regarded as Bohemia’s patron saint.
ANSWER: Wenceslaus (or Vaclav)
5. Answer the following about a sculptor and his compatriots, FTPE:
 This man created the statue of St. John on the Duomo in Florence, and followed his patron, Cosimo de Medici, to Venice where he created the library of San Marco, but he is better known for collaborating with Ghiberti on the first set of Baptistery doors.
ANSWER: Michelozzo di Bartolomeo Michelozzi
 In 1427 Michelozzo formed a partnership with this other sculptor to decorate the tombs of John XXIII and of Cardinal Brancacci. This man is better known for sculpting an equestrian statue of Erasmo de Narni.
ANSWER: Donatello (or Donato di Niccolo di Betto Bardi)
 Some historians credit Michelozzo with actually designing this building, which has popularly been thcredited to Brunelleschi, and is located in the 14-century cloister section of the Santa Croce complex.
ANSWER: the Pazzi Chapel
6. After it was passed, Charles Herbert Allen became the first governor of the area it made an unorganized territory. FTPE:
 Name this 1900 act, which would be supplanted in 1917 by the Jones-Shafroth Act. ANSWER: Foraker Act (accept Organic Act of 1900)
 The Foraker Act created a civil government on this island, which had been acquired by the U.S. after the Spanish-American War.
ANSWER: Puerto Rico
 The Foraker Act also extended this 1897 tariff, which was named for a Congressman from Maine, to Puerto Rico.
ANSWER: Dingley Tariff
7. RNA viruses don't have to have reverse transcriptase to cause disease. Answer the following about RNA viruses that are not retroviruses FTPE.
 These plus-strand RNA picornaviruses are ingested and usually cause only mild disease. However, spread of virus in the blood can invade the central nervous system and destroy motor neurons in the spinal cord, leading to paralysis.
 The most important cause of infantile diarrhea is this kind of double-stranded RNA virus, rare in developed nations, but one of the most frequent causes of infant mortality in Africa. ANSWER: rotavirus
 The immune system has developed several methods to counteract virus infection, including production of these cytokines that are induced by double stranded RNA, and inhibit viral replication through such means as fevers.
8. He never finished his epic trilogy about the Rosenberger dynasty of Bohemia, though he did write the first novel, Witiko. FTPE: th Name this 19-century Austrian novelist, whose other works include the story collection Colored
ANSWER: Adalbert Stifter
 Friedrich Hebbel offered the Polish crown to anyone who could honestly claim to have finished this novel by Stifter, which Nietzsche thought one of the two greatest German novels of the century. It shares its name with a William Dean Howells work.
ANSWER: Indian Summer or Der Nachsommer
 Stifter’s Christmas tale Rock Crystal was translated into English by this American poet, whose own
works include “The Pangolin” and “Poetry.”
ANSWER: Marianne Moore
9. He attacked Cartesianism in the Divine Dialogues of 1668, and argued that extension pertains to all
substances and not only matter in his Enchiridion Metaphysicum. FTPE:
 Name this author of An Antidote Against Atheism, who introduced the term “spissitude” to describe a
fourth “spiritual dimension” in addition to the basic three.
ANSWER: Henry More th Henry More was a leading member of this school of 17-century British thinkers, whose other leaders
included Ralph Cudworth.
ANSWER: the Cambridge Platonists
 In his The Grand Mystery of Godliness, More defended the views of his teacher Joseph Mede against
criticisms leveled by this Dutch author of On the Laws of War and Peace.
ANSWER: Hugo Grotius (or Hugo de Groot)
10. Answer the following about the Sun, FTPE:
 These absorption lines in the Sun’s spectrum are named for their German discoverer. Originally nine in number, two of these were found to have originated in the Earth’s atmosphere rather than the Sun.
ANSWER: Fraunhofer lines
 The possible cause of the Little Ice Age, this is the name given to a period from 1645 to 1715 where sunspots observed on the sun’s surface were on the order of 1000 times fewer than normal.
ANSWER: Maunder minimum
 This law of sunspots, discovered first by Richard Carrington but not named for him, describes the latitudinal variation of sunspots during a solar cycle.
ANSWER: Sporer’s Law
11. Answer the following about a man who ranks as the leading career field goal percentage shooter in ACC history, FTPE:
 This North Carolina product, who enjoys taking 3 pointers even though he plays power forward and thcenter, was picked 4 overall in the 1995 draft.
ANSWER: Rasheed Wallace
 Rasheed Wallace spent his rookie season with this NBA team, which would later trade him to Portland for Rod Strickland.
ANSWER: Washington Bullets (accept either name; do not accept the Wizards)
 After Rasheed Wallace was taken fourth, this Duke center was the next ACC player selected in the 1995 draft. After playing his rookie season with Dallas, he went on to play for the Timberwolves, the Grizzlies, and a host of other teams.
ANSWER: Cherokee Parks
12. Identify these scary mythological creatures, FTPE:
 This monster, which was said to roam the forests of Asia, had a mouth filled with three rows of teeth. Its scaly tail ended in a ball of poisonous darts.
 This relative of the dragon is usually depicted with only two legs and a long tail. It was said to prey on rhinoceroses and is depicted on the crest of Cambridge’s Magdalene College.
