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Chapter 15 IT and Computer Application

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Chapter 15 IT and Computer Application

Chapter 15 IT and Computer Application

    15.1 Information Revolution

    15.1.1. Introduction

    Information Revolution refers to the fundamental changes in the production and use of information, occurring in the late 20th century. Human societies throughout history have had information specialists (from traditional healers to newspaper editors); and they have had

    information technologies” (from cave painting to accountancy); but two interrelated

    developments, social and technological, underpin the diagnosis that an information revolution is now occurring.

    15.1.2. The Direction of the Information Revolution

    The outcome of the information revolution is seen by some commentators as likely to be as profound as the shift from agricultural to industrial society. Others see the transformation as essentially a change from one form of industrial society to another, as has happened in earlier technological revolutions.

    One major issue is how rapidly social institutions adapt to take advantage of the new ways of doing things that new IT makes possible. While some jobs and some areas of peoples lives do

    seem to have changed rapidly, many others appear to have been affected relatively little. Historians point out that it can take a very long time for what in retrospect seems the obvious way to use a technology to become standard practice. For example, electric motors were first used as if they were steam engines, with one centralized motor powering numerous devices, rather than numerous small motors, each powering its own appliance.

    New IT has often been introduced into well-established patterns of working and living without radically altering them. For example, the traditional office, with secretaries working at keyboards and notes being written on paper and manually exchanged, has remained remarkably stable, even if personal computers have replaced typewriters.

    Often the technology that gains acceptance is that which most easily fits within traditional ways of doing things. For example, the fax machine, which could take hand-written or typed notes, and was often delegated to a secretary to use, was hugely successful in the 1980s.At the beginning of that decade, it had been predicted that fax would rapidly die out, and e-mail would take its place; but this proved to involve too much organizational change.

    15.1.3. Information Technology and the Consumer

    At different rates IT is diffusing into the home. The implications of consumer innovations can be substantial. Widespread use of cars facilitated new ways of life, with a growth of suburban living and out-of-town shopping centers, and a decline of train and bus services. The expansion of consumer IT is associated with changes in ways of working (for example, telework), playing (new home entertainment systems), shopping (teleshopping), and learning (multimedia products of various sorts).

    IT can be used in monitoring body conditions (digital thermometers, pulse meters, and blood-pressure meters are available),and in providing health and lifestyle monitoring and advice (recommending exercise levels, medical check-ups, or diets).Telephone helplines have long offered advice, counseling, and medical services; these and many other services are beginning, sometimes in rudimentary form, to be provided on the Internet.

    The outcome of the information revolution depends on social action and social choices as well as on technological developments. Just as industrial societies around the world take various forms, and there are very ranges of information societies. However, as new IT permits more global communication, and more firms expand into global markets, there are also strong forces at work to share elements of different cultures around the world on an unprecedented scale.

    15.2 Geographic Information System

    Geographic Information System is a collection of computer hardware, software, and geographic data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information.

    15.2.1.How Does GIS Use Geography?

    With a Geographic Information System (GIS), you can link information (attributes) to location data, such as people to addresses, buildings to parcels, or streets within a network. You can then layer that information to give you a better understanding of how it all works together. You choose what layers to combine based on what questions you need to answer.

    Fig. 17.1 Emergency medical service

     According to Fig.17.1, in this example, emergency medical service (EMS) call information, including call type, elapsed travel time, and which rescue Chapter was dispatched to the call's location, has been linked to addresses. With this GIS-linked database, questions such as "What percent of dispatched calls did each EMS Chapter respond to within its assigned zone?" can be answered.

    A GIS is most often associated with maps. A map, however, is only one way you can work with geographic data in a GIS, and only one type of product generated by a GIS. This is important, because it means that a GIS can provide a great deal more problem-solving capabilities than using a simple mapping program or adding data to an online mapping tool.

    15.2.2Three Views of a GIS

    A GIS can be viewed in three ways:

    a. The Database View: A GIS is a unique kind of database of the worlda geographic

    database (geodatabase). It is an "Information System for Geography." Fundamentally, a GIS is based on a structured database that describes the world in geographic terms.

    b. The Map View: A GIS is a set of intelligent maps and other views that show features and feature relationships on the earth's surface. Maps of the underlying geographic information can be constructed and used as "windows into the database" to support queries, analysis, and editing of the information. This is called geovisualization.

    Fig. 17.2 GPS

    c. The Model View: A GIS(according to Fig.17.2) is a set of information transformation

    tools that derive new geographic datasets from existing datasets. These geoprocessing functions take information from existing datasets, apply analytic functions, and write results into new derived datasets.

