On the Floating Population of Crime and Its Control Measures
【Summary】 The emergence of a large number of floating population, have emerged since the reform and opening up of new products. Floating population of the main crime is based
on economic objectives and hence the flow of movement, leaving the location of residence of natural persons in criminal activities took place. Floating Population status and characteristics of crime and criminal causes. Floating population in the prevention and control strategies should be taken.
Key words floating population of the main causes of crime prevention measures of crime
[Abstract] There are a lot of recurrent population to exist, which is the result of growing of reforms in China
recently. The definition of the subject of crime of the recurrent population is that kind of persons, who leave for other any place except their own dwelling place for economical purposes, commit a crime. Expounded are the reality and the reasons of crime and the preventions of crimes about the subject of crime of the recurrent population.
[Key words] Recurrent Population; the Subject of Crime; the Reason of Crime; the Prevention of Crime
The emergence of a large number of floating population,
have emerged since the reform and opening up of new products. It is China's economic and political development of the necessary needs of the community has a positive effect. However, with the continuous deepening of reform and opening up, the frequency of population movement continues to
accelerate, its negative effects on society side also began to suddenly exposed to the social order caused by increasing pressure. Based on this kind of social background, through the
concept of the floating population, characteristics, its
discussion of the causes of crime, combined with preventive measures to be taken on this proposal, hoping to further elaborate on the floating population, the main body of this particular crime-related crime a number of basic problems.
1, the mobile population and movement of the main population, crime,
(A) the concept of the floating population
At present, the academic sector and the actual movement of the population of what is, in fact, there is no consistent definition. "Engaged in the floating population studies scholars as well as floating population management, from different angles to the flow of population in different books and to define the table"  (P277) "Encyclopedia of China. Sociology" that the floating population (recurrentpopulation): "temporary leave of permanent residence, short-term migration
of population mobility and migration of ... ... are two similar but there are different phenomena, mobile population and migration of population, though it is moving in space, but
the migration is the intention of permanent change of residence under the guidance of a kinds of activities, while the flows are short-term, back and forth, and will not lead to changes in the party places of habitual residence. "
(P171)" provides management of floating population in Guangdong Province ": the floating population refers to the location of permanent residence to leave the cities and counties, to the temporary residence of citizens of other regions. "Floating population in Hainan Province regulations": the floating population refers to the location of permanent residence to leave the urban areas or rural towns to the rest of the general term for those who temporarily ... the movement of natural persons as a specific movement of population or
In summary, the above definition of the concept are mainly from the management point of view, to whether a place of permanent residence as a basis for the floating population to define. Combination of the floating population has the four elements: First, the separation of the population and
household registration; second is the location of regional boundaries across a certain movement; third is the flow of longer distance; 4 is a flow with the direction selective. We
believe that: floating population means for engaging in various activities to leave the residence location of the region a variety of personnel.
The floating population in order to work or business can be divided into specific characterized by the employment-based
mobile population; to visit relatives, travel, holiday characterized by social interaction-based mobile population;
to meetings, travel, business activities, public service-type
of society characterized by the floating population.
(B) the floating population of the main crime,
We have studied the floating population of crime problems, analyze the phenomenon of the floating population of crime, and explore the reasons for the floating population and patterns of crime, its fundamental purpose is to prevent and reduce crime, the floating population. Proceeding from this basic purpose, we will define our object of study - the
floating population of the main crime. So, how can we determine this potential group of people in the floating
population in the scope? First of all, to visit relatives, travel, vacation, meetings, travel, see a doctor to exclude other people, because if its included in our study area, it would be a lack of relevant, there is not much research value;
Second, we must for the "crime" and "mobile" to exclude the movement of people, because if its included in our study area, it would be neither conducive to theoretical research, but also because of confusing part of the connotation of the concept of the floating population with no benefit from the solution to the problem of crime.
This shows that the floating population of the main crime is based on economic objectives and hence the flow of movement, leaving the location of residence of natural persons
in criminal activity took place.
