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Liquorice water extract of smoking in mice lung tissue superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde of_443

By Beth Kelley,2014-11-25 11:12
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Liquorice water extract of smoking in mice lung tissue superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde of_443

    Liquorice water extract of smoking in mice lung tissue superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde of

     Abstract Objective To observe the water extract of

    liquorice on smoking in mice lung tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) effects. Methods Kunming mice were randomly divided into three groups, namely normal control group, smoking and model group, licorice water extract group. The normal control group, mice do not smoke, the other two groups of consecutive non-smoking 60 d, 4 times / d, 30 min /

    times, licorice water extract group 2 times / d given distilled water control, 60 d after the animals were killed, whichever left lung fixed, paraffin-embedded, sliced HE

    staining and the remaining lung tissue homogenate made to

    detect SOD activity in lung tissue, MDA levels. Results smoking group programs, ranging from mice lungs appeared chronic bronchitis and emphysema, lung SOD activity was significantly decreased at the same time, MDA content increased significantly. Add clothes after smoking a water

    extract of liquorice pulmonary pathological features of mice significantly reduced lung SOD activity increased, MDA content decreased. Conclusion licorice water extract in mice caused by long-term smoking bronchopulmonary histopathological damage

    have a protective effect, its mechanism may be related to licorice to play in the lungs and other relevant anti-

    oxidation.

     Key words water extract of licorice root; smoking; lung tissue; superoxide dismutase; malondialdehyde

     The Protective Effects of Glyrrhizae on Smoking induced Pulmonary Injury in Mice

     Abstract: ObjectiveTo investigate the protective effects

of glycyrrhizae water-extraction on smoking-induced pulmonary

    injury in mice.MethodsKuming mice were randomly divided into 3

    groups: healthy control group, model group and glycyrrhizae group. Except healthy control group, the others were exposed to cigarette smoke, qid, 30 minute / day for 60 days. At the same time, the mouse of glycyrrhizae group were given

    glycyrrhizae water-extracion, bid for 60 days, the other mouse were given distilled water, bid for 60 days.The pathologic changes of airways and lung tissues were determined.The level of MDA and the activity of SOD were measured.ResultsThere were more chronic bronchites and emphysema in the model group than in the healthy control group. Cigarette smoking reduced the activity of SOD and increased MDA level . Compared with the model group, the pathologic injury of airways and lung tissues were reduced, the activity of SOD increased and the level of MDA decreased in glycyrrhizae group.ConclusionGlyrrhizae water-extract has the protective effect on smoking-induced

    injury.The mechanism may due to its antioxidation.

     Key words: Glycyrrhizae water-extraction; Smoking;

    Pulmonary injury; Superoxide dismutase; Malodialdenhyde

     Smoking harmful to health.Large number of data indicate that smoking can cause chronic airway inflammation, such as pharyngitis, trachea and bronchitis, bronchiectasis and emphysema, embolism, and can induce lung cancer and other cancer. Because there are a variety of harmful ingredients in cigarettes, such as CO, nicotine, tar, phenyl pyrene, nitrosamine, etc. Therefore, the damage caused by smoking is a multi-system pathologic changes [1]. In order to prevent

    smoking-induced chronic airway inflammation, slow down pharyngitis, bronchitis onset time, looking for the prevention of smoking-induced lung injury in Chinese medicine, the author established a mouse animal model of active smoking, screening

    and research in a number of traditional Chinese medicine for these animal models to prevention. Are reported below.

     1 Materials and methods

     1.1 Materials

     1.1.1 Preparation of water extract of liquorice Methods:

    Licorice of the original herbs, crushed into coarse powder, add water 10 times, soaking, heat extraction, extraction 1 h / times, a total of extracting three times, three times combined filtrate, concentrated into a crude drug containing 100 %, 4 ? refrigerator, experiments by 0.1 ml/10 g body weight (10 g / kg) administration.

     1.1.2 Tobacco use by the Guangdong lianjiang tobacco plants.

     1.1.3 Mouse model of long-term active smoking tobacco box

    made by the undergraduate room, take plexiglass made Length Width of 50 cm × 50 cm × 30 cm box enclosed smoking, smoking

    in the lower box (8 cm from the bottom of the ) to install a metal screen, experiment, mice were placed on the metal screen online, free activities, smoking box at the top to open a small mouth, placed on a glass funnel, cut tobacco placed in the glass funnel, the smoking box the lower part of a small

    mouth opening, connected to a small exhaust fan, experiments in the smoking box at the top of lit tobacco, starting at the bottom of a small exhaust fan, smoke on the permeability from which they dump into the smoke box, the amount of smoke

    inhalation in mice class can be active inhalation of cigarette tobacco smoke, not fire after passive inhalation of cigarette smoke emitted, the amount of smoke inhalation in mice by the weight of tobacco and smoking time to determine, due to

    experimental control group and drug prevention groups are in the same time to start the experiment, thus all the mice inhaled the smoke volume is the same.

