Li Xifei and "Tan Hua" Arts biweekly
【Summary】 spring of 1933, with several teachers and students of Yi Hu, when he was an "independent review" manager Li Xifei, with several youth literature, founded in Beijing, "Tan Hua" Arts biweekly. In the national crisis, the ever-changing years,
Tan Hua colleagues concerned about the social life, uphold integrity, in the works clearly reflect the sense of the era of young people, especially the publications of a group to fight the Japanese as a subject's novels, and expressed evil, dark and
reactionary forces of anger and a strong unyielding national spirit. These works are occupied throughout the Northeast and the "128 Incident" after the first batch of short stories reflecting the anti-Japanese national salvation, and therefore valuable.
Abstract title】 Literature and Publishing
Key words Li Xifei / "" Tan Hua "biweekly" / short story / sense of anxiety / anti-
Japanese national salvation
History is ruthless, some have been Xuan He 1:00, large purple red publications, after
years of washing people's memories fade already. History is also feeling that some who have been misunderstood by the annihilation of the books, brushed the dust of time, has become a replay of the flowers. Li Xi-Africa and he founded the "Tan Hua,"
fortnightly experience, their situation could be classified as the latter.
The spring of 1932, is the Institute of Peking University postgraduate Guoxue of Li Xifei (Note: Li Xifei (1902 ~ 1970), Guangdong Xingning Luogang Zhen Gan village.
The spring of 1929, holders of chi from the Shanghai University of Literature and History Department of the University of china college transfer to the Department of Literature and History Department, under the tutelage of Hu Shih, Mr. Shen Cong-
wen Chu. the spring of 1931, was admitted to Peking University Institute of Graduate Institute of Guoxue once again become students of Hu Shi (Hu Shih, the time appointed Dean of Peking University). 1932, Li Xifei interrupt their studies act as "Independent
Review" agency managers. "77" incident, he returned with his family to leave the Peking to teach secondary school Ning. 1944 ~ 1945 years has been heard more than one referral to the Kunming Institute of Chinese Medicine as Assistant Department of
History and Geography researcher, and soon he returned to teach Ning. June 1966
"Cultural Revolution" broke out, Mr Lai has been labeled as a "Sam Ka Tsuen gang", had suffered after the 1970 death wrongfully. 1979 to be rehabilitated.), should be him
Teacher Hu's request to suspend his studies resolutely as the "Independent Review" of the manager, is responsible for other than the addition to the editing proof-reading,
publishing, distribution and so on. "Independent Review" is represented by Hu Shih's
cultural elite and liberal intellectuals, founded in the 20th century, 30 years, one of the most influential political commentator publications (Note: "Independent Review" Hu members, in addition, there are W. H. Wong, Chiang Ten-fu, Fu, Zhou Yichun, WU
Jing-chao, Ren Hong Juan, Tao Menghe celebrities, etc..), from May 22, 1932 founded until July 25, 1937 issue of the final out of a total of 244. Five years have passed, Li Xi-
Hu non-successful completion of the tasks entrusted to him, so Hu for the
"Independent Review" of the publishing and distribution services to implement "non-
action politics", and so that the highest circulation of 13,000 copies of publications, covering around the country, far to sell in Japan, France, Germany, the United States
and other countries. Xi-Fei Hu Lebanon has repeatedly expressed great satisfaction
with the sacrifice and gratitude. In his "Independent Review" "third anniversary of the king" (151), entitled "another year older" one paper said: "He years of age in this day,
let us not forget that the child care there is a loyal woman . When we founded this publication, we invited Mr. Li Xifei issued by the responsible for managing the affairs of. "In," "independent review" of the fourth anniversary of the "one article said:"
They (referring to the non-Li and Zhang Xi-Xi Lv - cited by) for This publication is
love and hard work, they often give us the overwhelming spiritual inspiration. "Mr. Li Xifei the time the legitimate thirties, has been research in the field in the Book of Songs
budding. His sentiments on teachers and students to play "shadow figure" role and his unpretentious and willing to be indifferent to the spirit of the really awe-inspiring.