2, the mobile population, the status and characteristics of crime
(A) the status of the floating population of crime
1, the status quo of China's population mobility
From the National Population and Family Planning
Commission was informed that the number of floating population in the country of 70 million from 1993 to 2003 to 1.4 million, has doubled in 10 years, more than 10% of the total population, accounting for 30% of the rural labor force .
At present, the basic direction of population movements from rural to urban, from the economically underdeveloped areas to the economically developed regions, from central and western regions to eastern coastal areas. In the future for a long period of time, the size of the floating population will be further expanded. According to the fifth national census in 2000 showed that the flow of the province accounted for 65%, inter-provincial movement of 35%. The floating population accounts for the vast majority of young people, including 15-
year-old to 35-year-olds accounted for more than 70% of the floating population.
2, the mobile population, the status of crime
With the increase in the number of floating population, the mobile population, crime is also increasing. Mobile
populations, often implemented in crime: theft, plunder, robbery, prostitution, rape, murder, gambling, and to flow to criminal cases increased significantly. According to some provincial and municipal statistics, in the city occurred in
criminal cases, more than half of its membership of about committing the crime came from the farmers on the theft offenses, a floating population of up to 70% -80% commit
crimes.  (P79)
According to the survey, the mobile population of
criminals in the proportion of all offenders in 1985 to 15% in 1987 17% 1988 18%. Compared with 1990 and 1985, the floating population of criminals increased 1.5 times, the coastal provinces and major cities in the floating population is more serious offenses. Guangdong Province is China's floating population in committing the crime of the most prominent provinces. Floating population in the province in 1980
accounted for only 6.6% of crime in 1988 rose to 29.6%; in 1980 the perpetrators of floating population in 2200 over 1988
had been close to 1 million people. Beijing's floating population crime in 1985 than in 1984, an increase of 33.5% in 1987 compared with 1986, an increase of 39%. Beijing's floating population in the proportion of criminals, the
perpetrators of the total in 1984 to 7.9% in 1986 to 15.3% in 1987 to 21.7%. And then a greater impact in criminal cases from the point of view, the late 80s, China's criminal offenders, the mobile population of about 1 / 5. To 90 years, with the rapid expansion of the size of the floating
population, the number of floating population crime is soaring. According to police department statistics, in 1993, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, seized the floating population of criminal cases accounted for 62% of the total number of
criminal cases, large cases, 82%; Beijing seized the perpetrators of the floating population accounts for captured 44% of the total number of various types of criminals, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, City also accounted for 61%; to 1994, public
security organs uncovered the illegal migrants and criminals who had a total of 569,000 people, its illegal and the crime rate as high as 12.8% over the same period the country various criminals who were captured and 4.095 million people, illegal and criminal the rate of 3.4%, compared to the floating population crime rates higher than the national average crime rate 8.4 percentage points. In many cities, the mobile population in all criminal cases, criminal cases accounted for more than 50%. According to the 1994 statistics, the floating population of crime accounted for the proportion of all criminal cases in Beijing was 46.2%, Shanghai 53.6%, 30% of Tianjin, Guangzhou and 69.2%, 53% in Xi'an, Chongqing was 53.9 %, 50% in Hangzhou, Wenzhou City, 48.6%, 47%, Nanjing,
Dongguan City, 85.4%, Shenzhen was 97%. According to the data, the major cases in Guangdong Province, there are more than 70% of the mobile population (including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, cross-border crime). All investigations showed that
the floating population of criminals in the proportion of crimes increasing, in the 90's, this figure is straight up. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
(B) The characteristics of the floating population of Crime
1, contrary to charges of Qin Cai Xing
Most migrant workers is a business, the purpose of making money influx of rich city, which in the floating population of criminal activity, targeting the economic interests of the more prominent crimes.
According to statistics, in 2004 cracked the case of Xi'an, the mobile population, committed the crime accounted for 61%, including theft, accounting for 85%; in 2005 cracked the case of the floating population of up to 63% of offenses, including theft, accounting for 87%. Which accounted for the vast majority of cases of theft. Moreover, according to police department statistics, Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Province in 2000 of foreign personnel in robberies and theft offenses in the respective proportions of 60% and 64% possession of the
province has been captured persons committing the crime, the proportion of foreign workers more than 50%.