    In other words, by combining data and applying some analytic rules, you can create a model that helps answer the question you have posed. In the example below, according to Fig.17.3,GPS and GIS were used to accurately model the expected location and distribution of debris for the Space Shuttle Columbia, which broke up upon re-entry over eastern Texas on February 1, 2003.

    Fig. 17.3 The Space Shuttle Columbia

    Together, these three views are critical parts of an intelligent GIS and are used at varying levels in all GIS applications.

    15.3 What is MIS ?

    15.3.1.Management Information Systems

    Management Information Systems (MIS) is the application of information technology to support business activities. Because businesses are rapidly changing, there is a growing demand for graduates who have the analytical skills and business background to make business processes more productive. Therefore students of this degree program will learn to analyze an organization’s

    information needs, then design a computer-based delivery system to meet these needs, and finally direct the implementation and operation of the system.

    To develop information systems that fill users' needs, MIS professionals must understand organizational structures, business objectives, and business operations (including processes and the flow of data between processes), how to communicate effectively with users, and how to design systems that support their activities. MIS professionals must also stay up-to-date with evolving information technologies and have a solid foundation of technical skills to select appropriate technologies and to implement computer-based information systems. Thus, the MIS

degree program combines computer-related courses with business courses.

    Since the failure of most computer-based information systems is not technical in nature but arises from the inability of individuals to design and use the systems properly, continued high demand for graduates trained in information systems is expected.

    A successful graduate of the MIS program will be able to:

    Create business applications in an event-driven programming language (such as Visual Basic) including the development of user interfaces, use of controls, writing/debugging code, and the creation of interactive menus.

    Apply data modeling techniques (such as normalization and ER diagramming) to create a database model.

    Implement a database model in a relational database management system (such as SQL or Access) including the creation of tables, establishing referential integrity constraints, loading data, creating views, and producing forms and reports using database data.

    Select and apply appropriate systems analysis and design techniques to create a system design for a business process including systems development planning, requirements determination and analysis, and data/process modeling.

    Use modern application development products as prototyping tools in the systems development process.

    15.3.2.The difference between Management information systems and computer science

    Management information systems and computer science are similar in some respects, in that they are both concerned with using computers to solve problems. But there are definite distinctions between these two fields.

    A degree in management information systems is aimed at people with a strong interest in computers and business. A MIS professional’s task is to help an organization realize the maximum benefit from its investment in equipment, personnel, and business processes. This process may include planning and developing new computer systems or devising ways to apply existing systems resources to additional operations. An important element within the MIS field is “requirements analysis” which consists of interviewing clients to determine the goals of the organization. Once the goals have been established the MIS professional would determine what hardware and software would be needed to meet those goals. This person would prepare specifications, work diagrams, and structure charts for computer programmers to follow and then work with them to debug or eliminate errors from the system. They coordinate tests and observe

    initial use of the system to ensure it performs as planned. Due to the close interaction with management a large portion of the coursework for a MIS degree will be centered around team work, leadership, project management, customer service, and underlying business theories which set the MIS professional apart from a computer science specialist.

    Computer science is a discipline that involves the understanding and design of computers and computational processes. The current focus of this discipline is on new and better ways of writing technical software, like operating systems, graphical interfaces, software utilities, and network protocols. Some of the crucial areas of computer science are theory, algorithms, programming methodology and languages, software engineering, and artificial intelligence. In particular, the field is concerned with optimizing the capabilities of computer hardware and other technology. Although some computer science graduates end up in similar jobs as MIS graduates