But the "Independent Review", after all, be based on a political commentator based
publications. As a vibrant literary youth, in the national crisis, years of heavy clouds, nature would reflect social life, to look for, and describe spiritual feelings, the release of personal energy of garden literature. In September 1932, Li Hing Ning Xifei hometown,
the original in Shanghai, China, Ding Bai Public School classmate brought his girlfriend Fei Chen Village (Jiangsu Taicang people) North petitions Li to discuss the co-founder of a small literary journal, published a number of specific length is more
short fiction, prose, poetry and criticism of the text. Soon, Li Xifei two other friends of the original Chinese college students, Pan Wei Yang, Guangdong flush and are studying in Peking University School of Law and Business Liu Ning fellow in the sea
were also invited to take part. They set up a "Tan Hua Arts Society," and elected as the chief editor Li Xifei, preparing the publication of "Tan Hua," biweekly, titles requested by Li Hu signed handwritten title, publication costs shared by the members, publishing
the charitable located at the Peking Palace back door North Crescent Alley 2 ( "Independent Review" agency offices to), mailing address for "Peking University Law School, Room 2nd turn." After six months of work with people, "Tan Hua" finally
the following year founded January 1, Folio 16, each 16 pages, this journal also and the "Independent Review" to advertise each other. Unfortunately, the "Tan Hua," founded the day, it was the fall of Rehe, elm fall off when the bustling ancient capital, rapid pace
into the border town, a bleak school, teachers and students fled helter-skelter, "Tan
Hua," up to the year 1933, 4 1, No. 7 on it because "people scattered, and economic hardship" and hastily discontinued. The circulation of only 100 copies of the
publications and therefore valuable, and now be able to find only six (No. 6, missing), stored in the National Library and the Peking University Library.
The irony is that after 1949, "Tan Hua" members who in their lifetime, the publication
that year friendship, beloved crystal is almost no mention, only according to organizational requirements in their book, "Autobiography," described in this matter. I attended in the 1950s, when Ning 1, Li and Chen Fei Xifei Village, Pan flush to teach
in the school, Ding Ning Bai, another in the secondary schools. Hu has been listed due to time called "war criminals" has gone through a soul-stirring "thought reform
movement" of the teachers are naturally talk about "Hu" pale, not to mention and
others. But they "Mingzhe" and difficult "Bao Shen," June 3, 1966 "People's Daily" published "Wu Han relying on clear evidence of Hu Shi," a text, involving Li Xifei and Wu Han, Hu Shih and the "Independent Review" of the relationship between Henghuo
flew home dies, the Mr. Li Xifei immediately denounced been tortured, wrongfully died in 1970. November 26, 1979, held in the relevant units Xingning Mr. Li Xifei rehabilitated memorial to overthrow imposed on him all the false words. In October 2002, Mr. Li Xifei 100th anniversary of the Beijing Academy Press by Mr. Li Xifei the son of Beijing Normal University, Department of History doctoral edited by Professor Li Hu, "Li Xifei and" Independent Review "," a book, an income photocopying The period "Tan Hua" biweekly (missing No. 6). People have the opportunity to restore the historical truth on the basis of appearance research Tanhua works with people to determine their contribution to the history of the new literature, and further insight into the 20th century, this group of young people 30 years of literary character and mentality of the culture.
To learn more about Tan Hua agency colleagues and values the aesthetic requirements, may wish to take a look at the non-authored by Li Xi, published in the
"Tan Hua," the inaugural issue of the "hair issue of speech":
When the sun rising time, a few scattered in the sky is bright wipe Jinxia right? When the rain new, sunny, corner to rainbow arch in the air is beautiful, right? However, like
lightning, only a moment had been eliminated; small birds warble wan singing is sweet, right? Vatican-e-lin trochaic tone is intoxicating, right? However, Xiangfengyiyang, breeze had disappeared; what are the "temporary", ah! - But that what relationship?
In a moment as long as it truly existed, and had given people's hearts to leave a clear impression, and to convey a bit of a so-called "emotional" role: it is enough.
Epiphyllum's righteousness is almost here. We only know that the "beauty" (do not mistake that the United States the word ugly description, dark exposure, also can be expressed in beautiful). To the "true" way to go, to a walk the other we have no time to have taken care of.
We do not flaunt what a beautiful doctrine. Because we thought that its hollow
ostentation, it is better to make something really to go to.
We hope that our Epiphyllum able to open! Let's all come to cultivate her strike!
