Library Science Evolution and Reconstruction System
【Summary】 article discusses the system of library science library science concepts and content, and formation conditions of the system, recalling the 19th century, nearly 200 years since the system of library science formation and development of changes in the overall evaluation of them; discuss library science Reconstruction of the need to reconstruct the basis and principles of reconstruction of a new system of library science.
【Abstract】 theory of vertical and horizontal title
Key words System of Library Science / History and Present / Review and Evaluation / re-build / fundamental research
1985, "Hubei University Library," No. 1 issued a clumsy, "On the architecture of Library Science," a text, after 1988 I was in Wuhan University Press book "Introduction to Library Science," a book written a "System of Library Science structures "chapter. These has been 10 years. Writing this article today, there are two motives: First, in the past on a system of Library Science Formation and Development of a lack of systematic exposition of the process of change and evaluation, is deeply inadequate; two libraries of today, great changes have taken place, in order to meet the
information digitized and network needs of the times, the architecture of library science there is a need to conduct in-
depth study and, where appropriate to make to adjust. This paper is divided into two parts, one library science system, the formation, development and evaluation, and second, reconstruction of library science system.
The formation of a system of Library Science, Development and Evaluation of
1.1 What is library science system and the system of formation conditions of
Library science system is aimed at the content of library science classification, arrangement, composition and formation of an interconnected whole of mutual restraint. That is, by the interrelated and mutually conditioned library science in various categories, branches, low-level discipline, knowledge
modules, knowledge elements constitute a whole, is a theory (theory) and applications (technology) combination. Knowledge element is the formation of library science system, the premise and foundation. Not have the knowledge element would not constitute a knowledge unit, but there will be no branch of disciplines, of course, there will be no library science system. Any one independent disciplines, including theory and application of the two aspects of library science also do so.
Science is systematized knowledge, library science is a systematic knowledge of the library. Library of Knowledge is an individual or group of libraries working practices over a long period of gradual accumulation of experience, and then
through people's systems thinking, draw conclusions, abstract, rose to the library of knowledge, concepts, theories; then the knowledge, concepts, theory, systematic, the result knowledge of library science unit or a part of library science, a branch
of scientific disciplines; will be interrelated and mutually constraining some parts or some branches of science through the collation, arrangement constituted some of library science disciplines, Principles such as libraries, library science
applied technology, etc.; a number of disciplines of Library Science was formed in library science as a whole, that is, library science system. Therefore, the library science system is based on certain scientific principles finishing out of the sum of knowledge, the library is a library of knowledge scientific, systematic, standardized, orderly, holistic. Library system is the state level, the sub-levels. It consists
of disciplines, branches, low-level discipline, knowledge
modules, knowledge elements of composition, is also a library
science theory and technology, or library science theory and application, abstract and concrete integration of the product.
The formation of library science system depends on the following conditions: First, the development of library
practice. The development of practice learning for the library
system and changes in the formation of accumulated experience and knowledge to explore the law of the proposal to examine the problems and issues, generate demand for library science
theories. Second, people's understanding of the depth and breadth of the library. Along with the deepening understanding of people's libraries and the expansion of Library Science was created the need to have experience in the sublimation of the library, only the emergence of the theory of library science and library science knowledge in a systematic start. Third, the establishment of library science study. The establishment of library science study the formation of the library system, the basic premise, there is no clear object of study, it would not learn the contents of the library system. Subjects of a content system always reflects the overall object of study, or part of, the level is targeted at a particular object of study is an analysis of people's object of study and analysis of
generalization and abstraction. The past 200 years, despite people's object of study of library science gained a better understanding, from local to all the outside to the inside, but the study of library science has never left the library,
always around the library to study this object, which is today only Library Science content system. Some people recognize the content of library science system, and does not recognize the library as an object of study, that the library is an
institution can not be the object of study, it is illogical. What is the object of study? Object of study is the object of awareness, that is, people think about and research as a target things. Library is an objective existence of things, is the object of knowledge of library science researchers, is thinking and research goals. If it is not the library as a natural object of study is not Library Science. The fourth is to deepen the study of library science, and only to deepen the study, the content of library science will continue to enrich only to make the experience into theory and methods, the contents do not constitute a simple system. Fifth, the launching of library science education. Library Science Education in the emergence of on the one hand depends on the
wealth of knowledge of library science, library science system, the initial formation; the other hand, the development of education of library science, library science has also promoted the development and improvement of the system.