    New words and expressions

    interrelate [,??(?,??,,?] v. 使相互关连,相互关连

    underpin [~??(??,?] vt. 加强...的基础;支持;巩固

    diagnosis [?(,(???(:?,?] n. 诊断;诊断书; 调查分析,判断;判断结论

    retrospect [??,??(??,??] n. v. 回顾,回想;追溯

    appliance [(???(,(??] n. 器具,用具;装置,设备

    diffuse [?,??,???] vt. 传播;散布;普及

    innovation [,?(??,,;;(;?] n. 革新,改革,创新; 新方法;新制度;新事物

    substantial [?()???,?;;(;?] adj. 有价值的,重要的; 大量的;丰盛的

    suburban [?(?)??)(?] adj. 郊区的,近郊的

    rudimentary [????,??,??(?,] adj. 基本的,初步的;早期的

    geographically [??:?(???,?,?;(;?] adv. 地理学上;在地理上;地理方面

    discipline [??,?,??,?] n. 学科,训练,修养

    emergency [,??????(??,] n. 紧急情况;突然事件;非常时刻

    redraw [?:????,?] vt. 重画;重起草;重抽取

    deposit [?,????,?] vt. 使沉淀;使沉积 vi. 沉淀

    parcel [??!??;(;?] vt. 分配

    emergency [,??????(??,] n. 紧急情况;突然事件;非常时刻

    elapse [,??,??] vi. (时间)过去,消逝

    dispatch [?,???,?;] vt. 迅速处理;发送

    fundamentally [?~??(??,??(?,] adv. 基础地;根本地;重要地

    delivery [?,??,?(?,] n. 投递,传送; 交付,交货

    optimize [????,?(,?] vt. 使尽可能完善!使最佳化

    debug [?:??)~?] vt. 除去故障;移去(程序中)错误

    distinction [?,???,;?;;(;?] n. 区别,分清; 不同点;特征,特性

    specification [??,?,?,??,,;;(;?] n. 载明;详述; 规格;明细单;详细计划书

    diagram [??(,(??,?] n. 图表;图解;()线图;示图 vt.. 用图解法表示,图示

    coordinate [?(:?,??,?,,?] vt. 协调,调节 vi. 协调一致 adj. 动作协调的

    initial [,??,;;(;?] adj.. 开始的,最初的 n. 起首字母

    discipline [??,?,??,?] n. 学科

Phrases and Expressions

    Information Revolution 信息革命

    information technologyIT 信息技术

    telework 远程工作

    teleshopping 远程购物

    take advantage of 利用

    in other words 换句话说,也就是说

    a collection of 软件

    rescue Chapter 救援机构

    Geographic Information System 地理信息系统

    a set of 一套

    network protocols 网络协议

    programming methodology 编程方法

    artificial intelligence 人工智能

    organizational structures 组织结构

    business operations 商业操作

Exercises

    1. Fill in the blanks according to the text:

    (1) Information Revolution refers to the fundamental changes in the production

    and , occurring in the late 20th century.

    (2) Two interrelated developments, and technological, underpin the diagnosis that an

    information revolution is now occurring.

    (3) Often the technology that gains acceptance is that which most easily within traditional ways of doing things.

    (4) At different rates IT is into the home.

    (5) The outcome of the information revolution depends on social action and social choices as

    well as on technological .

    (6) Geographic Information System is a collection of computer hardware, and geographic data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically

    referenced information.

    (7) You choose what to combine based on what questions you need to answer.

    (8) A GIS is a unique kind of of the worlda geographic database

    (geodatabase).

    (9) Maps of the underlying geographic information can be constructed and used as "windows into the database" to support queries, analysis, and editing of the information. This is called .

    (10) These geoprocessing functions take information from existing , apply

    analytic functions, and write results into new derived datasets.

    (11) Management Information Systems (MIS) is the of information technology to

    support business activities.

    (12) Thus, the MIS degree program combines computer-related courses with courses.

    (13) Create business applications in an event-driven programming language (such as Visual Basic) including the development of user interfaces, use of controls, writing/debugging ,

    and the creation of interactive menus.

    (14) Apply data modeling techniques (such as normalization and ER diagramming) to create

     model.

    (15) Implement a database model in a relational database management system (such as SQL or Access) including the creation of tables, establishing referential integrity constraints, loading data, , and producing forms and reports using database data.

    2. Translate the following terms or phrases from English into Chinese and vice versa:

    (1) adapt to (16) 洞穴壁画

    (2) point out (17) 传真机

    (3) at the beginning of (18) 家庭娱乐系统

    (4) telephone helpline (19) 全球市场

    (5) depend on (20) 信息社会

    (6) emergency medical service (21) 信息管理系统

    (7) in other words (22) 数据库

    (8) a great deal (23)紧急事件

    (9) critical part (24)模块

    (10) a collection of (25)分析数据

    (11) creating views (26) 算法

    (12) debugging code (27) 人工智能

    (13) user interfaces (28) 软件工程

    (14) ER diagramming (29) 网络协议

    (15) information needs (30)菜单

    3. Decide whether each of the following statements is true or false according to the text:

    (1) Information Revolution refers to the fundamental changes in the production and use of information, occurring in the late 19th century.

    (2) Two interrelated developments, social and technological, underpin the diagnosis that an information revolution is now occurring.

    (3) Often the technology that gains acceptance is that which most easily fits within traditional ways of doing things.

    (4) The expansion of consumer IT is associated with changes in ways of working, playing, shopping, and learning.

    (5) IT can not be used in monitoring body conditions

    4. Translate the following sentences into Chinese:

    (1)Human societies throughout history have had information specialists (from traditional

    healers to newspaper editors); and they have had information technologies” (from cave painting

    to accountancy); but two interrelated developments, social and technological, underpin the diagnosis that an information revolution is now occurring.

