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Allamanda cathartica and lantana of Pharmacognosy Research_857

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Allamanda cathartica and lantana of Pharmacognosy Research_857

Allamanda cathartica and lantana of Pharmacognosy Research

     Author: Huang Xiang Yuan Wei Li Wei Songji Cotton

     Abstract Objective To Allamanda cathartica and lantana two kinds of medicinal plants pharmacognosy research, clinical

    application for the relevant departments, poisoning rescue and provide reference materials development and utilization. Methods character identification, microscopic identification, physical and chemical identification. Results Allamanda

    cathartica cork layer of the root cross-section of a very wide

    and has two distinct layers; stem cross-section mask pericycle

    fibers; powder clusters of starch grains and calcium oxalate crystal extremely high. Lantana camara root cross-section of

    ray cell structure rather special, stem cross-section of 4

    square, and has a thick-walled tissue; powder in single-cell

    non-glandular hairs numerous secretory cells containing orange-yellow oil droplets. Conclusion The above

    characteristics of Pharmacognosy can be used as Allamanda

    cathartica and lantana basis for the main identification.

     Key words Allamanda cathartica lantana Pharmacognosy

     Abstract: ObjectiveTo conduct pharmacognosical studies on the roots and leaves of Allamanda cathartica L. and Lantana

    camara L. for the purpose of offering references to their clinical use, rescuing poisoned persons, development and usage. MethodsThe plants' characters and their microscopic

    structures, as well as their physicochemical properties were studied. ResultsPhellem in horizontal sections of Allamanda cathartica L. was thick, clearly consisting of two layers; and many starch grains and crystal clusters of calcium oxalate were found in the cross sections of its stems and its powder. Structures of cells of rays in the horizontal sections of

    Lantana camara L. were relatively exceptional; sclerenchymae was discovered in the square cross sections of its stems; its powder possessed unicellular non-glandular hairs, in which

    secretory cells containing orange oil drops were found.

    ConclusionThe result can be taken as the basis for the identification of the two plants.

     Key words: Allamanda cathartica L.; Lantana camara L.; Pharmacognosy

     In the commonly used medicinal plants, some are poisonous. In clinical and non-governmental applications, due

    to inadvertent or misuse of medication and other reasons caused cases of poisoning and even death have occurred. Allamanda cathartica Apocynaceae plants for Allamanda cathartica Allemanda cathartica L., whole-plant medicine,

    diarrhea dredge stasis, for they secretion. Whole-plant toxic,

    poisoning people and livestock stolen goods to stimulate the heart, circulatory and respiratory disorder, pregnancy, eating animals, after causing a miscarriage [1]. Lantana camara Lantana camara L. Verbenaceae of plants, roots heat Xiehuo, detoxification Sanjie. Indications cold fever, wounds summer headache, stomach fire toothache, sore throat, mumps, rheumatism Bi Tong, M. scrofulaceum sputum nuclear. Tender leaves Qingrejiedu, Qufeng itching. Attending carbuncle

    swollen canker, eczema, scabies, dermatitis, bruises, [2]. Lantana taking large doses can cause poisoning. Poisoning performance: whole body weakness, gait instability, severe diarrhea, after the constipation, the stool for blood with

    broken down, so deep and foul color, nose and eye secretions increase, fever, jaundice, and sensitivity to light and can be caused the death [3]. About Allamanda cathartica, lantana on pharmacognosy research have not been reported, the paper Allamanda cathartica, lantana two kinds of poisonous, toxic parts of medicinal plants, pharmacognosy research carried out, together with an organized structure and powder

    characteristics of Figure for clinical application, development and utilization of poisoning rescue and provide

    reference materials.

     1 Materials

     Allamanda cathartica medicinal samples from Guangxi Medical College Teaching Weisong Ji, associate professor of medicinal plants collected from the Guangxi College of Physic Garden (cultivated) and identified. Lantana medicine samples from Guangxi Medical Teaching Weisong Ji, associate professor of medicinal plants collected from Nanning, Guangxi, and identify Anji Township, Gan Wei Cun.