1.2 Library system and the formation and development
Library system began in the formation of the early 19th century and has less than 200 years of history, which in comparison with many of the emerging discipline system, nature seemed more ancient, are traditional discipline system, but also a more mature system of academic disciplines. It reflects the library and library science research and development of and changes, particularly in information technology, digital and network era, more energetic, is much more fresh, but also
further expanded and improved.
1.2.1 The 19th century is the period of the formation of Library Science System
During this period the library learning system is not perfect, is not mature in the embryonic period. The main
contents of the technical methods of library science, library science is the application of part of the theory so much as most of his theory is also included in the technology or applications. Library Science system first appeared in Europe,
especially Germany, the biggest contribution of libraries and scholars, the results up. Germany is the 19th-century system
of Library Science Research Center.
In 1807, the German Martin Shi Lai Tingge (Martin Schret tinger ,1772-1851) first proposed a "library science" was the
term. Shi Lai Tingge again in 1808, "library science textbook trial Filmography" a book for the first time consciously envisage the creation of library science system. He identified the object of study of library science as a "library order"
and its main content is the library's equipment and the preparation of the directory. He is to start building the library technology, library science as the central system, from the surface to reflect the basic content of the library. 1834. In his new book, "Overview of Library Science," a book also reiterated more than 20 years ago created its own theoretical system of library science. Shi Lai Tingge proposed system of library science, though relatively simple, rough, only the technology, not theory, but after all he is the first to propose the system of library science who contributed.
In 1821, the German Ferry Delibua Adolf Ebert (Friedrish Adolf Ebert ,1791-1834) in an anonymous article criticized Shi Lai Tingge the theme of "Finishing the library" to study the
content areas of library science system is too narrow and
should include library management, library science is the book that the library management and finishing. He also early as a year before the 1820 publication of the "Librarian Education,"
a book, in this book, Albert put forward their own system of library science. In his view, the library collection covering all subject areas, to deal with these collections librarians must also have a profound knowledge, in-depth information on
the bibliography, literature, history, ancient instruments, writing this, foreign languages knowledge, which constitute Albert Library the various branches of learning systems. His system, that is, "Libraries in the performance of library tasks required the sum of all knowledge and skills." Albert's Library System and Shi Lai Tingge a comparison of library science should be said that great progress has been rich in content, number, scope wider, more comprehensive structure, but the work of Albert the library staff the knowledge needed to and skill mix and library science system as a whole is wrong, the two are different, and not the same thing. Librarian Library of the tasks required for the implementation of the knowledge, that is, the curriculum of library science
education system or education system should be higher than the contents of a broader system of Library Science wider, including not only the library of professional knowledge and technology, but also with the scientific and cultural knowledge and language. Library system is limited to the contents of the object of study of library science, which is commonly known as library science expertise, which includes theory and application of library science or library science principles and technical methods.
Albert's of library science system has been the Danish Moerbeixi (Christian Moltbetch ,1783-1857) support, and in
1829 published "On the Public Library," a book, Albert systematic architecture of Library Science This is later referred to the West library science historian Albert -
Moerbeixi Library system. This system after Zoller (E. Zoller ,1822-1902) The inheritance, in his 1846 book, "Summary of Library Science," a book so that this structure tend to perfection.
United Kingdom Edward Edwards (Edward Edwards ,1812-1886)
1859 published in "Library Minutes," a book, make a library history, library collections, library construction, classification and directories, public services, the internal
structure of the branch libraries system of library science
disciplines. Edwards system of library science have a number of new developments, content, more numerous, in addition to finishing books and library management, content, public services, the library building also as a branch of the public
service as a branch of the library science system, important developments in library science from the only study materials to enter the study of people, things and people the organic integration of order books from pure research to research the human person, of course, is a big improvement.