 This large dragon was slain by Apollo at Delphi.
th13. Name these 18-century French composers, FTPE:
 This composer of the operas Les Indes galantes and Hippolyte and Aricie was patronized for over two
decades by Le Riche de la Pouplinière.
ANSWER: Jean-Philippe Rameau
 He wrote numerous cantatas, including The Island of Delos, while teaching music at St. Cyr, though he
may be better remembered for the book of pieces for harpsichord he published in 1704. ANSWER: Louis-Nicholas Clérambault
 This author of 1716’s The Art of Harpsichord Playing wrote four books of pieces for that instrument;
several later composers, notably Maurice Ravel, wrote memorials to this man.
ANSWER: François Couperin (or Couperin le Grand or Couperin the Great)
14. It centers on Lancelot Smith, an atheist who learns some valuable lessons from Paul Tregarva. FTPE:  Name this novel written in the 1840s, its author’s first, which is subtitled “A Problem.”
 Yeast was the first novel by this Victorian author, whose other works include Hypatia and Hereward
ANSWER: Charles Kingsley
 Amyas Leigh’s love Rose is kidnapped in this historical novel by Charles Kingsley, which is set
around the time of the Spanish Armada.
ANSWER: Westward Ho!
15. Name these men who ruled in England prior to the year 1000, FTPE:
 After this man received his second coronation at Bath in 973, the other English kings rowed him down the river Dee as an act of submission.
ANSWER: Edgar I or Edgar the Peaceful
 This son of Ethelwulf ruled as king of Wessex until 899, and when he wasn’t keeping the Danes from overrunning his country found time to translate such texts as The Consolation of Philosophy.
ANSWER: Alfred the Great
 This ruler of Northumbria converted to Christianity and allowed the missionary Paulinus to work in his realm before dying at the battle of Hatfield Chase in 633.
ANSWER: Edwin or Eadwin
16. Islamic tradition holds that he lived between Adam and Noah, and invented the arts of sewing and writing. FTPE:
 Name this prophet who is mentioned along with Ishmael and Dhul-Kifl in the Qu’ran, and who shares thhis name with the founder of a dynasty which ruled the Maghreb in the 9 century.
ANSWER: Idris (accept Idrisid)
 In some Islamic traditions, Idris is identified with this Biblical figure, who also lived for 365 years and was also taken bodily to heaven without having to die.
 In the pseudoepigrapical Book of the Heavenly Palaces, Enoch is said to have been transformed into
this angel who is sometimes said to be the brother of Sandalphon, the angelic equivalent of Elijah. ANSWER: Metatron
17. Answer the following about a work of African literature, FTPE:
 Published in 1963, this work set in the village of Ilunjile revolves around the relationship between Sidi and Baroka, whose animal nickname provides part of this play’s title.
ANSWER: The Lion and the Jewel
 The Lion and the Jewel was written by this man whose other works include A Dance of the Forests.
ANSWER: Wole Soyinka
 This 1964 play introduces us to the title character, an unscrupulous preacher, who tries to exploit the slower Chemu. The same character would return ten years later in a sequel about his namesake “metamorphosis.”
ANSWER: The Trials of Brother Jero
18. The Tabasco gave him a woman known as Malitzin to be his wife and interpreter. FTPE:  Name this man, who won victories at Cholula in 1519 and at Otumba the following year. ANSWER: Hernan Cortes
 Cortes was forced to fight at Otumba after this nephew of Montezuma took charge and organized a Mexican army to oppose the Spaniards.
 The following year, Cortes took Cuautehmoc prisoner and captured this Aztec capital, which the Spaniards burned to the ground.
19. Answer the following about string theory FTPE:
 These non-perturbative mathematical constructs form the basis of string theory in all dimensions. The 1-dimensional type is known as a string, and the “D” type is one that has values for the Dirichlet boundary conditions.
ANSWER: brane or p-brane
 Two of the five consistent superstring theories involve this type of string, a hybrid of a bosonic string and a superstring. One of these theories uses the gauge group SO(32) and the other the Cartesian product of the E8 group.
ANSWER: heterotic string
 Many attempts to combine the five superstring theories have been made. This combined theory led to the introduction of the branes.
ANSWER: M-theory (accept U-theory)
20. Answer the following about a city, FTPE:
 Home to Simon Fraser University, this Canadian port city lies nearby the Coast Range and across from a namesake island.
 Vancouver lies on the Burrard Inlet of this 150-mile-strait which separates Vancouver Island from the mainland coast of British Columbia.
ANSWER: Strait of Georgia
 This urban park bordering downtown Vancouver is the third largest in North America and is named for the Governor General of Canada at the time it was opened in 1888.
ANSWER: Stanley Park
21. In the first chapter, “A Disquieting Suggestion,” the author imagines a world in which natural science is abolished while analytic philosophy continues to flourish. FTPE:
 Name this work of moral philosophy published in 1981, which concludes with a chapter that brings together Trotsky and Saint Benedict.
ANSWER: After Virtue
 This American philosophy wrote After Virtue, as well as such other books as Against the Self-Images
of the Age and Secularisation and Moral Change.
ANSWER: Alasdair MacIntyre
 The central opposition of After Virtue comes in chapter 9, which is entitled “Nietzsche or” this author
of the Nicomachean Ethics.