     1.1.4 Animals Kunming mice, weighing 18 ~ 22 g, of either sex by the Experimental Animal Center of Guangdong Medical

    College.

     1.2 Methods 45 Kunming mice. Of either sex were randomly divided into three groups of 15, that is, the normal control group, smoking and model group, licorice prevention group. The normal control group, non-smoking mice given distilled water 2

    times / d, each 0.1 ml/10 g body weight, continuous 60 d; smoking model group and liquorice to prevent smoking in mice placed in the box for self-absorption tobacco, 4 times / d, 30

    min / time, in smokes while giving the water extract of

    licorice root were fed 2 times / d, each 0.1 ml/10 g body weight (1 ml containing crude drug 1 g), a continuous 60 d.End

    of the experiment, the animals were killed after the left lung to take a fixed home's solution over fixed, paraffin-embedded,

    sliced,HEStaining, light microscope; the remaining lung tissue homogenate made to detect the lung tissue in mice in each groupin the SOD activity and MDA content.

     2 Results

     2.1 of smoking on bronchial and lung tissues in mice affect the morphology of smoking mice compared with normal mice, by optical microscope observation, the normal control group, the organizational structure of the lung clear, complete, bronchus, mucous membrane epithelium, alveolar wall, etc. There were no abnormal pathological changes, see Figure 1

    ~ 2. Non-smoking mice at all levels of bronchial lung (including small bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles are not) are different degrees of chronic inflammatory cells and a small amount of neutrophil infiltration; mucosal

    epithelial cells of severely damaged, goblet cell hyperplasia ; lung edge visible and significant emphysema, bronchiectasis, bronchial cavity show expansion, not only the aspect of the diameter significantly increased, and its mucosal folds have almost completely disappeared, especially the large bronchi was extremely dilated, see Figure 3; licorice bronchitis prevention group changed significantly lighter, and only a small amount of inflammatory cell infiltration. Bronchial cavity expansion in the state

    significantly reduced its mucosal folds are close to normal, shown in Figure 4;-smoking groups of mice with alveolar and alveolar duct and connected to the majority of alveolar sac Jun Cheng highly extended state, alveolar septum has been obvious , or even disappear, lung parenchyma and alveolar duct and alveolar cysts alveolar fluid containing proteins, such as flakes and some alveoli there, while others are scattered in the event of alveolar wall expansion is also evident, showing significant emphysema. In addition, the alveolar capillary wall generally showed a high degree of congestion state, a small number of alveoli also contain more or less of the red blood cells, shown in Figure 5; licorice prevention group connected with alveolar and alveolar duct and alveolar sac

    than those in the majority of normal, alveolar septal obvious alveolar capillary walls significantly reduce the congestion state, shown in Figure 6.

     Figure 1 Normal bronchial cavity of mice (abbreviated)

     Figure 2 Normal mice, alveolar (omitted)

     Figure 3 smoking groups of mice bronchial cavity (omitted)

     Figure 4 licorice prevention of bronchial cavity of mice (abbreviated)

     Figure 5-smoking groups of mice alveolar (omitted)

     Figure 6 mice, licorice root to prevent alveolar

    (omitted)

     2.2 The water extract of licorice root on smoking in mouse lung tissue homogenate SOD, MDA effects of water extract of licorice root on smoking in mouse lung tissue homogenate SOD, MDA effects in Table 1.

     Table 1 liquorice water extract in mice in long-term

    smoking in lung tissue SOD, MDA effects (omitted) reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://

     With the normal control group, P> 0.05; n = 5

     Mice compared with normal control group, smoking and

    model group, SOD activity was significantly decreased, MDA content increased significantly. In the fumigation process while giving the water extract of liquorice gavage, which increased SOD activity, MDA content was decreased.

     3 Discussion

     Smoking at all levels of the mice lung bronchus were varying degrees of chronic inflammatory cells and a small amount of neutrophil infiltration; the cilia of bronchial epithelial shedding, alveolar wall is also notable expansion

    of the alveolar capillary wall generally showed a high degree of congestion state, shows that smoking can cause

    peribronchiolitis and emphysema. This shows that the smoke right bronchus, lung histological damage is very prominent. Smoking are known to smoke with irritating substances in the role of the defense that caused respiratory, metabolism and immune function, making it a chronic bronchitis, emphysema causes [1]. In histological studies have reported that smoking can be seen the observed weakening of activity in bronchial

    epithelium, cilia loss, mucous membrane of the mucus gland and goblet cell hyperplasia. Reid's index increased, and plasma cells and mucous cell ratio decreased, showing an increase in mucus secretion, mucus blanket is difficult to form [2]

    coupled with decreased alveolar macrophage function, decreased phagocytic and digestive activity, resulting in partial removal mechanism of obstacles. Recurrent pulmonary infection, are likely to cause chronic inflammation, that is, the occurrence of chronic bronchitis [3,4]. In addition to this, smoking could also be a large number of small airway and alveolar neutrophils, resulting in large amounts of protease, and smokers have increased pulmonary macrophages to release neutrophil chemotactic factor, and elastase; smoking is so α