2, perpetrator characteristics "regional identity" more obvious
As the saying goes, "water and land to support one
party," and the floating population in different parts of the subjective conditions because of their differences, the perpetrators do not have a clear geographical differences. To geographical and kinship as a link formed criminal gangs, with a strong regional, master train an apprentice to teach each other "experience", therefore, the means of committing the crime showing a geographical identity. Anti-theft doors, such
as pry high risk of committing burglary are: Jiangxi Yichun, Xiushui, Dexing, Guizhou, 6, Chongqing Yunyang, Hunan, Shu Pu, Heilongjiang Qiqihar, Lianjiang, Fujian, Shandong, Jinan and other places; pry safe theft cases committing the crime of high-risk groups are: Guizhou Songtao, Chongqing Wanzhou District, Wuxi County, Kaixian, Yunyang County, Nanchuan
(city), Sichuan Mianyang, Deyang, Pakistan regions Tongjiang County, Dachuan area Xuanhan, Hubei Huanggang City Yingshan, Anhui Guangde; anesthesia robbery cases at high risk are: North of Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu Province, Jiangxi, Guangxi
and Fujian origin; gold ingot at high risk of fraud are: Wanzhou District, Chongqing, Nanchang, Jiangxi, Anhui, Anqing City Zongyang County; while to drugs (cancer drugs) fraud
cases at high risk groups such cases mainly Qingtian predominantly membership.
3, criminal activity "flows" of trend is clearly
Although we have to flee out of the study on the mobile commit crimes outside the criminal population, but it does not mean that the characteristics of crime in the floating population also should be excluded from the movement of their criminal characteristics. On the contrary, precisely because of the great development of commodity economy, human, financial, and material of the large-scale movements, as well
as the expansion of transport routes, modern means of
transport increases, criminals, particularly the mobile population in the main crime was considerably cheaper to use these conditions to carry out criminal activity. They either wanted criminal offenders - to escape outside, elusive
everywhere, committing crimes, often the body coefficient of sin and crimes; others are released from prison staff, due to the fight against the disgruntled intensified their efforts to take revenge on society and create all kinds of malignant cases; There's is a career recidivist crime or criminal gang. As the flow of committing the crime and the perpetrator stick to one place, compared to the risk of being discovered and found to be much smaller, so, in order to avoid public security and judicial blow to pursue more interests, they are constantly changing their modus area. According to statistics, traffic along the mobile population in criminal cases than in areas away from the traffic along the two-fold to more than
one or even several times. The movement of the floating
population of crime is still in the continuous development of the region fled from their counties (cities), provinces (autonomous regions) developed to the border, until the transnational crime. According to the relevant authorities to
statistics, from 1986 to 1990 period, an increase of four times the cross-border offenses. In Guangdong Province, almost any kind of major criminal involvement are outside the criminals, only in 1987, the province on the uncovered 184 immigration offenders and seized 144 cases. Entry of criminals dressed in Hong Kong and Macao compatriots, overseas Chinese coat, quickly fled abroad after committing the crime, go unpunished. The movement of the floating population of crime, to investigating this case has brought many difficulties.
4, criminal objective randomness and blindness
The flow properties of the floating population determines the randomness of their criminal objectives and blindness. As part of no fixed abode were often holding the psychological
luck, loitering in the streets, stations, terminals, towns and villages, looking for targets for crime, to capture the timing of crime. The floating population of criminals in order to not only easy to find, choose to take the object of crime, crime
objects, but also easy to evade legal punishment, often taken to eastern loitering in the form of travel between rail, road, river traffic along the city, town, V 1, harm one, channeling all the way to the detriments of the front line and made a case that is running, off-site disposal of stolen goods, but
they are quite arbitrary target. See the financial effect can be both heart and mind may see the color effect, it may at first just want to burglary and found someone home, and later developed into robbery, may ultimately kill further
development. The uncertainty of such crimes target, so that the floating population with the implementation of a variety of criminal offenses and sudden blindness.
