Simplifying FBA, BIP, and
COSA Special Education Conference
June 23, 2006
Streamlining FBA, BIP Behavior IEP Process
Under Federal and State legal mandates such as the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) students with behavioral disabilities are protected by measures such as Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA), Behavior Intervention Plans, and Behavior goals in their Individual Education Plans (IEP). These processes are designed to ensure students access to a free and appropriate public education. In order to maximize the effectiveness of each of these measures it is critical to seek out the most effective and efficient methodology to correlate them and have them build off of each other. The purpose of streamlining these procedures would be to provide for a common goal of serving the students educational needs and reduce the required paper trial. The advantages are the improved consistency, ease in understanding each component, and assisting in communicating with students, parents, and school staff in regard to the purpose and scope of each process.
Streamlining the FBA, BIP, and behavior IEP process can be accomplished based on common links in each area of promoting and encouraging student skill acquisition in assuming responsibility for their academic choices, relationships with peers and adults, and school and
classroom expectations. By focusing on these three areas each component of the FBA, BIP, behavior IEP, and the behavior intervention process in general can be simplified and made more consistent with each other. In addition these three areas can be easily supported by regular classroom teachers, as these are the areas of concern they likely experience with these students.
The components of a proposed process for streamlining are outlined below and illustrated on the following flow chart.
; Student Goals:
The goals for all students in school are to promote and encourage each student to develop the skills necessary for them to learn to assume responsibility for their academics, relationships,
and expectations in school. These three areas can be developed thematically in addressing all areas of the learning process and can be woven together in the development of the students FBA, BIP, and behavior IEP goals. Utilizing these three areas as a basic beginning point school staff can assess a students unique educational needs (UEN’s) through the FBA process, develop a BIP, and document their intervention efforts in the student’s behavior IEP goals.
; Documented History
The need to provide students with behavior interventions begins with the their documented history of behavioral issues and school staff’s interventions efforts. When students
demonstrate a lack of academic progress in assuming responsibility for the academic choices,
their relationships with others, or meeting behavior expectations they may be considered “At
Risk” of dropping out of school. Each student will have a history of school experiences that
will need to be documented for purposes of understanding their UEN. This documentation will also be necessary in developing individualized interventions to assist them in benefiting from their school experience. When interventions are developed and implemented it will be critical to generate data on the student’s skill levels, efforts to modify their behavior, and progress on the intervention outcomes to address necessary modifications.
; Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
Depending on the student’s experiences and abilities the student will need behavior interventions that are based on the function of the behavior choices that the student makes that interferes with their ability to assume responsibility for academics, relationships, and
expectations. Ideally, the FBA process will assist school staff with determining if they can assist the student by addressing the antecedents and triggers for target behaviors as well as discerning what reinforces the student’s behavioral choices. This information will need to be
recorded in a written format and it will be critical to keep in mind the three areas of student skill acquisition in academics, relationships, and expectations. It is recommended that the
most simple FBA format be utilized and more complicated formats be utilized only when the need is demonstrated. (See attached FBA Worksheet, pg. 8-9)
When the FBA is completed replacement behaviors can be identified, as well as interventions to address the antecedents, triggers, and alternative reinforcement for the student’s behavioral
choices. In developing interventions to assist students, school staff will need to teach, support, encourage, and reinforce replacement behaviors. These replacement behaviors will need to be based on the targeted behaviors articulated in the FBA that interfere with the student’s ability to assume responsibility for academics, relationships, and expectations.
The purpose of the BIP is to promote student skill acquisition by encouraging behaviors that are positive, constructive, and pro-social. Generally these replacement behaviors will involve:
Relationship building that is designed to build trust and create safety
for the student. The ideal is having a dialog with students that is personal, individualized,
based on the child’s experience and ability, supports
the student becoming a learner, and develops emotional connections with the student.
Developing structure that is provided by the adults to create behavioral limits and
safety. This is both physical safety for the student as well as creating the sense for
the student of feeling safe
Promoting learning interaction leading to involvement in activities other than the
student’s internal preoccupation with their locus of control. Ideally the activity
would have an emotional connection for the student, the learning process, and with
others the students is engaged with.
; Behavior IEP Goals
The purpose of behavior IEP goals is to articulate Long Term Goals (LTG) & Short Term Objectives (STO) based on the BIP for addressing student skill acquisition in assuming responsibility for academics, relationships, and expectations. It is recommended that the
Present Level of Performance (PLOP) and the LTG be based on these areas and that the STO articulate the skills the students will be to demonstrate in order to assume responsibility for themselves. (See sample Behavior IEP, pg. 12 -14)
In developing behavior IEP goals it is recommended that regular classroom teachers be included when possible and especially if the student is going to be placed in regular education classes in order to generate teacher support of behavior intervention plans. (Se attached Teacher Student Goal Survey, pg. 5).
; Implementation, Monitoring, & Data Collection
Best practice in implementing behavior interventions and legal mandates require that data be collected on the implementation and monitoring of BIP and behavior IEP goals. The goal of the behavior interventions is to
Implement the behavioral IEP goals articulated in the LTG & STO for promoting student skill acquisition in assuming responsibility for academics, relationships, and
It is recommended that the intervention data collection process be made as simple as possible and that staff utilize existing data collection whenever feasible. Monitoring student progress through data collection based on information outlined in the PLOP of their IEP and may include, but is not limited to attendance, grades, disciplinary referrals, student and family self-report, staff report, anecdotal information, and student assessment data.
A daily communication process between home and school is recommended when practical and possible, and can become a component of the data collection process. (See attached Daily Communication Form, pg. 15)