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Function Based Planning

By Frederick Edwards,2014-11-26 11:54
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Function Based Planning

    Streamlining the

    Behavior Intervention

    Process:

    Simplifying FBA, BIP, and

    Behavior IEP’s

     Cory Dunn

     COSA Special Education Conference

     June 23, 2006

    Streamlining FBA, BIP Behavior IEP Process

    Under Federal and State legal mandates such as the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) students with behavioral disabilities are protected by measures such as Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA), Behavior Intervention Plans, and Behavior goals in their Individual Education Plans (IEP). These processes are designed to ensure students access to a free and appropriate public education. In order to maximize the effectiveness of each of these measures it is critical to seek out the most effective and efficient methodology to correlate them and have them build off of each other. The purpose of streamlining these procedures would be to provide for a common goal of serving the students educational needs and reduce the required paper trial. The advantages are the improved consistency, ease in understanding each component, and assisting in communicating with students, parents, and school staff in regard to the purpose and scope of each process.

    Streamlining the FBA, BIP, and behavior IEP process can be accomplished based on common links in each area of promoting and encouraging student skill acquisition in assuming responsibility for their academic choices, relationships with peers and adults, and school and

    classroom expectations. By focusing on these three areas each component of the FBA, BIP, behavior IEP, and the behavior intervention process in general can be simplified and made more consistent with each other. In addition these three areas can be easily supported by regular classroom teachers, as these are the areas of concern they likely experience with these students.

    The components of a proposed process for streamlining are outlined below and illustrated on the following flow chart.

; Student Goals:

    The goals for all students in school are to promote and encourage each student to develop the skills necessary for them to learn to assume responsibility for their academics, relationships,

    and expectations in school. These three areas can be developed thematically in addressing all areas of the learning process and can be woven together in the development of the students FBA, BIP, and behavior IEP goals. Utilizing these three areas as a basic beginning point school staff can assess a students unique educational needs (UEN’s) through the FBA process, develop a BIP, and document their intervention efforts in the student’s behavior IEP goals.

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    ; Documented History

    The need to provide students with behavior interventions begins with the their documented history of behavioral issues and school staff’s interventions efforts. When students

    demonstrate a lack of academic progress in assuming responsibility for the academic choices,

    their relationships with others, or meeting behavior expectations they may be considered “At

    Risk” of dropping out of school. Each student will have a history of school experiences that

    will need to be documented for purposes of understanding their UEN. This documentation will also be necessary in developing individualized interventions to assist them in benefiting from their school experience. When interventions are developed and implemented it will be critical to generate data on the student’s skill levels, efforts to modify their behavior, and progress on the intervention outcomes to address necessary modifications.

    ; Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)

    Depending on the student’s experiences and abilities the student will need behavior interventions that are based on the function of the behavior choices that the student makes that interferes with their ability to assume responsibility for academics, relationships, and

    expectations. Ideally, the FBA process will assist school staff with determining if they can assist the student by addressing the antecedents and triggers for target behaviors as well as discerning what reinforces the student’s behavioral choices. This information will need to be

    recorded in a written format and it will be critical to keep in mind the three areas of student skill acquisition in academics, relationships, and expectations. It is recommended that the

    most simple FBA format be utilized and more complicated formats be utilized only when the need is demonstrated. (See attached FBA Worksheet, pg. 8-9)

    ; BIP

    When the FBA is completed replacement behaviors can be identified, as well as interventions to address the antecedents, triggers, and alternative reinforcement for the student’s behavioral

    choices. In developing interventions to assist students, school staff will need to teach, support, encourage, and reinforce replacement behaviors. These replacement behaviors will need to be based on the targeted behaviors articulated in the FBA that interfere with the student’s ability to assume responsibility for academics, relationships, and expectations.

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    The purpose of the BIP is to promote student skill acquisition by encouraging behaviors that are positive, constructive, and pro-social. Generally these replacement behaviors will involve:

    Support

    Relationship building that is designed to build trust and create safety

    for the student. The ideal is having a dialog with students that is personal, individualized,

    based on the child’s experience and ability, supports

    the student becoming a learner, and develops emotional connections with the student.

    Containment

    Developing structure that is provided by the adults to create behavioral limits and

    safety. This is both physical safety for the student as well as creating the sense for

    the student of feeling safe

    Focus

    Promoting learning interaction leading to involvement in activities other than the

    student’s internal preoccupation with their locus of control. Ideally the activity

    would have an emotional connection for the student, the learning process, and with

    others the students is engaged with.

    ; Behavior IEP Goals

    The purpose of behavior IEP goals is to articulate Long Term Goals (LTG) & Short Term Objectives (STO) based on the BIP for addressing student skill acquisition in assuming responsibility for academics, relationships, and expectations. It is recommended that the

    Present Level of Performance (PLOP) and the LTG be based on these areas and that the STO articulate the skills the students will be to demonstrate in order to assume responsibility for themselves. (See sample Behavior IEP, pg. 12 -14)

    In developing behavior IEP goals it is recommended that regular classroom teachers be included when possible and especially if the student is going to be placed in regular education classes in order to generate teacher support of behavior intervention plans. (Se attached Teacher Student Goal Survey, pg. 5).