    1-antitrypsin activity to reduce, which have led to protease -

    anti-protease imbalance, resulting in increased protease activity, so that excessive destruction of lung elastic fibers. Number of macrophages also resulted in a large number

    of peroxidase negative ions cause lung tissue damage; smoking-

    induced lung surfactant impairment, affecting alveolar stability; smoking can airway mast cells to release secretions in the medium to promote an increase in alveolar wall destruction [5 , 6]. The above combination of factors are increasing the possibility of emphysema. The author's study confirmed the long-term smoking mice also have significant

    chronic bronchitis and emphysema of the pathological manifestations, indicating a long-term smoking can occur in

    mice and humans the same histological changes. Smoking was added at the same time I prepared licorice water extract, can bronchial and pulmonary emphysema in mice significantly reduced the pathological manifestations, indicating the

    licorice water extract can be prevented by bronchitis and emphysema caused by smoking pharmacological effects.

     Licorice licorice for legumes (glycrrhiza uralensis fisch) Glycyrrhiza inflata, or Glycyrrhiza glabra root and

rhizome dry, sweet licorice sexual-ping, can Spleen Qi, heat

    detoxification, cough expectorant, urgency and pain, to reconcile various efficacy of medicines, medicinal long history, is the most common varieties of herbs. Modern research has proved that licorice has a wide range of

    pharmacological effects, such as adrenal cortical hormone-like

    (steroids) the role of anti-ulcer effects, anti-inflammatory

    effects, anti-viral, anti-bacterial effects, anti-allergic

    effects, anti-tumor effect, detoxification role, antitussive and expectorant effects, lipid-lowering effect and anti-

    atherosclerotic effect against cerebral ischemia, etc. [7] but to prevent bronchitis and emphysema caused by smoking the pharmacological effects have been reported. The study found that smoking mice compared with normal control mice, smoking and model group, SOD activity was significantly decreased, MDA content increased significantly in the smoking process while giving the licorice water extract fed to mice, the SOD activity of elevated, MDA content decreased, suggesting that

    the licorice to prevent bronchitis and emphysema caused by smoking pharmacological effects of its SOD activity.

     In recent years, with the free radical theory of development, most scholars believe that the long-term damage

    smoking can cause free radical metabolism, many of interstitial lung disease occurrence and partial oxidation and antioxidant system imbalance in the [8]. Free radicals are a class of highly active substances, oxygen free radicals and their scavengers to maintain the dynamic balance between the cells for the maintenance of normal structure and function is extremely important, lower respiratory tract epithelium in chronic inflammation process, free radicals increase, can airway epithelial serious injury, SOD can effectively remove

    hydrogen peroxide, low levels of smoking to lung SOD is bound to increase alveolar epithelial injury, leading to bronchitis and emphysema. The experimental results showed that smoking at the same time, by gavage, given the water extract of

    liquorice, the lungs of smoking mice can increase SOD activity, MDA content decreased, bronchitis and emphysema of the lungs marked pathological changes mitigation. Research suggests that the lungs of liquorice is a good free radical scavenger, available through the promotion of superoxide dismutase activity and smoking prevention to play a role in

causing bronchitis and emphysema.

     Conclusion: The water extract of licorice root in mice caused by long-term smoking bronchopulmonary histopathological

    damage have a protective effect, its mechanism may be related to licorice to play in the lungs and other relevant anti-

    oxidation.

     References

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     [3] Wu-liang, LI Wen-ying, Cha Dong-Hwan, et al. Smoking

    on airway injury in mice A morphological study [J]. Tongji Medical University, 1995,24 (5): 395.

     [4] Chin-Yun Lee, Shao-Guang Huang, Wu Huacheng, et al. Rat model of smoking-induced airway inflammation in chronic bronchitis study [J]. Shanghai Second Medical University,

    2004,1:31.

     [5] Huang Xing Pei, Cheng Pang-keys, Wang Lin, et al.

    Cigarettes or cigarette holder in plant pigment on the anti-

    smoking mice and the role of oxidative damage [J]. Occupational health and illness or injury, 2002,17 (2): 88.

     [6] Hui Wang, De-Yun Cheng, Zhang, et al. Monocyte

    chemoattractant protein-1 in rat airway expression of

    cigarettes smoked and the effects of prednisone on their [J]. China Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, 2004,27 ( 7): 490.

     [7] Xu Qiuxia, Min Zou. Pharmacological effects of licorice outlined in [J]. Journal of Practical Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2005,21 (7): 450.

     [8] Dong-Mei Yang, Yu Tao, TAO Heng-yi. Extracellular

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