    (2)One major issue is how rapidly social institutions adapt to take advantage of the new ways of doing things that new IT makes possible.

    (3)Historians point out that it can take a very long time for what in retrospect seems the obvious way to use a technology to become standard practice.

    (4)At different rates IT is diffusing into the home.

    (5)At the beginning of that decade, it had been predicted that fax would rapidly die out, and e-mail would take its place; but this proved to involve too much organizational change.

    5. Translate the following paragraph into Chinese:

    (1) IT can be used in monitoring body conditions (digital thermometers, pulse meters, and blood-pressure meters are available),and in providing health and lifestyle monitoring and advice (recommending exercise levels, medical check-ups, or diets).Telephone helplines have long offered advice,counseling,and medical services; these and many other services are beginning, sometimes in rudimentary form, to be provided on the Internet.

    (2) The outcome of the information revolution depends on social action and social choices as well as on technological developments. Just as industrial societies around the world take various forms, and there are very ranges of information societies. However, as new IT permits more global

communication, and more firms expand into global markets, there are also strong forces at work to

    share elements of different cultures around the world on an unprecedented scale.

参考译文( 15 信息技术与计算机应用

    15.1 信息革命

    1. 简介 15.1.

    信息技术革命指的是发生在20世纪后期利用信息技术使生产发生的重大变化。贯穿整个历史的人类社会已经拥有了"信息专家"(从传统的医生到报纸编辑); 而且他们拥有了"息技术"(从洞穴壁画到会计); 但社会和技术相关的发展,证实了一场信息革命正在兴起。

    15.1.2. 信息技术革命的方向

    有些评论家把信息革命的成果看成像从农业到工业社会的转变一样深刻. 另一些人则把它看成从一种工业社会到另一种社会的转变!就像早期的技术革命。

    一个主要的问题就是社会团体怎样才能快速地利用那些由新技术所带来的新方法.一些工作和一些人们居住的地方似乎确实快速地变化着!然而另外一些影响相对较小。历史学家指出,将利用技术的方式变成一个标准显然要在花费一段很长的时间。例如!电动机第一次使用就是像蒸汽机一样!有一个集中的马达向其它设备提供动力!而不是每个设备都有向自己提供动力的一个小马达。

    新信息技术经常被引进到已为大家接受的工作和生活和方式中!但却没有彻底地改变它们。例如在一个传统的办公室里仍然显著地保留着原来的样子!尽管个人电脑已经取代了打字机!秘书仍然用键盘工作!笔记依然记在纸上!依然手工改动。

    受到欢迎的技术往往是最适合传统做事习惯技术。举例来说,常代替秘书书写的传真机,20世纪80年代取得了巨大的成功!原因就是它可以取代手写或能打印便条.在信息革命开始的前十年!传真机将很快会消失!并有电子邮件来取代它;但是!这证明涉及到了太多的组织上的变化。

    15.1.3.信息技术和消费者

    信息技术正以不同速度渗透到各个家庭之中.消费者创新的影响也是很重要的.随着郊区生活和城镇外购物中心的增长火车和公共汽车服务的下降,汽车的广泛使用使人们的生活方式更加便利.日益壮大的与信息技术相关的消费者正改变着人们的工作(例如,远程工作),娱乐(新型家庭娱乐系统),购物(远程购物),和学习(各种各样的多媒体产品)

    信息技术可以用来监测身体状况(数字温度计,脉冲测量仪,和方便的血压测量仪),并可以提供健康和生活方式的监测和建议(推荐运动水平,检查身体,或饮食).电话热线早就提供了意,咨询和医疗服务;在互联网提供的这些服务和许多其它服务仅仅处于开始和起步阶段。

    信息革命的成果主要取决于社会行动和社会的选择以及技术的发展.正像工业社会呈现出的不同的形式和信息社会的范围.然而,当新信息技术使得我们能在全球范围内交流,也使得更多的公司扩展到全球市场的同时,在工作中也有一种的强大的支配力以一种空前的规模来使我们共享全球内不同的文化环境。

15.2 地理信息系统

    信息系统是计算机硬件!软件与地理数据的集合!其作用在于!获得处理与显示所有地理上的参考信息。

    15.2.1. 地理信息系统如何在地理上运用?

    有了地理信息系统你可以把信息与地理位置联系起来!如人与地址!高楼与区域或网内的街道!你可以给信息分层以便更好的理解它们如何整体运作!依据问题你可以有选择的结合不同的层次信息。在这个例子中!紧急医疗服务呼叫信息与地址连接!它包括呼叫类型!

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