To understand China's new literary trends of the people know: In the period 1927 ~ 1937 on the attitudes of literature and literary thought in terms of the tendency, when left-wing literature and art represented by the addition to the revolutionary literary trends, the same time, there is a liberal literary trends. The former believe that literature is a part of the revolutionary cause, revolutionary tools and weapons; the latter (including the "Beijing School", "The Analects of Confucius to send," "New Moon", "freedom" and "third person", etc.) are emphasizes the independent character of literature and art, literature and art and politics should be kept away from, or emphasize literature from political freedom. To Shen Cong-wen's representative
"Beijing School" writers concerned about the life, the habit of "pure literary taste" and to "harmony", "moderation" and "appropriate" as the basic principles. Li Xifei and Shen Congwen hours in Shanghai, China, that is, teachers and students of public affection, so they ontology concept in literary and aesthetic consciousness is more
common ground. We might take note of "Independent Review" section 1 of the
"Introduction," the text said: "We all want to always maintain a little independent spirit. Not leaning on any of the parties, without any prejudice and superstition, using a responsible speech to express We have all the results of thinking: This is an
independent spirit. " This Tanhua agency colleagues in the social beliefs and ethics are the same. If we take note of "Tan Hua," Tao wrote the first issue of the pillows, "Tan Cong lamp", you will find: the text both to the dialectic materialism actually sing the theory divorced from reality "real home" of criticism, but also non - concerned about
the hardships and sufferings Parnassiens writers and artists irony. In short, Tan Hua community should insist that the literary spirit of independence and indeed, to feelings, in order to promote the "true" and "America" as our duty. This is a group of educated, conscientious, responsible young people faced with the ever-changing era of
literature and write a solemn promise. They have a short literary fulfilled their
commitments. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
According to statistics, the existing "Tan Hua" all inter "issue published speech" outside the works were published in 36, including five poems, four essays, comments 2, translation 1 and the remaining 24 as a short story. So we Tanhua agency also created a basic assessment of the main novel.
Themes from the works, these novels reflect more clearly the 20th century, 30 years
young people's sense of the times. 30 years in China, civil war, frequently, foreign aggression constantly depressed people's livelihood, disaster again and again, and cultural backwardness and the national mood is not Shen. In both internal and external
environment Tanhua community with the people as a group of young college students, worthy of being a barometer of the times and the induction of nerve sensitive to their tentacles to every corner of society, showing their hardship, anger and compassion. If
these novels rough classification can be divided into three categories.
The first category reflects the rural life works. Li Xifei in 1951 wrote, "autobiography," Lane said: "The reason I want to engage in creation, a course by themselves like it, one is also encouraged by Shen Cong-wen: Because I come from
rural areas, well aware of the suffering of the rural masses, each are exposed to the dark side of society at that time. In his view than those who sat in Shanghai garret where the 'ordinary writer' is also written in a more vivid, so creative that I walked Jilisongyong way. "to Shen Cong-wen and other representative" Beijing School "A
writer with realism and rich life experience to the performance of" rural China "as the main content of the works truly reflect the Hunan and other places the peasants and tears the joys and sorrows, humiliation, misery and suffering on the fate of the fight reveals to the disaster-ridden homeland thick Si Lian complex, Tan Hua agency in this regard can be said with the same strain. Li Xifei's novel "living property" (pen name Gan village) which is written, a farmer in rural eastern Guangdong Aki drug addiction, heart to sell his son's tragic story. Author not only describes the drug that the direct harm caused by bad habits, but also from one side of the forces that reflected the deep-
rooted in rural areas the negative impact, including the right husband (Aki woman for the son had been sold although the "sad" but only "her tongue unable to speak live on" The silent cry), family rights (Aki vend son of the former must be the future "patriarch" The youngest in the default, so their fear of ill-treated), power (collusion
explicitly ban on the sale of opium, secretly a monopoly sales), in addition to War (the novel alluded to the civil war caused by obstruction, the business depression, but the smoke while gambling hall thrive). With these forces cause trouble, children in rural areas sell sell women, breaking up what is not regarded as a rare phenomenon. Li Xifei
