By Catherine Watson,2014-08-08 08:08
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    Draft Subject Benchmarking Statement April 2006


    1.1 This statement is intended to cover programmes of study in finance in UK institutions

    of higher education leading to the award of an honours degree. The study of finance

    as the major component of an undergraduate degree involves the consideration of both

    conceptual and applied aspects of the subject. The term 'conceptual' is intended to

    explicitly include theoretical considerations. The term „applied‟ is intended to include

    both the application and use of empirical methods, and relating theory to practice.

    1.2 Degree programmes in the area typically have titles of the form „Finance‟ or

    „Financial Management‟. Most degree programmes which contain a substantial

    finance content will also include elements of accounting and economics.

    1.3 Some programmes with titles other than those indicated can sensibly be evaluated

    relative to this statement. It is the responsibility of an individual degree-granting

    institution to relate any pathway within a degree programme to an appropriate

    benchmarking statement.

    1.4 Finance can be studied as part of a joint programme with related or unrelated

    disciplines (for example, finance and a modern language, finance and accounting,

    finance and economics, finance and law, finance and mathematics). In such cases this

    benchmarking statement should be applied in conjunction with others relating to the

    joint programme. In the case of combined programmes the scope, depth and balance

    of concepts and application, in terms of subject coverage, should not result in a

    neglect of either the conceptual or the applied aspects of the subject.

    1.5 Students taking a degree in finance do so for a variety of reasons. For example, many

    may be using the degree as an introduction to the worlds of business and finance.

    Others might be studying finance as a purely intellectual pursuit for its own sake.

    Given the variety of reasons for which students take finance degrees, it is to be

    expected that such degree schemes will have a range of aims. However, all degree

    programmes in the subject must fit the benchmarking statement.


    2.1 Finance is an activity concerned with the workings of capital markets and the

    interaction between such markets and economic units such as households, firms,

    financial institutions, government and overseas enterprises.

    2.2 Finance as a degree subject requires students to study the design and operation of

    financial systems, structures and instruments and, in particular, to understand the

    pricing of financial assets, the measurement and management of risk, and the

    possibilities for value maximising behaviour by the firm and household. Such study

    can be pursued from a variety of perspectives, including, but not restricted to, the behavioural, the ethical, the economic, the sustainable, and the

    statistical/mathematical. Although often studied in conjunction with accounting an in-depth knowledge of accounting is not required. However, basic knowledge of accounting practices and the principles of taxation, and their effect on the firm is required.


    3.1 Paragraph 3.2 specifies subject-specific knowledge and skills that are outcomes of successful completion of a finance honours degree. Associated with each item is a set of examples, given in parentheses. The examples are given to help illustrate the outcomes of a finance degree, not to act as a set of prescriptions. It is not expected that degree programmes should include all the examples and most degree programmes will include additional learning outcomes.

    3.2 On completion of a degree covered by this statement, a student should normally have the following subject-specific knowledge and skills.

    (i) An appreciation of the nature of the contexts in which finance can be seen as operating including knowledge of the institutional framework necessary for understanding the role, operation and function of markets and financial institutions.

    (e.g. the economic, legal, regulatory, and tax environment, both national and international; the firm; the capital markets; the public sector);

    (ii) A knowledge of the major theoretical tools and theories of finance, and their relevance and application to theoretical and practical problems. (e.g. concept of arbitrage and examples of its use; financial mathematics and capital budgeting criteria; informational efficiency; optimal risk sharing; portfolio theory; asset pricing models and the valuation of securities; cost of capital; derivative pricing; risk management; information asymmetry; principal agency relationships; signalling; Fisher separation and capital budgeting criteria; behavioural finance; term structure and the movement of interest rates; determination of exchange rates; financial intermediation);

    (iii) An ability to interpret financial data including that arising in the context of the firm or household from accounting statements, and data generated in financial markets. The interpretation may involve analysis using statistical and financial functions and procedures such as are routinely available in spreadsheets (eg Excel) and statistical packages. It may assume the skills necessary to manipulate financial data and carry out statistical and econometric tests (e.g. estimation and interpretation of asset pricing models; financial modelling and projections; event studies and residuals analysis; elements of time series analysis such as serial correlation mean reversion, and stochastic volatility);

    (iv) An understanding of the relationship between financial theory and empirical testing, and application of this knowledge to the appraisal of the empirical evidence in at least one major theoretical area. The appraisal should involve some recognition of the limitation and evolution of empirical tests and theory. (e.g. the efficient markets hypothesis; anomalies; pricing of derivatives and other securities; bond portfolio management; exchange rates; raising capital and capital structure);