     2 Methods and Results

     2.1 Allamanda cathartica of Pharmacognosy Research

     2.1.1 medicinal properties

     Root: dried roots was cylindrical, slightly curved, with branching, long 20 ~ 42 cm, diameter of 1.5 ~ 7 mm, the surface of yellow brown, with longitudinal wrinkles and root

    marks. Taste slightly, crisp, easy to break, section the Department of brown leather, wood Ministry of yellow-white,

    cross section has a small radial texture.

     Stem: dry stem was cylindrical, diameter of 3 ~ 8 mm, the surface of yellow-brown, with higher stomata and vertical

    grooves, thick branches, leaves marks, large and obvious. Taste slightly, crisp, easy to break, section the Department of brown skin color, wood Ministry of yellow-white, the

    central a large hip.

     2.1.2 microscopic identification of

     Root cross-section: the outer cortex, a thick down, phellem wide, from 10 to 12 cells, wall thickness, cork-based.

    Cortex wide, in which the distribution of a large number of starch grains and calcium oxalate crystal clusters. Phloem

    narrow, scattered clusters of calcium oxalate crystallization and starch grains. Cambium obvious. Xylem broad, duct large, scattered over a single, radial array. Figure 1.

     Stem cross-section surface: epidermal cells, one,

    occasionally clusters of calcium oxalate crystallization.

    Cortex wide, with clusters of starch grains and calcium oxalate crystallization and trigonal, Victoria tubular sheath part of a fiber, often into bundles. Phloem narrow, circular-

    shaped, in which scattered clusters of calcium oxalate

    crystallization and starch grains. Cambium obvious. Xylem wide, duct large, multi-radial arrangement of a single,

    central a larger hip, thin-walled cells, containing a large

    number of starch grains and calcium oxalate crystal clusters. Figure 2. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://

     Powder characteristics: roots, stems yellow-brown powder.

    ? starch grains very much for the resumption of the primary particles, from 2 to 4 pm grain composition, shape, or slit-

    like umbilical little bit of a diameter of 4 ~ 10 μm. ?

    fibers into a single or beam, wall thickness, wood-based, long

    240 ~ 660 μm, diameter of 22 ~ 28 μm. ? stone cells

    individually or in groups, classes, round, square or near polygon class, yellow, thick-walled, wall hole apparent

    diameter of 18 ~ 30 μm. ? polygonal cork cells. ?

    parenchyma cells yellowish brown; some cells contain calcium oxalate trigonal. ? large number of calcium oxalate trigonal, size, shape different. ? calcium oxalate crystal cluster more common, sharp edges, diameter 22 ~ 38 μm. ? catheter tube

    reticulate and thread diameter of 25 ~ 38μm. Figure 3.

     2.1.3 Physical and chemical identification of Allamanda cathartica containing cardiac glycosides, etc. [4]. Allamanda cathartica take root, stem diameter, 3 g powder immersed in 25% ethanol, immersed in 60 ? water bath at 2 h, filtration.

Take filtrate plus 3,5 - 2-nitrobenzoic acid reagent (A

    solution: 2% 3,5 - 2-nitrobenzoic acid alcohol solution; B solution: 5% sodium hydroxide solution, mixed with the former equal) number drops, showing dark brown (color reaction).

     2.2 lantana Study of Pharmacognosy

     2.2.1 medicinal properties

     Root: dried roots was cylindrical, with branching, long 25 ~ 65 cm, diameter 1.5 ~ 9 mm, length varying thickness varies. The surface of yellow-brown, with longitudinal

    wrinkles and root marks. Quality tough, difficult to break, section the Department of thick leather, wood Ministry of yellow-white. Gas micro-, sweet Sim.