another short story "Southern Twist" is also quite a depth of work. A Ling is a
hometown hero after an absence of many years of youth, this time to return to H City (Note: The old "Ning" spelling Hingning.), Through the seen and heard, fully understand the minds of the farmers, "rancor, hate, sadness, anger ": exorbitant taxes and levies, plethora, forced soldier's grasp Ding, shocking, farmers salesman who cheapens the land, no one is willing to up the price. The atmosphere works and ideas, are reminiscent of Du Fu's "three clerks" and "three do not." "Tan Hua," there are still a few low-level description of the rural poor women, the fate of works written in quite well. Female author of the Philippine Village, "a day," which is written, Jiangnan Town, Cao F for individual villagers to the village carpenter, wife at home, "unto them" and their "naked streets Chronicles" of the "news", the result is a carpenter wife "hanging "died. Work through the delicate description and abuse of the brushstrokes, reflecting the bad habits and ordinary peasants in rural areas of
ignorance and apathy, showing that the national bad quality everywhere. Fei Chen Village, another short story "late" is written, middle of winter, a mother faced with the situation of non-clothing-free food, after thinking it over, the fifth has just gave birth to a child suffocated hand the tragic story of the psychological description , force penetration of paper back. "Tan Hua" and concerned about the reality of the tragic fate of women there is PAN Xiao-ping's "stolen" and "grandmother's Yuan Wang"
and so on. His "Sir, wrote Bar," which is written, occurred in Guangdong in rural areas with "kidnapping" incident, showing some of the dregs of society's moral decadence, and unscrupulous.
The second category is based on the theme of resistance to Japanese aggression and novels. The beginning of the 1930s, the Japanese iron heel flowing into crazy trampling on Chinese territory, the three northeastern provinces, an instant fall, in Shanghai smoke, followed by underway, the Great Wall area, at risk. All this so bloody young intellectuals Beifentianying lingering anti-Japanese national salvation Toru river north
and south of the songs to sing. The national consciousness in the "Tan Hua," China is also plenty of high-spirited. Tsuruko the "theater of the iceberg," describes the desperate people in enemy-occupied areas of salt stack unfortunate enough to be
sneaked into the Japanese found that men suffered torture, women suffered rape, was also photographed the final spread, which will effectively heinous crimes indictment of the aggressors . Ling Ling's "recapture after" which is written, a village of Fort recaptured from the Japanese army were laid in ruins after the scene: the village, the original San Siqian people, devils occupation, fled to escape, kill to kill, young women, caught the whole go, who became flesh volunteers, fewer than 200 remaining. Ling Ling, another short story "Banquet" story took place in a village under the Changbai Mountains, the Japanese deputy head and the other five officers arrested five female students in an attempt to vent their vices, and anti-female student was shot and killed
by drunk and all of its . ... ... Hatred of the aggressor's sense of even diffuse the child's inner world. Xia Di's "kids" to write 8-year-old girl led Mei Ying Guan Yu attack a few
kids to do the game, but not a child is willing to play the Japanese soldiers. By affectionate tribute to their "no compromise, no reconciliation, no compromise, no surrender, and finally the Japanese do not want to do," the purity of the soul. Worthy of literary historians note that: These reflect the fight against Japanese aggression, short stories published in early 1933, shocked the world in 1931 from the "918 Incident" was a little more than a year (the fall of the entire territory of the Northeast in February 1932) from the armed invasion of the Japanese imperialists in Shanghai in 1932, "128 Incident" just one year. The time "Northeast writers group" has not yet formed, Xiao Jun, Xiao Hong in the summer of 1934 did not leave Harbin, they write a reflection of the bottom of the Northeast under the rule of the people suffering and struggle Puppet novel collection of essays, "journey", they are in 1933 year in October at their own expense from Harbin, on the 5th Huabao She published. Their fame as "the village in August" (Xiao Jun), "Life and Death" (Xiao Hong) to go to the support of Lu Xun, 1935, was able to publish. In addition, Lin Jing (Yang Hansheng) of the novella "volunteer" was in January 1933 by the Shanghai Bookstore Publishing lake winds. Based on available information at hand, "Tan Hua," published in the "Theater of the iceberg", "Kefu after", "Banquet" and other works should be "918 Incident" occurs after the first group to fight the Japanese invasion themes of short stories, its
meaning can not be ignored.
