Basic education stage of the basic types of the modern school system
Abstract: China is building the basic education stage a modern school system, is gradually taking shape some of the following basic types: first, in accordance with "the
different policy orientation of public education" to divide, can be divided into: a fair priority, efficiency, second in the modern school system the basic types; giving priority to efficiency, fair second basic types of the modern school system; equal treatment equity and efficiency of the basic types of the modern school system. Secondly, according to "lead the process of building the identity of the different" to divide, can be divided into: government-led basic types of
the modern school system; market-led basic types of the modern
school system; experts and academic power is dominant, basic types of the modern school system . Third, according to "schools of different internal governance structures" to divide, can be divided into: the "school under the leadership
of the Democratic Management Committee of the President presided over the system" as the main basic types of the modern school system; to "principal responsibility" as the main basic types of the modern school system; to "board of directors (Board) under the leadership of the principal host system" as the main basic types of the modern school system; to "education groups, business groups under the leadership of the principal host system" as the main modern school system, basic types; to "party responsibility system under the
leadership of school principals" as the main basic types of the modern school system, and so on.
Key words: modern school system; school system; modern primary and secondary school system; the basic types of the
modern school system,
Type refers to things in accordance with the nature, characteristics and other elements of the things assigned to different categories, types. The type of the modern school system is based on the nature of the modern school system,
characteristics, structure, role, the objective conditions to adapt to the slight difference, or in accordance with the development process, the implementation process of public education policy orientations, the dominant school of internal
control structure different from the modern school system was placed under different categories and types.
Ministry of Basic Education and the Central Educational Science Research Institute, led on November 18, 2003 officially launched the national key project on "the modern school system, stage of basic education theory and practice of research", established the first "national modern school system, Experimental Zone "9. Later, at the State Department forwarded to the provincial government's second "Action Plan
for Invigorating Education" in Article 34, with two paragraphs of a long length of specialized proposed the construction of the modern school system plans and requirements. The experimental study of executive work, by the Central Educational Science Research Institute of commitment to school education. After three years of about experimental research, in some experimental areas, the different types of the modern school system has began to take shape.
China is a highly centralized political system.
Development of the central government's educational policy, education policy, for the nationwide basic types of the modern school system, the generation of significant and fundamental impact. Therefore, no matter in what area, what type of school
section which schools in their school system, the fundamental point, there will be a considerable number of aspects of the basic same. However, because of China's vast territory, large differences in local conditions, due to various types of
institutional differences between schools in the larger, as the central implementation of the grading school, grade management, education policy, due to education, opening up, due to social forces involved in the field of education , because all over the schools at different levels of education reform and development, as the principal management level, the different academic standards would lead to the modern school system with different features. We are divided according to different standards and the school management characteristics
of the modern school system of the basic types of predictability, the preliminary divided into the following categories:
1, in accordance with "the different policy orientation of public education" to divide the modern school system of the
basic types of
A country's public education policy orientation would be the country's modern school system, the formation of the basic types of major, fundamental impact. Recent 20 years in China, especially of the last century since the mid-90's
transformation of the education system, in fact accompanied by the transformation of public education policy. The transformation of our public education policy is largely affected by economic restructuring, large cultural system, the
new educational ideas (ideology), the modern enterprise system, modern financial and taxation system, the financial
position of governments at all levels, civil society, "Tibetan Fu "The situation and other factors, is still more intense in
the transition. Therefore, it is difficult to very accurately summed up its own characteristics. However, if we calmly through their behavior, analysis, and refine its
characteristics, you can put such a policy direction for public education in general is divided into three kinds. With
this policy orientation of public education that corresponds to the possible formation of three kinds of basic types of the modern school system.
(A) Fair priority, the efficiency of the second basic types of the modern school system
Most people think: national education, especially compulsory education should be by the Government's public finance expenditure borne by the government of national education, especially compulsory education costs. In the
taxation of citizens, the citizens themselves and their children to receive compulsory education, if re-pay the
sponsorship fee, tuition, fees, surcharges selecting school, then the equivalent of "second tax" is unreasonable. Those who hold this view, including not only a large number of parents of primary and secondary students, but also a large number of agencies in the educational administration of the national civil service such persons.
Click here to build some level of government direction in
the area of basic public education policy in the region will form a "fair and priority, the efficiency of the second basic types of the modern school system," those prevailing in the modern school system. Its main features are:
Advantages: pay more attention to the level of regional public education, balanced development; will take care of a large extent on the different social groups, particularly vulnerable groups in access to education in equality.
Weak: too heavy a burden on public finances, the broad
social welfare increased, in the areas of weak public finances will face when implementing the larger difficulties; basically do not support the educational choice, parents and students to choose the power of education services can not be guaranteed;
in the same area section of the same school between schools is difficult to form a level playing field will cause the performance of many schools is relatively low, there was a series of inert phenomenon.