5, criminal tools and skills to continuously improve the
With the floating population and social development of crime, more subtle and hidden, they undergo a second clean-up
and rectification, high winds after a heavy rainstorm, but also accumulated rich experience in the trial of committing the crime and anti-crime tools and skills are constantly
change and improve, and showed a trend in professional development. Including burglary, robbery, robbery of specialized motor vehicle crime, particularly evident.
6, crime "gang" of prominent features
Because a large number of floating population from the countryside, its mobility is mostly blood, geographical, kinship as a link to their place of residence and life did so for the "three geographic" relationship as the basis, so in criminal activities, will be very naturally a clique the formation of loose or close relationship between gangs. Survey shows that the floating population of common criminals who committed crimes in the proportion of the resident population in excess of the proportion of the perpetrators. Beijing in
1993, uncovered the case of criminal gangs, foreign persons committing crimes since 1252, accounting for all the groups, 61.2% of the total number of offenses; of these, major 796, the major groups, accounting for 66.4% of the total, more than
in 1992 9.8%.  (P70)
7, crime, members of the development of a younger age is quite prominent
Floating population itself is mostly at young people, many of them were minors, and some are even out of school, home of the minors, they can not have a legitimate working qualifications, received remuneration is very low, and some even only require employers to tube to eat. Based on these circumstances, the level of education is extremely limited depth of field while the inexperienced youth, in a strong
stimulation of economic income gap, often become the object abetting criminals, such as the streets in recent years, the prevalence of "small pickpockets."
3, the mobile population, the causes of crime
(A) social causes
This stage, the principal contradiction in our society is that people's growing material and cultural needs and the backward social productive forces, the contradiction between. In the structure of our society, a manifestation of this contradiction is that a long time seriously restricted the economic development of China's urban-rural dualism. As the
reform and opening up and the gradual improvement of market economic system, population movement has become the social productive forces and configuration required. That exist in
the real world divided between rich and poor, urban and rural differences, the economic gap between east and west, and the uneven distribution of labor resources, and promoted the formation of the floating population and number of expanding.
At the same time, the population flow will break the closure of China's traditional social interaction and mutual isolation of the old pattern of accelerated urban and rural, between economic and cultural exchanges between regions and speed up
the closed society to open the transformation of social
structure; However, the management of China's economic system, there is yet to be resolved, currently in the reform of the political and economic system also limits the movement of population, working conditions, as well as the social security system is not yet perfect, the vast majority of the floating population in urban areas can only be engaged in city people do not want to meddle in the "hard, dirty, tired, poison or danger," five categories of work, them work hardest, lowest-
income and the lack of labor and social security, as well as a considerable number of migrants can not find stable employment, often in unemployed or underemployed, a strong contrast between demand and in real life, so that part of the
floating population who are often easier to embark on the road of crime.
(Ii) the pursuit of economic interests generated by "mentality imbalance" in the psychological reasons
Go into details about the root causes of population
movements from outside, for economic reasons is a fundamental driving force is the main reason for the floating population of crime. As the living standards of rural labor surplus and the apparent gap between urban and rural areas, making tens of millions of migrant workers yearning With a passion for a better life and into the city, the influx of money has become the city's floating population in the most direct and most urgent objectiveNeed. But in reality, not as they imagined as good, a considerable part of the floating population can not find stable employment, often unemployed or underemployed; some can not even meet the basic needs of life, once the pursuit of money and the desire to burst, a very easily lead to crime. In addition, the social transition, a small number
of lawless speculation seek personal gain, flourishes are trying to escape poverty to come to the city's farmers to demonstrate a strong stimulation, sense of unfairness and inferiority born with, which led to the floating population as
a whole group of prevalent, such as "Chou Fu" social and psychological imbalances, which are caused by crime, the psychological motivation. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
(C) the personal qualities of the reasons for the