Energy Efficiency Programs in Korea
Energy is one of the critical driving forces for human life. It provides us with heat, light and mobility, etc. Energy demand in Korea has increased in almost same rate as rapid growth of GNP, which has shown average annual growth rate of 8%.
Korea imported about 97% of its primary energy in 1998. Major energy sources include fuel oil, coal, nuclear energy, and LNG. Although an increasing use of renewable energy is expected, it will not contribute to remarkable energy supply in the Korean energy systems. This poor self-sufficiency is one of the most critical components of the national energy system that leave Korea vulnerable to future energy shocks. In this light, the stable energy supply and conservation is vital to the nation's sustainable development.
An efficient use of energy is not only beneficial to the nation's economy but also important for conservation of natural environment.
Our energy saving plan has been improved and succeeded while undergoing Gulf War and two oil crashes.
Many energy conservation programs have been promoted. For example, tax breaks, loan and subsidy programs, energy conservation technologies, various pilot projects, energy exhibition and energy service companies program, etc. Here, among those programs, energy efficiency programs are discussed in detail.
The Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy (MOCIE), through Korea Energy
Management Corporation(KEMCO), operates three energy efficiency programs to
facilitate products embodying low energy input. These three programs are "Energy Efficiency Standards & Labeling Program", "Certification of High Efficiency Energy-using Appliance Program", "Energy-Saving Office Equipment & Home Electronics Program". The objective of these programs is to stimulate manufacturers to improve their products' efficiency by giving incentives and to induce consumers to purchase more energy efficient products available in the market place.
?. Energy efficiency standards & labelling program
Energy efficiency standards & labeling program started in 1992 to encourage the efficiency in the production and use of energy and help consumers choose more energy efficient goods through appliances with energy efficiency label, which shows the energy efficiency grade of the model from 1 to 5.
7 targets of the program are as follows.
- Electric refrigerator
- Electric air-conditioner
- Incandescent bulb
- Fluorescent lamp
- Self-ballasted lamp
- Ballast for fluorescent lamp
- Passenger car
MOCIE sets the provisions for this program. KEMCO, authorized by the Rational Energy Utilization Act, supervises its implementation and enforces the provisions.
1. Energy Efficiency Standards
Energy Efficiency Standards are divided into "Minimum Energy Performance Standards" aiming at stopping manufacture and sale of products embodying high energy inputs and "Target Energy Performances Standards" designed to give manufacturers to achieve higher efficiency.
(1) Minimum Energy Performance Standards
Minimum Energy Performance Standards were designed to get rid of inefficient products in the market. The products that failed to meet the minimum standards are prohibited from being produced and sold. If manufacturers and suppliers do not observe the regulation, they will be fined up to US $18,000.
(2) Target Efficiency Performance Standards
Target Energy Performance Standards aim at encouraging manufacturers to enhance the energy efficiency of their product up to a technically feasible and economically acceptable level
2. Energy Efficiency Rating labeling Program
The objective of this program is to induce manufacturers to consistently make products with high energy efficiency and stimulate importers to introduce more energy-efficient products into the domestic market, while helping consumers choose more energy-efficient goods
(2) Subject Appliances
Appliances Scope Effective Date
Electric refrigerator whose available internal cubic volume is Sep. 1, 1992
less than 1,000ℓ and rated power
consumption is less than 500W
(only those which employ CFC as a
refrigerant & blowing agent)
Electric air-conditioner whose rated power consumption of the Jan. 1, 1993
electric heating device is less than 5? and
rated cooling capacity is less than 15,000?
/h (Multi-type cooler is excluded)
Incandescent made of tungsten whose power Oct. 1, 1992
bulb consumption of 30W, 60W and 100W
Fluorescent Line type : 20W, 40W Oct. 1, 1992
lamp Circle type : 30W
appliance Ballast for Line type : 20W, 40W Jul. 1, 1994
s florescent Circle type : 32W
Self-ballasted using E-type base, whose rated frequency is Jul. 1, 1999
lamp 60Hz and rated input voltage is less than
Passenger car fueled with gasoline, LPG and electricity-Sep. 1, 1992
(3) Authorized Test Institute
Authorized Test Institutes Appliances
National Institute of Technology Refrigerator, Air-conditioner, Lightings and Quality
Korea Institute of Energy Research Refrigerator, Air-conditioner, Lightings,
Korea Testing Laboratory Refrigerator, Air-conditioner, Lightings Korea Electric Testing Institute Refrigerator, Air-conditioner, Lightings
Authorized Test Institutes Appliance
Korea Electrotechnology Research Lightings
National Institute of Environmental Passenger Car
Korea Automobile Testing & Research Passenger Car
Korea Automotive Technology Institute Passenger Car
KEMCO is authorized to monitor whether the manufacturers or importers of appliances with energy efficiency rating label observe this program or not. Especially KEMCO
does Market-place inspection and product inspection.
Market-place inspection is for checking up whether all products covered by the law are correctly labeled and the labels accurately reflect the product's energy efficiency.
Product inspection means checking up whether testing results agree with reported efficiency and rating through random sampling test.
(5) Manufacturer's and importer's obligations
In accordance with the Article 18 and 19 of The Rational Energy Utilization Act, the
manufacturers or importers of energy efficiency rating labeled appliances should indicate the certified grade, the energy efficiency and the way of efficient use in the advertisements or the product manuals. If they do not illustrate these, 5 million won or less (approximately US $4,170) will be imposed on them as a penalty.