The third category is the work reflects the life of young students. Such works include Ling Ling's "happy ending" Shen Bo's "a female ideal home remorse" and "modern
youth", but also out of the "foot disease" Xia Di's "looking forward to - written Qian
Wei's Express letter, "Xu Ping's" examination Diary "and so on. Some of these young people to write literature, embarrassment, struggle and despair, some irony
Xingaoqiao, divorced from reality and game life, love, and some analysis of young men and heterosexual contacts suspicious ridiculous, hesitant psychological, and some exposure to university administration was chaotic, teachers and students, free to non-
attendance as well as on behalf of the people copying each other examinations and so on. As the authors themselves intellectuals who are familiar with the pursuit of college students, confused, struggling, and their common problem, it seems most of the details
of such works of the real, psychological descriptions vivid, lifelike characters. In particular, Luo Gang's "love and hatred," the novel is written in 1930, the process of political polarization intensified by the unit, "emphasis on the" Loulan of young college
students sell their friends for money to enjoy Qiurong acts. House scandal led to the progressive young people Cengmou the "disappearance", and I love and life that caused the destruction. Work shows the human nature destroys and patriotic consciousness lifted convey the era of high-handed rule of the frustration of youth.
Through the above brief introduction, we can see: "Tan Hua," the works of both the Acura pure ideal of human nature and beautiful, or castigate the ugly expose the dark, they all strive to "America" to seek "truth." Their pen is simple, and some even a bit immature, but the works were not slogans, no label, thus allowing people to more clearly see that era of the original ecology of life, causing more of our memories and associations.
"Tan Hua," the short story addition to subject matter characteristics of the times, there are several points worthy of attention from researchers.
First, realistic art. The new literature of the second decade (ie, commonly referred to
as 30 years literature) no lack of exploration and pioneering modernist schools, as novels of psychological analysis, there were other faction and a new feeling; but Tanhua Society Why colleagues novels almost invariably adopted the realistic art
methods? Needless to say, on the attitude of literature and literary thought in terms of trends, Tan Hua Beijing School writers community deeply affected. Beijing School for the basic tendencies can be said that literature will inherit the realism of life and
development. On the artistic methods, the Beijing School for the realistic writers to send, import of this period, Mainstream Trend of realism. Therefore, Tan Hua agency colleagues with the theme of the novel of rural life, and "for life" faction, Beijing
agreed to send a lot of novels Department has also tried to cleverly crafted, rich in cultural implication. However, Tan Hua, after sending agency in Beijing, due to development of the times and the grim realities of the environment and the deterioration of society, therefore the works of Tan Hua Beijing School writers rarely have the kind of romantic atmosphere with a lyrical body of fiction, but rather to strengthen the Beijing sent a writer to another satirical fiction. Of course, there are multiple forms of realism is, and they also affect each other. Undeniably, left-wing
writers and Tan Hua agency colleagues in reflecting the life of the peasants of ignorance, backwardness, hardship and pain, struggle and so on similarities, it is because: it was a novel writer (including the Leftist social analysis as well as the Beijing school were novelists writer) have been "for life" faction and the "local literature"
effect, most attention from the real-life subjects, in particular, highlight the description
of the rural areas of bankruptcy, turmoil and farmers of hardship and grievances. Social analysis were accepted at this time the influence of Marxism in general will benefit from analyzing the political economy of society to reveal the reality of society,
particularly in rural middle-class antagonism and struggle, with intense social
consciousness. Like Mao Dun's "Spring Silkworms" and "Lin's Store", which published the time and "Tan Hua," short story on roughly the same period (Note: "Spring Silkworms" was written in 1932 car November 1, contained in the "modern" section 2, No. 1. "Lin's Store," was completed on June 18, 1932, contained in the "Monthly report," Volume 1, No. 1. 2 entries closed at the beginning of May 1933, published an open bookstore, "Spring Silkworms" in.). This indicates that the Leftist
writer and Beijing School writers (including Tan Hua agency included) the creation of the themes and subjects have similar or similar. The trend in terms of the creation between them does exist a mutual penetration, coexistence and complementary
situation. Beijing is just to send the writer in creating even greater emphasis on the aesthetic consciousness, more attention to the cultural, moral dimension to explore the life, so some left-wing writers of the early works of the existence of character profiling, formulaic plot, as well as slogans tend to the serious, the characters more than rhetoric and issues such as political terms, these phenomena in the "Tan Hua," works are rarely seen. From here we can see that: "Tan Hua" in using artistic methods of realism at the same time, noted the breath of life to keep the work at the same time try to avoid bias in the arts rough.