By the 19th century, nearly 80 years of research and development, should be said that the library as a study of library science system has been initially formed, which for the library professionals in training and development of
education in library science to lay a preliminary foundation. 1886 Kaer Jia Pritzker (KFDziatzko ,1842-1903) in Germany
gorteen Library Science University of Michigan opened the seminar. With bibliography, literature, science, law library
management courses teaching content. In 1887, the United States Sergei Dewey (Melril Dawey ,1851-1931) founded the
school library management at Columbia University, was established courses have been cataloging, classification, bibliography, library operations, plus special presentations and so on. The teaching system is still based on technical methods as the main contents of the library, library science theory, the system should not become an integral part of teaching. The reason: one is subject to the constraints of the
development of library science, from the early 19th century to 80 years of library school system has been basically means the main library technology, library science theory has not been properly developed. Second, with the then the level of
awareness, the school founder John Dewey published in 1876, "Decimal Classification," the first edition preface: What does not pursue a complete theoretical system, but only from a practical point of view, in an attempt to solve a practical problem. He pointed out that the most "critical" is "the actual effectiveness and economy," the "most important" is "able to easy classification, arrangement and noted that the shelves of books, brochures, directory cards, clip scattered information and notes, and the indexing of these documents. "
He added: "In the field of library science research, regardless of any issue, the philosophical theory of the correctness of all given way to practical application."
Dewey's view, not his person, but represents the society at
that time the library Theory and technical methods of view. Because a number of brand-name scholars like Dewey's
understanding of the limitations, which hinder the deepening of library science system, and comprehensive.
Library system to promote the emergence of library
science education, while the emergence of library science education, library science has promoted the development of the system. In this context, Germany Graesser (Amim Graesel ,1849-
1917) architecture of the Library a new exploration. In his
1890 book "Outline of Library Science," a book on the Library system, some new elements that Albert - Moerbeixi library
science system is too narrow, the new system should also include a library history, Book taxonomic content, thus forming a new system of library science Gresser. Its content structure consists of four aspects: the finishing school books, library management, books, taxonomy, library history. Gresser new system of Library Science has absorbed since the beginning of the 19th century of research in library science system, a number of better, even though from his library science library system in theory also do not see its proper position, but for the library Science Applications part of the arrangements for a more scientific, more objective reflection
of the basic contents of the library of this object, the library has also been the history of their due place.
19th century school system, the formation of the library during the development of relatively slow, the application of
technical methods to the library as the center is the basic feature of this period, although this period the library history, "history" is also a form of the theory, But the real principles of the library does not appear, or rarely.
1.2.2 20th century was a period of development of library science system
After the 19th century 90 years of hard work, library science system has basically taken shape in the 20th century go on to develop, improve and mature stage. The most significant progress is by a single technical approach as the central library science system, to enter into the theories and techniques, or theory and application, or a combination of abstract and concrete stage, not only people knew how to do
library work, but also to know why to do so. So that library
science system to a scientific, standardized, and into the heat of development. Although the language used in various systems, terminology is not consistent, but it basically summarizes the theory and principles and application of
technology or both, of course, some people proposed system of library science is not just these two categories, while the third or three or more categories, but such systems are included with the technical or theoretical principle and application of two basic categories.