(6) Future Direction
At present, the subject appliances of the energy efficiency-rating label are 8 including passenger cars. It has been extended step by step since September 1992. Clothes washers are supposed to be included on July 1, 2000 and other new appliances will be included according to the potential of energy saving. Appliances considered to be included are microwave ovens, gas boilers, etc.
?. Certification of High efficiency Energy-using Appliance
This program is to certify energy-using product whose energy efficiency is much higher than that of others as High Efficiency Energy-using Appliance.
To enhance the proportion of energy efficiency appliances in the market, the
government provides long term and low interest loans to certified companies, based on
The Rational Energy Utilization Act. Besides, Government related organizations should use certified products.
2 Subject Appliances
Induction motor for general purpose with three-phase squirrel-cage,
whose rated voltage is less than 600V, meeting
26mm32W meeting KSC 7601 standards, whose light
fluorescent lamp conversion efficiency is higher than the value of
light velocity on Annex3 of KSC 7601 divided by
rated power consumption
Ballast for 26mm32W meeting KSC 8100, KSC 8102, whose BEF is over
fluorescent lamp 1.09
Self-ballasted lamp meeting 7621, using E-type base, whose rated
frequency is 60Hz and rated input voltage is less
Reflector for for 1 or 2 lamp, total reflectance is over 90%
sensor lighting equipment sensor or lighting equipment including sensor that
control light by sensing human body or ambient
Heat recovery ventilator whose heat recovery efficiency is more than 90%,
entalpy efficiency is more than 65%, rated capacity
is less than 1,000N?/h
Window with more than 0.34?h?/? thermal resistance
and less than 5?/h? air leakage rate
Industrial gas boiler whose rated capacity is less than 12 million ?/h,
maximum allowable working pressure is less than 10
?/?, heat efficiency is over 91%
Domestic gas boiler Gas burning hot water boiler, whose heat efficiency is
Pump Centrifugal pump for feeding water into boilers
Centrifugal water chiller whose chilling capacity is less than 1,500usRT
Energy saving device for controlling monitor power by detecting human body monitor with sensor, whose net power consumption is less than
Uniterruptible power controlling its function according to the amount of system loads
* KSC : Korean Standards for electric appliances
BEF : Ballast Efficacy Factor
3 Procedure for Certification
(1) When a company applies with a test report
? Manufacturers or importers should submit an application with required
documents including the test report for certification issued by one of the
authorized test institute.
? KEMCO checks up the factory facilities of the company when the documents
? KEMCO issues a certificate to the company when the facilities were suitable.
(2) When KEMCO supports test fee
- KEMCO provides test fees for small and medium sized companies within budget
? Manufacturers or importers should submit an application with required
documents for certification
? KEMCO checks up the factory facilities of the company and selects test
products when the documents had no problems
? KEMCO asks one of the authorized test institutes for the test of the products
which he selected at the factory
? The test institute issues a test report to KEMCO
? KEMCO issues a certificate to the company when the test result was suitable
KEMCO checks up whether the certified products deserves their quality including energy efficiency as KEMCO's guideline or not by random sampling tests. When the
test result fails in meeting the requirements, the manufacturer of importer can take one more test at their request. If, however, the second test fails again, the certification will be cancelled and it will be notified to the public
5. Future Direction
In the past, government related organizations were recommended to use the certified appliances. However the recommendation of the use have been reinforced to obligatory regulation in lighting equipment and it will be enhanced to the all appliances step by step.
?. Energy-saving Office Equipment & Home Electronics
Energy-saving office equipment & home electronics program is a voluntary partnership between Korea government through KEMCO and manufacturers. This program started
on April 1999, based on MOCIE announcement No. 1998-136.
The objective of this program is to induce manufacturers to voluntarily produce energy-saving products meeting the energy-efficiency guideline proposed by KEMCO. Manufacturers producing below items can attach an energy-saving label on their products certified as energy-saving products by KEMCO
2. Subject appliances
(1) Office equipment
Computer desk-top, desk-side, etc. excluding portable
computers, manufactured as a fully-operational
Monitor cathode-ray tube(CRT), liquid crystal display(LCD),
or other display device
All-In-One System single unit excluding portable computers that
computer and monitor is combined, not possiblely
measured the power consumption of the two
components separately and connected to the wall
outlet through a single power cable
Printer Imaging equipment manufactured as a standard
model that serves as a hard-copy output device and is
capable of receiving information from single-user or
Fax machine Imaging equipment manufactured as a standard
model that serves as a hard-copy output device
whose primary function is sending and receving
Combination Imaging equipment manufactured as a standard
Printer/Fax Machine model that serves as both a fully-functional printer
and fax machine.
Copier A commercial reprographic imaging unit whose sole
function is the production of dulicates from a graphic
(2) Home electronics
TV Color TV with cathode-ray tube(CRT), liquid crystal
display(LCD), or other display device
VCR equipment that records image and sound with video-
cassette and send them to TV
TV/VCR Single unit that TV and VCR are combined, not
Combination unit possiblely measured the power consumption of the
two components separately
3. Procedure for participation
Domestic manufacturers or importers that have their own brand for their products can
participate in this program.
(2) Procedure for participation
? Manufacturer or importer should submit an application and a participation
agreement to join in this program.
? KEMCO issues the certificate of participation to the company
? Participants report KEMCO their products with application, test report proving
that the products meet the requirements, and pictures of the products
? KEMCO notifies the products confirmed as energy-saving products on the
* The test reports shall be issued by test institutes authorized, manufacturers' or
importers' own laboratory, if accredited by KEMCO