Second, work with a relatively strong local flavor. Tan Hua, author of society outside
the village except the Philippines (Note: Chen Fei Village (1912 ~ 1997) in July 1935 after graduating from college in China, and Mr. Ding Baiqing became husband and wife, and side by side back in the hometown of Canton, Mr. Ding Ning. Since then settled in Guangdong Xingning, dedicated to Hakka areas education, served as more than secondary schools, teacher of teachers, vice principals and principals. she was often the students themselves as "Hakka.") and the remaining 4 per capita for the eastern part of Guangdong Hakka . Hakka people's history gradually moved south from the Central Plains Mountains formed a Han China, Department of Hakka ancestors retained the emphasis on culture, education, etiquette, as well as hard-
working, and so features, but also highlighted to maintain a number of out of tune with the modern civilization bad habits, such as the strong patriarchal concept of male superiority and patriarchal ideology (men ashamed of farming and labor, while women have to work in the fields farming, raising families to support and housekeeping), and
the ubiquitous "and Lang Mei" (a child bride) phenomenon, and so . Due to close to the sea, in modern times there has been a lot of people addicted to opium-smoking habit,
thus causing all kinds of tragedy. Those in the "Tan Hua," the works are a reflection of the specific detail. Hakka people have their own dialect, in the vocabulary, voice and even the syntax has some Mandarin or other dialects diversity. We have a "living property", "Southern Twist" and other articles can be found in the traces of the Hakka dialect. For example, Guangdong Hakka pole as "Tam Kon," and "palm" to "hand drive" ( "hand-back of the hand is also a meat dish"), to help people buy things with the section when the act in order to take advantage from underreporting more known
as "rip-offs "They also put a bag of tobacco smoke is called" smoking a cigarette tube "(because of the Hakka region to do more to farmers with bamboo Smoking), the prison called" go to prison. " In grammar, Hakka, the ferocious than the tiger is also
known as "too fierce tiger," is also good to Bibi Zhu called "too good pig." ... ... And so on, one can see in his works. Authors may come in handy, but inadvertently increased by works of local color. Therefore, "Tan Hua" in the novel, providing a site for people
to understand the existence of modern Guangdong Hakka folk paintings, but also for the preparation of "Hakka Literary History" provides a rare first-hand material. Of
modern literature communities an important indicator, is generally run their own
publications. Based on current information at our disposal point of view, Tan Hua agency is the first one in modern literary history Hakka literary societies. "Tan Hua" is a modern literary history of the first one founded by the Hakka people of pure literary
journal. It is also worthy of researchers attention.
3 is a short-winning style. "Tan Hua," 16 pages each issue, only two thousand words. Each works so an average of only three thousand words. Chinese art so-called "Chi Fu
thousand miles," "Na Xumi in the mustard" and so on, and emphasized that in order to win short. Short Stories To do this, naturally calls for authors are familiar with life, with confidence, well conceived, carefully refined, but also to achieve language province
of the net, writing is vivid. "Tan Hua," lacking in this kind of work. Female authors such as Philippine Village, "a Day" and "late" adoption of a unique female perspective, through the delicate psychological description and just right to highlight the
background to deal with the tragic events, is indeed Chushoubufan. "Tan Hua," the authors of artistic practice, it is worth drawing on future generations.
To sum up, Tan Hua society of the 20th century the early 30s under the influence of
the liberal literary trends, was founded by a group of Hakka literature, there are the achievements of young literary societies, style, belongs to realism genre. They founded the "Tan Hua" Due to various reasons one is hurried, it is indeed regrettable thing. We
do not intend to exaggerate its literature in the new garden of the status and role, but it re-discovery, is still for people in research associations, publications, the relationship between genre and literary trends provide valuable historical data. Its editor in chief
Mr. Li Xifei Hu Shih's trust in order to complete mentor in the "Independent Review" posts and fulfill their duties, to sacrifice individual academic and research enterprise of
the spirit is admirable. Tan Hua Society members lost their corner, no choice but to put down the brush, after they picked up the chalk on the teaching scene sway sweat, quietly, to cultivate talent for the benefit of society, they struggle and hard work is
worthy of future generations to remember. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://