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POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AFFECT

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POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AFFECT

    DOCUMENTATION DOCUMENTATION

    of of

    SCALES SCALES

    in in

    MIDUS I MIDUS I MIDUS I

    University of Wisconsin ? Institute on Aging

    March 1, 2004

    INTRODUCTION

     This document is intended as a basic reference for psychosocial scales in the MIDUS I data sets. The document provides comprehensive information regarding scale construction and usage of the scales. It combines, updates, and extends two earlier documents regarding MIDUS I data: “Source

    and Psychometric Information on Key Psychosocial Constructs” and “Additional Scales Constructed

    from The Midlife Development Inventory.” In addition, this new document incorporates information from the „Scales.txt‟ file which describes the SAS program codes for constructed variables.

    For each scale, items used to construct the scale, coding, and methods of scale construction are described. Information regarding psychometric properties, source articles, published studies that use the scale, and other important notes are also included. For discussion on how missing data was dealt with, refer to the „Scales.txt‟ file.

    For each scale included in this document, the variable name used for that scale is presented in brackets with uppercase letters (e.g., [DEPCON] for depression). Scales that are not in the data set, but have been constructed by users of the data, are referred to in accompanying notation. Cronbach‟s alpha reliability coefficient is reported for most scales. Alpha reliability coefficients are based on the Main RDD sample (N=3,032) from the „Main_mg Revised 030104.por‟ file, unless otherwise specified. Note that alpha reliability coefficients are not reported when scale construction involved categorical responses.

    “Sources” refer to articles, or other published studies that originally discussed the scale. There are a few scales for which sources could not be identified. In these cases, names of scholars who were listed under the “source of code” in the „Scales.txt‟ file are listed. Additional information regarding the scales has been added in the “Notes” sections. This document will be periodically revised and updated

    as more information is gathered, and researchers continue to work with the MIDUS I data. If there are suggestions or comments, please contact Jinkuk Hong (jhong@waisman.wisc.edu), or Karen

Palmersheim (kpalmers@facstaff.wisc.edu). Moreover, if additional scales are constructed using these

data, please contact us, so the work can be shared.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS Depression (Phone, A60 A77) …………………………………………………………………… 1 Generalized Anxiety Disorder (Phone, A85a A85j) ……………………………………………. 5 Panic Attack [Panic Disorder] (Phone, A90a A90f) …………..……………………...………... 8 Life Satisfaction (SAQ, A1, I2, N1, P1, T1) …………………………………….……….……..…. 10 Somatic Amplification Scale (SAQ, A8a A8e) …………………………………………………. 11 Positive and Negative Affect (SAQ, A13a A13f, A15a A15f) ……………………….……… 12 Alcohol Screening Test (SAQ, A44a A44e) ……………………………………………………. 14a Parental Affection in Childhood (SAQ, E13 E16m) ……………………………………………. 15 Conflict Tactics Inventory (SAQ, E17a E17o) …………………………………….……………. 19 Psychological Well-Being (SAQ, F1a F1r) ……………………………………….………….…. 21 Sense of Control (SAQ, F1s F1dd) ………………………………………………….………….. 25 Belief on Marriage and Family (SAQ, F2a F2g) ……………………………………….………. 28 Primary and Secondary Control (SAQ, F3a F3n) ……………………………………………… 29 Planning and Making Sense of Past (SAQ, F3o F3dd) ………………………………….……. 31 Seeking Social Support (SAQ, F3ee F3kk) ……………………………………………….……. 33 Personality Traits (SAQ, F4a F4dd) ……………………………………………………….……. 35 Work to Family / Family to Work Spillover (SAQ, I27a I27p) ………………………………… 39 Job Characteristics (SAQ, I28a I30e) …………………………………………………………… 42 Perceived Inequality in Work (SAQ, I31a I31f) ………………………………………………… 46 Generativity Scale (SAQ, K6a K6f) ……………………………………………………………… 47 Family Obligation (SAQ, K7a K7h) ……………………………………………………………… 49 Social Responsibility [Community / Work] (SAQ, K7i K7s) …………………………….…….. 51 Social Support (SAQ, K10a K16d) ……………………………………………………………… 53 Social Well-being (SAQ, K17a K17o) ………………………………….……………………….. 58 Personal Beliefs on Neighborhood/Home (SAQ, L5a L5l) .……………………….………….. 60 Family Support and Strain (SAQ, M2 M9) ……………………………………………………… 62 Friend Support and Strain (SAQ, M11 M18) …………….…………………………………….. 65 Relationship with Children (SAQ, N6a N6f) ……………………………………………………. 67 Marital Risk (SAQ, P7 P9c) ……………………………………………………………………… 69 Spouse/Partner Disagreement (SAQ, P9a P9c) ………………………………………………. 70 Spouse/Partner Support and Strain (SAQ, P11 P22) …..…………………………………….. 71 Spouse/Partner Joint Decision making (SAQ, P28a P28d) ………………………………….. 74 Religiosity (SAQ, R2a R2i, R5 R6) ..………………………………………………...………... 75 Perceived Discrimination (SAQ, S13a S14i) ………….……………………………………….. 77 * Index of scales (in an alphabetical order) ………………………………………………………. 80