Distribution areas or schools: mainly distributed in a strong financial capacity of public and private funds as opposed to ability to pay for public financial ability to pay less areas. Such as Beijing, Shanghai and other regions.
(B) giving priority to efficiency, fair second basic
types of the modern school system
Some people think: education should be more to the introduction of market factors, to allow market forces more involved in education. They said: public finance support public education system, while the supply side of educational opportunities in the relatively fair, but it is in the "examination-oriented education, mediocre and even at lower levels of fairness", is a less efficient or even the efficiency of failure, inefficient, do not speak on the basis
of the efficiency of equity. They think: In the Government has been able to put all or most of the funding for education have had to bear down the situation, also stressed the Government's public education aspects of the economy there is no meaningful
responsibilities and obligations, and must be market-oriented
to the market opening the field of education, so that Cash capital and private management of capital gain full access to education. Should fully respect the students and parents of
students of the School Choice of the right, when the choice of quality education, it should be in accordance with local market prices to pay the sponsorship fee (or known as selecting school fees, school fees, namely, the "second tax"). They advocated: the ability to privatization of public
education should be privatized in order to improve the school's competitive vitality and efficiency in the use of educational resources. A small number of them have even advocated: the Government only schools (mainly referring to
the building of schools and to bear part of the funding for daily operations), so that natural or educational intermediary organizations, social educational management company to be responsible for the daily management of the school. The majority of people hold this view for scholars.
Click here to build some level of government direction in the area of basic public education policy in the region will form a "giving priority to efficiency, fair second basic types of the modern school system," those prevailing in the modern school system. Its main features are:
Advantages: emphasis on openness, transparency, fair competition, can be more greatly enhance the school's competitive energy and efficient use of educational resources;
be able to attract private capital, including cash, capital and management of capital to enter the field of education, to increase the total supply of education; to meet in a large extent, the right of parents and students, School Choice; may quickly increase the education, including the supply of quality education.
Weakness: If the educational resources in attracting private time to relax on the government should bear the responsibility of public education in stress-related legal
system is unable to keep pace with the Government rush to occur in some places or the opportunity to shirk its responsibility for public education to avoid the situation , the Government will be more funding for education had moved to other areas, and put more emphasis on the responsibility of training and preparation of educational community and the parents; equality of opportunity in education, the education of vulnerable populations, there more problems.
Geographical distribution: mainly distributed in
relatively strong private capital or public financial capacity in relation to private capital, it seems less certain areas. Such as Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces as part of the region.
(C) equal treatment of equity and efficiency of basic
types of the modern school system,
Some scholars to absorb the above-mentioned two
categories of people more in line with the actual correct ideas, get rid of them does not meet some of that time, the situation on the ground some of the ideas put forward both
fair and efficient public education policies and positions on various proposals. This part of scholars believe that:
- The Government must increase investment in education efforts;
- In developing its legal system to be able to form a
government investment in education for effective supervision of the government's inaction or inadequate as to be accountability and accountability mechanisms;
- The government's financial investment priority should
be given to basic education, especially basic education, compulsory education;
- Attention to disadvantaged groups of people, to take care of vulnerable groups;
- Strengthening education, supervision and community education, monitoring, evaluation;
- To improve the overall quality of teachers, optimize the teachers, principals and teachers to improve as soon as possible "population standard" to strengthen professional training for teachers, to a certain extent, break the "iron
- By the Government to ensure that public schools teacher's basic salary and the corresponding benefits on time and in full. At the level of government management, administrative areas, both urban and rural areas, whether it
is higher in areas of government revenue is still lower areas, should be the implementation of school principals, faculty salaries, benefits is basically the same policy;
- In schools, implementation of the wages (wages or benefits) and the teacher's performance, achievements linked incentive policies;
- To encourage individuals, civil society organizations and foreign forces to participate in public education, and create an open, just, fair and orderly competition;
- An education fund, "education voucher" and so on, reform of public education funding system, and create favorable fair competition between schools of public education funding system;
- Allow students, parents gradually and orderly school
choice within a certain range, and turn right to choose educational services gradually and orderly return of students and parents. For example: Allow students who have some expertise with possession of the film was the absence of the kinds of characteristics of teaching in schools, to the
vicinity of the other characteristics with the kinds of teaching in schools; to allow younger children to their brother, sister schools located in the vicinity in order to go to school every day when they are brother and sister's care;
to allow younger children to their father or mother when you give a lift to work through schools or work in the vicinity of schools; and so on.
Those who hold this view, including not only a large number of scholars, but also including some educational
administrative institutions of civil servants, parents, primary front-line principals and teachers.
Click here to build some level of government direction in the area of basic public education policy in the region will
form a "fair and equal treatment and efficiency of basic types of the modern school system," those prevailing in the modern school system.