The words listed below are terms used in the field of negotiation. Part I Terms in the textbook
Intangible factors 无形因素 The underlying psychological motivations that may directly or indirectly influence the parties during a negotiation. BATNA 最佳替代方案 An acronym for "best alternative to a negotiated agreement".
Distributive negotiation 对立型谈判 It accepts the fact that there can only be one winner given the situation and pursues a course of action to be that winner. Integrative negotiation 合作型谈判 It attempts to find solutions so both parties can do well and achieve their goals.
Claim value 主张价值 It is to do whatever is necessary to claim the reward, gain the lion’s share, or gain the largest piece possible.
Create value 创造价值 It is to find a way for all parties to meet their objectives, either by identifying more resources or finding unique ways to share and coordinate the use of existing resources.
A potential consequence of interdependent relationships. Conflict Conflict 冲突
may be defined as a “sharp disagreement or opposition, as of interests, ideas, etc.” and includes “the perceived divergence of interest, or a belief that the parties’ current aspirations cannot be achieved simultaneously”.
Target point 目标点 The point at which negotiator would like to conclude negotiations.
Resistance point 拒绝点 A negotiator’s bottom line, the most the buyer will pay or the smallest amount the seller will settle for.
Bargaining range/settlement range/zone of potential agreement 谈判空间 The
spread between the resistance points
Negative bargaining range 消极的谈判空间 The seller’s resistance point is above
the buyer’s, and the buyer won’t pay more than the seller will minimally accept.
Positive bargaining range 积极的谈判空间 The buyer’s resistance is above the the
seller’s, and the buyer minimally willing to pay more than the seller is minimally willing to sell for.
Bargaining mix 谈判组合 The package of issues for negotiation
Indirect assessment 间接估计 It determines what information an individual will use to set target and resistance point and how he or she interpreted this information Commitment承诺 The taking of a bargaining position with some explicit of implicit pledge regarding the future course of action
Strategy策略The pattern of plan that integrates an organization’s major targets,
policies, and action sequences into a cohesive whole.
Preparation准备工作It is to decide what is important, defining goals, thinking ahead how to work together with the other party.
Relationship building建立关系It means getting to know the other party,
understanding how you and the other are similar and different, and building
commitment toward achieving a mutually beneficial set of outcomes. Information suing 使用信息 It means learning what you need to know about the
issues, about the other party and their needs, about the feasibility of possible settlements, and about what might happen if you fail to reach agreement with the other side.
It refers to the process of making moves from one’s initial, ideal Bidding 竞标
position to the actual outcome.
Closing the deal 结束谈判 The objective of this stage is to build commitment to the agreement achieved in the previous phase. Both the negotiator and the other party have to assure themselves that they reached a deal they can be happy with, or at least accept.
Negotiator’s dilemma 谈判者的困境 The choice of whether to pursue a claiming
value strategy is described as the “negotiator’s dilemma”.
Resistance point 拒绝点 The place where you decide that you should absolutely stop the negotiation rather than continue because any settlement beyond this point is not minimally acceptable.
Alternatives 可替代的方案 Other agreements negotiators could achieve and still meet their needs.
Target point 目标点 One realistically expects to achieve a settlement and the asking price, representing the best deal one can hope to achieve. Power 权力In negotiation, power means the capabilities negotiators can assemble to give themselves an advantage or increase the probability of achieving their objectives. Ethics 伦理 Broadly applied social standards for what is right or wrong in a particular situation, or a process for setting those standards
Impasse 僵局 Impasse is a condition or state of conflict in which there is no apparent quick or easy resolution.
Postdeal negotiations事后交易谈判 Postdeal negotiations are negotiation that
occur as an existing agreement is expiring.
Intradeal negotiations事间交易谈判 Intradeal negotiations occur when an
agreement states that negotiations should be reopened at specific intervals. Extradeal negotiations 额外交易谈判 Extradeal negotiationsoccur when it appears
that there is a violation of the contract？or in the absence of a contract reopening
Active listening 积极倾听 One can let the other party know that both the content and emotional strength of his or her message have been heard and understood？but that
does not mean that one agrees with it.