The 20th century library science system is based on a more scientific and reasonable basis, but its development is incremental. The early 20th century, two or three decades, the overall Despite the progress, but still not out of Europe and
the United States centered on technical methods of library science system. Such as 1911, the American Library of Jurists, the New York State Library School in Plummer made the curriculum of library science, including management, technical, bibliographical and critical (ie, book selection and evaluation) and other four areas, and around these four aspects The out five or six courses. 20 years, Germany's Leidinggeer (C. Leidingen) revised the architecture of Library Science Gresser said, proposed to library science,
bibliography, library management and library history as a central element of the architecture of Library Science, said. 30 years, the German m Kaul (Fritz Ylilkau ,1859-1934) editor
of the "Library Science Filmography" inherited the results of
their predecessors made, including text and books library science, library administration, library history, the public library architecture. M Kaul architecture of the first occurrence of the "popular library" branch of the practical expertise that is later referred to a branch of library
The 20th century, 20 years to 90 years of library science for several decades is the period of great development system, in this period, China's most active scholars, the library, thought the most open, the results most, the greatest
contribution. First proposed the theory and technology, or a combination of theory and application system of library science who is Chinese, and they broke the 19th-century Europe
and the United States centered on technical methods of library
science system framework, so that more scientific system of
library science. Here I would like to say that the 20th century, 50 years since the Library Science in China on Sino-
there is always a bias, about the 20th century, 20 years to 30
years, when China's system of Library Science, while acknowledging the different foreign , but the overall considered to be inherited foreign, transplanted from the West, the reference to foreign countries, etc., do not think the Chinese are capable of innovation. In fact, during this
period, China's system of library science research, a great innovation, and their thoughts and achievements of more than a foreigner. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
18.104.22.168 Yang Zhao Zhe of Library Science System
Chinese scholar Yang Zhao Zhe is the first one clearly stated theory and application of library science library science system, a combination of people. In his 1923 book "Library Science" (The Commercial Press published in 1926
reprint) book, said the foreign library science books category many fewer Theory applies only for reference librarians, less than for the general studies; foreign application of library science books and more less principle can be applied only. To
this end, he strongly advocated self-compiled library science
books, saying that "the library of knowledge for the sake of promoting our country, to make whomever, one can tell the library principles and applications." To this end, in the "library science", a book made Principle and Application of Library Science Library Science combined system (see Figure 1).
Yang Zhao Zhe 1923 proposed system of Library Science
22.214.171.124 Friends of the Library Science Du fixed system
China's well-known scholar Du Ding-you (1898-1967),
published in 1925, "General Theory of Library Science" (The Commercial Press edition) book, put forward a Library Science System (see Figure 2). He credits the library as a special -
the library of specialized knowledge and by-laws-assisted -
and Library Science incidental knowledge two parts. The library of specialized knowledge in turn divided into theoretical and practical aspects of two parts. He said, "those who became a specialized discipline, at least two
fundamental conditions: first is the principle, and the second is applied, while the application is based on the theory come."
Du Ding-you in 1925 proposed system of Library Science
DU Ding-Friends of the Library system, and both can say for sure, there is also questionable aspects. He called the specialized knowledge of library science, theory and practical is divided into two parts is correct, the theory in the system, he also clearly lists "of all the principles of library science" and "Library Science and Library History,"
which system, not the past, but we have a number of related disciplines of library science, as attached to aid the inclusion of library science system is not desirable. Library Science is based on the library system as the research object
is limited to the library of specialized knowledge, should not be a number of related, with a help of the knowledge included in the system: First, the supporting of the content is not an integral part of library science, not in the library as the
research object; second is too heterogeneous systems; third, the content of loose, loose, the lack of logic; 4 is included in the relevant disciplines are not necessarily accurate; 5 has influenced the detailed professional knowledge of library science. He went out of the system, if the library education curriculum as a system is desirable.
126.96.36.199 Ko Chi-na's system of Library Science
Germany Ko Chi-na (Joachim Kirchner) 1931, proposed a
system of library science (see Figure 3) (Taiwan Library
Association Publications Committee. Library. Taipei: Student Book Company, 1982:59).
Ko Chi-na's of library science system is by the
"philosophy of history study" and "management methods and technology research" two parts, although some call it the
ground "theory" and "practical" two parts, in fact, "history the study of philosophy "section, only the concept of" books and books "theory, while the real" library science theory "or" principle "in the system of Ko Chi-na, and did not occur. From
the whole system point of view, subjects the logical relationship between the lack of a coherent, compare scattered, some of the subjects should not be part of library