     Stem: stem dry slightly square, the surface pale yellow green. There Festival and branches, with Prism, twig-like skin

    with barbed thorns. Quality and tough, difficult to break, section the Department of yellow skin, yellowish white Kibe. A large central white hip. Gas micro-, sweet Sim.

     2.2.2 microscopic identification of

     Root cross-section: phellem wide, from 8 to 12 cells. Cortex wide, thin-walled cell with a larger gap. Phloem

    narrow, its lateral and phloem cells, has a stone or stone-

    cell groups. Cambium obvious ring. Xylem with a large catheter, more than a single scattered, ray clear, from 4 to 6 cells. Differentiation of the central non-hip. Figure 4.

     Stem cross-section: Spear was four square. Epidermis of a rectangular cell, non-glandular and glandular hairs. Number of columns composed of cortical parenchyma cells, sclerenchyma

    obvious bundles distributed in the cortex at the edges and corners. Vascular outside the tough type, four angular Department vascular developed, the remaining small vascular

bundle; phloem narrow, four edges and corners at a fiber

    bundle; cambium clear ring; xylem tube oval, polygonal wood fiber. Central government with a large hip, from a large thin-

    walled cells. Medullary rays varies in width from 2 to 8 cells. Figure 5.

     Powder Identification: roots, stems yellow-brown powder.

    ? non-glandular hairs numerous, often as a single cell, and some wall warts clear. ? individual or groups of stone cells, yellow-green, wall hole apparent diameter of 30 ~ 52 μm. ?

    fiber bundles often, long 320 ~ 850 μm, diameter of 20 ~ 35

    μm. ? catheter tube threaded or reticulate, diameter of 22 ~ 48 μm. ? trigonal more, shapes, diameter 6 ~ 15 μm. . ?

    secreting cells more common in diameter 25 ~ 32 μm, round-

    like, containing orange oil droplets. Figure 6.

     2.2.3 Physical and chemical identification of the root

    water threonate (stachyose), Verbascum Sugar (verbascose), Ajuga sugar (ajugose), Mullein 4 Sugar (verbascotetraose), lantana sugar (lantanose) A, B, Thevetia stink ant glycoside A (theveside) and so on. Stems and leaves with lantana ene

    (lantadene) A, B, lantana acid (lantanolic acid), lantana different acid (lantic acid), oleanolic acid (oleanolic acid), etc. [3].

     Lantana take root, stem and powder 2 g, plus ethyl ether 10 ml, Zhen Yao dipping 15 min, filtration. Two points to take

    the filtrate, 2.5 ml / copies, respectively, placed in the evaporating dish until the ether evaporation, the evaporating dish in a two drops of concentrated sulfuric acid and Canada, significantly dark brown; evaporating dish in another two drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid and Canada, significant light red (color reaction).

     3 Summary

     This study systematically the above-mentioned two kinds

    of poisonous toxic parts of medicinal plants medicinal properties, organizational structure, powder for observation,

    experimental results show that Allamanda cathartica phellem root cross-section of a very wide and has two distinct layers; stem Cross-cutting masks pericycle fibers; powder clusters of starch grains and calcium oxalate crystal extremely high.

    Lantana camara root cross-section of ray cell structure rather special, stem cross-section of 4 square, and has a thick-

    walled tissue; powder in single-cell non-glandular hairs

    numerous secretory cells containing orange-yellow oil

    droplets. Pharmacognosy characteristics of the above can be used as Allamanda cathartica and lantana basis for the main identification.

     References

     [1] Beijing Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences. China's higher plant field guide, the first 3 [M].

    Beijing: Science Press, 1974:414.

     [2] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in Chinese medicine research. Guangxi Medicinal Plants [M]. Nanning: Guangxi People's Publishing House, 1984:496.

     [3] Yang Cang-liang. Poison Materia Medica [M]. Beijing:

    China Traditional Chinese Medicine Press, 1993:21.

     [4], Guangdong Province Rural Water Science and Technology Service Station crops team. South of the main poisonous plants [M]. Beijing: Science Press, 1970:220. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://

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