The shadow negotiation影子谈判 The shadow negotiation occurs in parallel with
the substantive negotiation and is connected with how the negotiation will proceed. Social contract实质性谈判 A Social contract regarding how the negotiation will proceed, who has influence and power, and what the boundaries of the negotiation are;
Hard tactics强硬的战术 The distributive tactics that the other party uses in a negotiation to put pressure on negotiations to do something that is not in their best interest。
Ultimatum最后通牒 An attempt to induce compliance or force concessions from a presumably recalcitrant opponent;
Temperate phrasing适度的措辞 Temperate phrasing involves choosing language
carefully to deliver a message that will not provoke the other side; ADR 替代争议解决方案 Alternative Dispute Resolution;
Mediation 调解 the most common third-party intervention and negotiators surrender control over the process while maintaining control over outcomes; Process consultation过程咨询 A set of activities on the part of the consultant that helps the client to perceive ,understand, and act upon the process events which occur in the client’s environment;
Part II Supplementary terms
1. INTERMEDIARY 中间人或机构 An individual or firm that acts as a go-between
for two companies seeking to do business.
2. RECONNAISSANCE 实地调研 On the ground research and investigation of a
company, product or market. This special form of research requires actual travel to the country and culture that will be the target of negotiations.
A right granted to a counterpart in return for another right 3. CONCESSION 让步
or as a means to influence the outcome of negotiations. 4. NEEDS 谈判中必须解决的条款 Items included on an agenda that a company
must gain concession on if the overall negotiations are to be considered successful. 5.WANTS 谈判中想要解决的问题 Items included in a proposal or agenda that a
company would like to gain at the negotiating table but are not vital to a successful outcome.
6. ZERO-SUM GAME 零和竞赛 The concept that one side’s gains are directly
offset by another side’s losses. When all the gains and losses from each side are totaled, the sum is zero.
7. WIN-WIN 双赢 A negotiating strategy where both parties gain roughly equal advantage. Contrasted to a win-lose strategy or a zero-sum strategy. 8. POKER FACE 一本正经、面无表情 A countenance that does not reveal either
pleasure or pain. Such impassivity is used to keep counterparts from determining whether they are winning or losing.
9. ENVELOPMENT 对对方微妙但不间断的控制 The subtle but constant control
of a counterpart’s every moment, whether social or business. It can run the gamut from the heavy-handed methods of a Chinese tour of a cultural site, replete “special guide” or take the form of choosing a remote meeting site with limited
communications and transport.
10. WRIGLE-ROOM 预留的玄机 Purposely vague conditions or terms that are
included in a negotiation or contract to allow for future renegotiation. 11. BOTTOM LINE盈亏底线 The net profit of a business.
12. AGENDA 日程 The list of topics to be covered during a negotiation session. An agenda may be arranged in either an ascending or descending order of importance. 13. HIDDEN AGENDA 隐秘的议程: Undisclosed intentions or issues
14.CHIEF NEGOTIATOR (CN) 首席谈判者 The head of a negotiating team (or a
solo negotiator) responsible for developing and implementing the overall strategy and tactics of a negotiation. Full responsibility for success and authority to contract lie with the CN.
15. CONSULTANT NEGOTIATOR: 谈判顾问A professional negotiator employer
by companies on a project-by-project basis. Companies that do no have the required expertise in-house often hire consult negotiators.
A 16. REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL 买家向卖家提请的关商品或服务的文件
document issued by a purchaser seeking purveyors for very specific goods or services. The RFP will give basic technical requirements and possibly price restrictions. 17. TRANSPARENCY 透明度 The clear understanding by all parties of a uniform
set of rules, standards, and law governing a transaction.
18. SIDE MEETING 特别计划的私下会议 Scheduled ad hoc meetings, usually
between subordinate negotiation, used to settle technical details or pass along communications that would cause embarrassment or delays if broached at general sessions.
19. CHERRY PICK 在谈判中不顾对方趋利避害 the selection of the best terms and
conditions of a proposal while disregarding troublesome or unprofitable items. Cherry picking is utilized by very strong or highly inexperienced negotiators. 20. ACE IN THE HOLE藏着的王牌 An undisclosed advantage, usually one that will
ensure success when revealed.
21. BARGAINING CHIP 谈判筹码 Something of value that can be readily be given
as a concession in negotiating a contract.
22.BIG PICTURE 大局 The overall scope of a project or business transaction. In negotiations, senior executives and chief negotiators typically deal with the big picture of a project, while members of the negotiating team handle the detail oriented issues.
23. NEGOTIATION 谈判 The process of two parties with differences which they
need to resolve trying to reach agreement through exploring for options and exchanging offers.