    (v) An understanding of the financing arrangements and governance structures of

    business entities, and an appreciation of how theory and evidence can be combined to

    assess the effectiveness and efficiency of such arrangements. (e.g. decisions as to

    sources of finance and financial structure; the pricing of corporate securities; the

    market for corporate control; corporate governance structures and mechanisms;

    financial planning; international dimensions of finance);

    (vi) An understanding of the factors influencing the investment behaviour and

    opportunities of private individuals (bonds, equities, and derivatives; risk aversion;

    risk/return trade-offs; portfolio management and performance measurement; pensions

    and long term savings; the tax treatment of savings and investments; international

    diversification; FOREX risk; objectives of and constraints on institutional investors

    and advisors).

    (vii) An understanding of financial service activity in the economy and an appreciation of

    how finance theory and evidence can be be employed to interpret these services. For

    example information asymmetry, adverse selection, moral hazard could be employed

    to analyse the fundamental nature of services such as insurance, pensions, bank

    lending, and consumer credit and also explore fundmental problems arising in such

    financial service provision. EMH could be used to explore evidence for fund manager

    performance and the effectiveness of equity and bond saving services.

    (viii) An ability to understand financial statements, and a basic appreciation of the

    limitations of financial reporting practices and procedures: (e.g.; financial statement

    analysis; the relation between cash flow accounting and accrual accounting;

    discretionary accounting practices; nature of accounting measures of financial



    4.1 On completion of a degree covered by this statement, a student should have the

    following abilities and skills:

(i) a capacity for the critical evaluation of arguments and evidence;

    (ii) an ability to analyse and draw reasoned conclusions concerning structured and, to a

    more limited extent, unstructured problems from a given set of data and from data

    which must be acquired by the student;

    (iii) ability to locate, extract and analyse data from multiple sources, including the

    acknowledgement and referencing of sources;

    (iv) numeracy skills, including the ability to manipulate financial and other numerical data

    and to appreciate statistical concepts at an appropriate level;

    (v) skills in the use of communication and information technology in acquiring, analysing

    and communicating information (these skills include the use of spreadsheets, word

    processing software, standard statistical packages; electronic financial databases; the

    web and e-mail);

    (vi) communication skills including the ability to present quantitative and qualitative

    information together with analysis, argument and commentary in a form appropriate

    to different intended audiences;

(vii) capacities for independent and self-managed learning;

    (viii) normally, experience of working in groups, and other inter-personal skills, and in

    presenting the results of their work orally as well as in written form;


    5.1 It is the responsibility of each institution offering a degree programme in finance to

    select a set of teaching, learning and assessment activities that is appropriate for

    meeting the aims and desired outcomes of the programme. Whatever set of activities

    is determined, an institution should be able to demonstrate (for all pathways through

    the degree programme leading to the award of a degree in finance) how these

    activities enable students to achieve the subject-specific knowledge and skills set out

    in Section 3 and the cognitive abilities and non-subject specific skills set out in

    Section 4.

    5.2 No one set of teaching and learning activities is uniquely suitable to the study of

    finance independent of the context of the degree programme. The design of such

    activities will take into account:

    (i) the nature of the study of finance and the need to achieve an appropriate balance

    between the conceptual (including theoretical) and applied aspects of the subject:

    (ii) the extent to which the degree programme reflects current research and academic


    (iii) the nature of the student population addressed by a particular institution (for example,

    predominantly full-time or sandwich students; mainly part-time currently in

    employment; level of relevant experience);

    (iv) the mode of delivery (for example, full-time; part-time; sandwich; modular; distance


    5.3 Assessment activities can have both formative and summative aspects. Therefore,

    teaching and learning activities and assessment activities cannot always be rigidly


    5.4 No single form of assessment activity is uniquely appropriate for evaluating student

    achievement on degree programmes in finance. There should be a suitable balance

    and mix of assessment activities to allow and require students to demonstrate not only

    their understanding of the conceptual and applied aspects of finance but also the

    cognitive abilities and non-subject-specific skills they have developed as a

    consequence of their studies. Also consideration needs to be given to the balance

    between formal assessment activities and other forms of non-assessed experiences

    that together contribute to the development of the finance graduate.

    5.5 The balance and mix of assessment activities should take into account the reliability of

    the chosen activities in providing indicators of individual performance in terms of the

    outcomes indicated in Section 3 and 4 above.