    DEPRESSION

Scales/Items:

    Depressed Affect

    [DEP]: (continuous variable based on 7 items)

     Items: - Telephone Questionnaire, Section A, Question A60-A66.

     (During two weeks in past 12 months, when you felt sad, blue, or depressed, did you)

    A60. “lose interest in most things?”

    A61. “feel more tired out or low on energy than is usual?”

    A62. “lose your appetite?”

    A63. “have more trouble falling asleep than usual?”

    A64. “have a lot more trouble concentrating than usual?”

    A65. “feel down on yourself, no good, or worthless?”

    A66. “think a lot about death?”

     Coding: 1 Yes; 2 No

     Scaling: [DEP] was constructed by taking the number of “Yes” responses to the items.

    [DEPX]: (dummy variable based on QA58, QA59, and [DEP])

    = 1 if : The feeling of being sad, blue, or depressed lasted “All day long” or “Most of the

    day” (A58), AND

    : You feel this way “Everyday” or “Almost every day” (A59), AND

    : [DEP] is greater than or equal to “4.”

     = 0, otherwise.

     1

Anhedonia

    [DEP2]: (continuous variable based on 7 items)

     Items: 7 items - Telephone Questionnaire, Section A, Question A72 to A77.

     (During two weeks in past 12 months, when you lost interest in most things, did you)

    A72. “feel more tired out or low on energy than is usual”

    A73. “lose your appetite”

    A74. “have more trouble falling asleep than usual”

    A75. “have a lot more trouble concentrating than usual”

    A76. “feel down on yourself, no good, or worthless”

    A77, “think a lot about death”.

     Coding: 1 Yes; 2 No

     Scaling: [DEP2] was constructed by taking the number of “Yes” responses to the items.

    [DEPZ]: (dummy variable based on QA70, QA71, and [DEP2])

    = 1 if : The loss of interest in most things lasted “All day long” or “Most of the day”

    (A70), AND

    : You feel this way “Everyday” or “Almost every day” (A71), AND

    : [DEP2] is greater than or equal to “4.”

     = 0 otherwise.

Depression

    [DEPCON]: (continuous variable based on [DEP] and [DEP2])

     : ranging from 0 to 7

     : = 0, if a respondent was diagnosed as negative for both depressed affect and

    anhedonia: i.e., DEPX=0 and DEPZ=0.

     2

    [DEPDX]: (dummy variable for depression)

    = 1 if DEPX=1 or DEPZ=1

     = 0 otherwise.

Source(s):

    Wang, P. S., Berglund, P., & Kessler, R. C. (2000). Recent care of common mental disorder in the

    United States: Prevalence and conformance with evidence-based recommendations. Journal of

    General Internal Medicine, 15: 284-292.

Studies using the scales:

    Kessler, R.C., Mickelson, K.D., & Williams, D.R. (1999). The prevalence, distribution, and mental health

    correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. Journal of Health and Social

    Behavior, 40, 208-230.