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    ; Implementation, Monitoring, & Data Collection

    Best practice in implementing behavior interventions and legal mandates require that data be collected on the implementation and monitoring of BIP and behavior IEP goals. The goal of the behavior interventions is to

    Implement the behavioral IEP goals articulated in the LTG & STO for promoting student skill acquisition in assuming responsibility for academics, relationships, and

    expectations.

    It is recommended that the intervention data collection process be made as simple as possible and that staff utilize existing data collection whenever feasible. Monitoring student progress through data collection based on information outlined in the PLOP of their IEP and may include, but is not limited to attendance, grades, disciplinary referrals, student and family self-report, staff report, anecdotal information, and student assessment data.

    A daily communication process between home and school is recommended when practical and possible, and can become a component of the data collection process. (See attached Daily Communication Form, pg. 15)

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    Developing Function Based Behavior Plans

    &

    Behavior IEP Goals

     Documented FBA History

     Student Goals BIP ; Academics Monitoring

     & Data ; Relationships

    ; Expectations

     IEP Goals

     Implementation

     & Data

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    Behavior Intervention Planning

    TEACHER SURVEY

    Student:__________________________________________ Date:________________

    Staff requesting behavior intervention________________________________________

Behavior Concerns:

    _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

What (if any) goals would you see as important for this student to assume responsibility

    for their academics, relationships, and school expectations?

    1.______________________________________________________________________

    _______________________________________________________________________

    2.______________________________________________________________________

    _______________________________________________________________________

    3._____________________________________________________________________

    _______________________________________________________________________

    Your Name: ____________________________________________________________

    Relationship to student ____________________________________________________

Would you be available and willing to:

    a. Be on a student support team _____________________________________

    b. Be a monitor for this student?_____________________________________

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    UNDERSTANDING THE FUNCTION OF BEHAVIOR

    Name: Date:

    Set Up Set Off Target Behavior Reinforcers

     Options, Modifications, Interventions, & Potential Support

     8

    UNDERSTANDING THE FUNCTIONS OF BEHAVIOR

     Name: Sample Date: 4/25/05

    Set Up Set Off Target Behavior Reinforcers

    ; Being asked to perform Going home ; ; Oppositional and defiant ;

    behavior that disrupts the ; Avoids academics ; Being held accountable ; Unresolved trauma academic process for (right that minute) others ; Engages other and negative ; Grief (loss issue) ; Anxiety rises attention ; Academic needs ; Negative Peer interaction ; Sense of control

     ; Transitions

    Potential Options, Modifications, Interventions, Support

     ; Keep him in school

    ; Respond early when signs ; Cooperative and engaged ; Social skills for ; Home visit occur that it’s not working toward

    initiating positive ; Provide hands-on working. independent academic

     performance peer contact reinforcement ; Training classmates to

    ; Pre-correction ; Caught being responsible ignore disruptive behavior

     ; Establishing options ; Logical Consequences for ; Teaching problem solving

    choices ; Reading assessment skill for frustration

    and support plan ; Training in cause & effect ; Teaching how to ask for and making choices ; Examine academics assistance schedule ; Parent support ; Pre correction for ; Increase consistency transitions ; Plan for Success

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    FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OPTIONS

    SETTING EVENTS PREDICTORS, ANTECEDENTS PROBLEM BEHAVIORS APPARENT PURPOSE OR NEED

    BEHAVIOR SERVES TO AVOID

    OR OBTAIN

     Physical health factors Academic Tunes Out Instruction

     Impulsive Whole class work Doesn’t take instruction Attention from adults

     Self-stimulation, i.e., rocking, tapping Receiving instruction Doesn’t start assignment

     Overly active Preparing for task Doesn’t work consistently Attention from peers

     Gets angry easily Independent work Doesn’t turn work in

     Highly distractible Small group work Doesn’t ask for help Get an activity

     Anxious or fearful Content too difficult Distracts others by talking to peers

     Lacks sleep frequently Length of assignment Talks out frequently Get an item

     Ill often New information

     Complains of physical pains frequently Instruction unclear for student Avoidance of certain people Non-Compliance

     Often hungry Finishes work quickly Simple refusal

     Direct defiance Avoidance of peer teasing

     Escalates into temper outbursts Emotional factors Authority

     Frequent conflicts with peers Males Argues Avoidance of task(s)

     Defiant to adults frequently Females Inappropriate language

     Lack of friendships Regular teacher Avoidance of demands

     Gets angry easily Other staff (music, EAs) Problems with Peers

     Loner Substitutes Bully Avoidance of correction

     Frequently appears sad Victim

     Frequently victimized by peers Intrusive verbally Avoidance of task(s) Peer

     Lacks motivation for school or Problems with most peers Intrusive physically friendships Problems with specific peers Peculiar behavior or communications

     With increased numbers of peers Escalating patterns

    present Takes other’s belongings Problems outside of school setting

     During less supervision Family conflicts

     Alcohol/Drug problems in self Resists Changes

     Agitation Alcohol/Drug problems in family Procedure

     Transitions Refusal, verbal/physical Other: _________________________

     Start-stop procedures Appears confused or overwhelmed

     Less structured areas Withdraws

     Access to desirable objects, tasks or Destroys property

    people i.e., can’t wait

     Inappropriate Behaviors

    Communication

     Student lacks skills to indicate needs or Other: ___________________________

    wants clearly

     Other: _________________________

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