    6.1 Here are presented guides as to minimum standards of achievement that warrant the

    award of an honours degree the threshold level of achievement to be matched or

    exceeded by all successful graduates. We also identify ways in which “typical”

    students can distinguish themselves from “threshold” students.

    6.2 Evidence of achievement with respect to many of the learning outcomes of a finance

    degree programme is likely to spread across several units, courses or modules making

    up the programme. At present, the award and classification of degrees at any

    institution will depend on that institution‟s rules and procedures. These rules and

    procedures are usually based on an individual student‟s profile of achievement across

    the units, courses or modules taken as part of the degree programme. The rules and

    procedures often incorporate provisions for condoning or compensating failures on

    specific units, courses or modules. They also have the effect of trading off

    achievement levels for particular learning outcomes against relative lack of

    achievement in respect of other learning outcomes.

    6.3 It is not the purpose of this statement to specify rules and procedures for classifying

    finance degrees. However, if the achievement of specific learning outcomes is not

    shown directly by passing individual units, courses or modules, institutions will need

    to demonstrate how evidence is gathered, across the whole range of assessment

    activities, to support degree awards. Students should be able to demonstrate ability in

    relation to most of the learning outcomes and they should have exposure to all others.

6.4 In describing attainment the following dimensions are identified:

(i) Basic knowledge and understanding basic knowledge and understanding is

    characterised by knowledge of a topic in outline, together with an understanding

    which demonstrates some limited ability to make comparisons and critical evaluations.

    Graduates with thorough knowledge and understanding can be expected to explain

    what they have learnt and to display critical evaluation of the knowledge.

    (ii) Cognitive abilities and skills basic levels of attainment are characterised by minimal

    proficiency in the ability or skill. Graduates with a threshold level of attainment can

    be expected to perform well in simple or straightforward situations. Graduates with

    high levels of cognitive abilities and skills can also perform well in complex


    (iii) Situations are described as “ simple” if there are few items of data and the relationships among them are restricted to principal factors under consideration in a particular topic. Straightforward situations are slightly more complex than simple situations and contain routine elaborations of simple situations. By way of contrast, complex situations are characterised by many items of data, multiple relationships, extraneous data and, frequently, a mix of qualitative and quantitative criteria to be applied.

    6.5 Given the above, threshold graduates:

    (i) will demonstrate a basic appreciation of the nature of the context and

    institutional framework in which finance operates;

    (ii) will demonstrate a basic knowledge of the main theories used in finance and a

    basic ability to apply them in simple structured situations from given data

    generated for the purpose;

    (iii) will reveal a basic ability to interpret straightforward financial data and carry

    out simple statistical and financial analysis;

    (iv) be able to relate empirical evidence to finance theory in at least one of the

    main areas of finance with a basic understanding of the significance and

    limitations of such evidence;

    (v) will demonstrate a basic understanding of the financial needs of business

    entities, a basic appreciation of how theory and evidence may be used to guide

    practice, and a basic understanding of the workings of capital markets, the

    relationship between risk and return, and the nature and use of financial


    (vi) will demonstrate a basic understanding of the principles of personal


    (vii) will demonstrate a basic ability to use and interpret the information in

    financial statements;

    (viii) will demonstrate possession of the required cognitive abilities and non-subject

    specific skills to a basic level of attainment.

    (ix) Will demonstrate a basic understanding of the economic environment in which

    they operate.

    6.6 The identification of threshold standards above is intended to represent the minimum standards of achievement consistent with the award of an honours degree in finance by an institution of higher education within the UK. This does not, however, preclude an institution of higher education within the UK from setting higher standards for the award of an honours degree in finance within the dimensions of performance identified in 6.5. Nor does it preclude such an institution from requiring additional

    dimensions of performance, relative to those identified in 6.5. above, for the award of

    an honours degree in finance.

    6.7 Typical graduates can distinguish themselves from threshold graduates by displaying

    a more thorough knowledge and understanding and enhanced technical abilities. They

    can also demonstrate an enhanced capacity to develop and apply critical, analytical

    and problem solving abilities and skills. However, typical graduates are not expected

    to distinguish themselves from threshold graduates on all the dimensions of the

    performance identified in 6.5 above.

Group Members

Anthony Antoniou

    David Ashton

    Paul Draper

    John Holland

    Andrew Marshall

    Michael Moore

    Janette Rutterford

    Martin Walker

    Andrew Stark

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