Additional References:

    rd American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3

    edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

    Blazer, D.G., Kessler, R.C., McGonagle, K.A., & Swartz, M.S. (1994). The prevalence and distribution

    of major depression in a national community sample: The National Comorbidity Survey.

    American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 979-986.

    Kessler, R.C., Andrews, A., Mroczek, D., Ustun, B., & Wittchen, H.U. (1998). The World Health

    Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short-Form (CIDI-SF). International

    Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 7, 171-185.

    Wittchen, H.U. (1994). Reliability and validity studies of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic

    Interview (CIDI): A critical review. Psychiatric Research, 28, 57-84.

     3

World Health Organization (1990). Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI, Version 10.

    Geneva: World Health Organization.

    * The above information is from: Kessler et al. (1999).

Notes:

    ; The disorder is based on the definitions and criteria specified in the third edition-revised of the American Psychiatric Association‟s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R; 1987). A diagnosis of Major Depression requires of period of at least two weeks of either depressed mood or anhedonia most of the day, nearly every day, and a series of at least four other associated symptoms typically found to accompany depression, including problems with eating, sleeping, energy, concentration, feelings of self-worth, and suicidal thoughts or actions. ; Major Depression was operationalized in screening versions of the World Health Organization‟s (WHO) “Composite International Diagnostic Interview”, Version 10 (CIDI) (WHO, 1990; Kessler et al., 1998).

    ; WHO Field Trials (Wittchen, 1994) and other methodological studies (Blazer et al., 1994) have documented good test-retest reliability and clinical validity of these CIDI diagnoses.

     4

    GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER

Scales/Items:

    Anxiety Disorder

    [GADCON]: (continuous variable based on 10 items)

    Items: 10 items - Telephone Questionnaire, Section A, Question A85 (a - j).

    (How often - over the past 12 months-, you)

    a. “were restless because of your worry”

    b. “were keyed up, on edge, or had a lot of nervous energy”

    c. “were irritable because of your worry”

    d. “had trouble falling asleep”

    e. “had trouble staying asleep because of your worry”

    f. “had trouble keeping your mind on what you were doing”

    g. “had trouble remembering things because of your worry”

    h. “were low on energy”

    i. “tired easily because of your worry”

    j. “had sore or arching muscles because of tension”

     (pre-condition)

     - A respondent answered s/he

     : worries “A lot more” than most people (A80a), AND

     : worried “Every day, Just about every day, or Most days” (A81), AND

    : worries about “More than one thing” (A82), OR has different worries “At the same time”

    (A82a)

     Coding: 1 most days; 2 about half the days; 3 less than half the days; 4 never

    Scaling: [GADCON] was constructed by taking the number of “Most days” responses to the

    items.

     5

    [GADDX]: (dummy variable based on [GADCON])

     = 1 if [GADCON] greater than or equal to “3.”

     = 0 otherwise.

Source(s):

    Wang, P. S., Berglund, P., & Kessler, R. C. (2000). Recent care of common mental disorder in the

    United States: Prevalence and conformance with evidence-based recommendations. Journal of

    General Internal Medicine, 15: 284-292.

Studies using the scales:

    Kessler, R.C., Mickelson, K.D., & Williams, D.R. (1999). The prevalence, distribution, and mental health

    correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. Journal of Health and Social

    Behavior, 40, 208-230.

Additional References:

    rd American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3

    edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

    Blazer, D.G., Kessler, R.C., McGonagle, K.A., & Swartz, M.S. (1994). The prevalence and distribution

    of major depression in a national community sample: The National Comorbidity Survey.

    American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 979-986.

    Kessler, R.C., Andrews, A., Mroczek, D., Ustun, B., & Wittchen, H.U. (1998). The World Health

    Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short-Form (CIDI-SF). International

    Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 7, 171-185.

    Wittchen, H.U. (1994). Reliability and validity studies of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic

    Interview (CIDI): A critical review. Psychiatric Research, 28, 57-84.

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