Levying tax on fossil fuel producers and Countermeasures
1, a fuel tax in the background
A country's fiscal revenue can be divided into two parts: the tax revenue and government tax charges, according to World Bank statistics, the 20th century, 80 years
the proportion of national fiscal revenue, the average level of GDP, roughly as follows: 23% low-income countries, middle-income countries, 29% of the market economy in
industrialized countries 40%: people with the development of market economy, fiscal
revenue-GDP ratio is gradually improving. At present, China's fiscal revenue-GDP
ratio is not only much lower than the developed market economies, the average level, but lower than the average for developing countries. China's GDP in 1999 reached
8.319 trillion yuan, fiscal revenue trillion yuan mark for the first time, about 1.1377 trillion yuan, but only GDP, 13.67%. The reason is that the government exists in our country a huge tax charges. Along with the deepening of economic reform, the central
and local levels of government gradually delegating powers and benefits, local governments in a market economy evolving circumstances, the need to have a certain degree of economic regulation and control means to compensate for the market, thus increasing the local government's financial expenditure, resulting in fees on behalf of local governments to tax in order to charge the phenomenon of tax squeeze, resulting in huge loss of state budget revenues. 1990 to 1996, the government tax charges, the average of total GDP, accounting for 12.7%, to 28.41 percent and the average annual growth rate in 1992 for the first time "fees greater than the tax" situation. In addition to estimates of the fees and charges, the main is the large proportion of the "extra-
budgetary fees" and "outside the system charge."
The proportion of tax charged is too large, not only caused the loss of state revenues and weaken the central government macroeconomic regulation and control efforts, but also contributes to local and departmental charges parochialism. Fees increase, and
management and was not well, not only increase the burden on citizens, but also breed corruption. Some of our industry to make people pay overwhelmed these days, has reached the point must be solved.
Under the tax reform is currently being vigorously implemented fiscal policy, a variety of tax on the existing implementation of a comprehensive clean-up fee to a tax charge
gradually changed the nature of taxes, regulate charge management, eliminate unreasonable charges. October 31, 1999 the Ninth NPC Standing Committee 12th meeting, adopted the "Highway Law" amendment to road maintenance fee for the vehicle levy fuel tax reform paved the way for the reform of the State Planning Commission in January 2000 issued a eight year fee checks. 2000 2
12, Premier Zhu Rongji has issued dissolving the "administrative fees and fines for violations of two separate lines of revenue and expenditure management regulations Interim Provisions on administrative sanctions." All these developments demonstrate,
China's tax reform and standardize the work of the management fee is being intensively carried out.
Select the fuel tax as a breakthrough in the work of promoting tax reform in line with international practice on the passage of oil consumption. At present, some countries in order to increase revenue, protect the environment, the implementation of sustainable development strategies imposed on gasoline and diesel fuel tax accounts for 70% of its price, oil consumers pay the cost of crude oil costs have reached more than 6 times the . In our country in a variety of charges, charges for transport and vehicles more prominent. According to incomplete statistics, China's transportation and vehicle fees accounting for about 40% of the total fees and charges. If the levy a fuel tax on gasoline and diesel under our 2000 production and consumption forecasts, increase revenue 1300-150000000000 yuan. This is to promote economic development and start-
consumer auto market, with an active role.
2, a fuel tax on the impact of petrochemical enterprises
2.1 gasoline and diesel market demand fluctuations occur
In 1999, according to the relevant provisions of the amount of fuel duty levied 1596.2 yuan per tonne gasoline, diesel fuel levy 1117.2 yuan per ton. January 2000 According
to the latest news, the State Council has drawn up specific plans fuel tax levied under this program, imposed on gasoline and diesel fuel tax rate will reach 45%. This shows that fuel duty will lead to gasoline and diesel prices soaring, to the refinery in normal production, a seriously adverse impact.
According to the Trade of the demand function
QD = f (P, I, T, P1, E ... ...)
QD-commodity market demand
P 1 commodity prices;
I a consumer income;
T a consumer preference;
P1 a related products pricing;
E - People of the commodity prices of the future expected value.
The short term, such as the implementation of fuel tax levied, within the first two months, one might be to buy the oil stored in advance or re-adjust the annual oil
consumption plans, resulting in the market for gasoline and diesel demand for a substantial increase in oil sales over companies, gas stations and storage capacity of the transportation company such as storage of gasoline and diesel will reach maximum
capacity. However, the continuity of petrochemical enterprises are large-scale industry,
the actual processing capacity will not be in a short time has been greatly improved, so the supply will be no major changes in the Prior to this, willing to take will be placed in the largest production capacity of the state.
Fuel tax levied at the beginning of a period of time prior to, gasoline and diesel market supply and demand will increase, prices will rise, the market has started the most likely
method of collection is a specific day of announcement. But when I began levying fuel tax, after soaring more than 50% as prices in the short term the market may be "zero demand", when stocks started to decrease, the demand will rise over time. Unlike other
consumer goods, petroleum products within a year the total consumption is relatively stable. Therefore, in general, its price elasticity of demand for smaller, fuel tax, after shrinking oil demand will continue over how long time, more difficult to ascertain.
However, as long as more than about ten days time, they will have a strong negative petrochemical producers situation. Petrochemical production plant is the nature of continuous production, processing capacity, storage capacity normally does not exceed
a half months, the production capacity can not be reduced to 60% to 70% or less. Many companies belong to the refinery. The integration of large-scale joint venture
chemical industry, refinery product sales block library, will force the refinery to reduce
or stop production capacity, follow-up chemical process equipment, it will be affected
due to lack of raw materials production. Can be expected that the introduction of fuel duty for several days, there will be a part of the petrochemical enterprises stop
production, reducing the amount of production will be inevitable. Of a large-scale
installation work stoppage a start, not only result in material consumption, energy consumption increases, but also to bring equipment, security problems. Preliminary
estimates, a set of 3 million / t cut-off 10 days of refinery losses resulting from 500
Analysis of market demand for payment of duty after the step by step to reach equilibrium, we can see that, although the price rose, but the corresponding road
maintenance fee to waive the payment, the actual prices or costs incurred by consumers will vary, transportation and the taxi industry, the costs may rise, but private cars and other similar vehicles, there was a substantial cost burden will fall, thereby stimulating
the automotive consumer market. Private car is the biggest beneficiary of the implementation of fuel tax. Experts estimate that the imposition of fuel tax for private cars off the arrival of additional road maintenance and other fees charged, raising fares
may spend less than half "4].
Private cars and other similar vehicles, the cost of significantly decreased consumption, to make people adjust to the post-tax price of gasoline and diesel
understanding, even up 50%, people will think that, over the previous low price in order to guide people's consumption trends . The increase in automobile consumption, will further promote the demand for gasoline and diesel market expansion. In short, market acceptance of fuel tax, supply and demand, the average points will be adjusted, the total will rise. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
2.2 the liquidity flow problems
The fuel tax is levied at the refinery began production chain, the strength of oil
refining enterprises in the payment of the factory. The initial intention is to open a factory in the oil money out tax invoices, while a single ticket. The tax department will send a commissioner stationed in the refinery, as long as oil factory, you have to
payment of taxes, paid the day's business the same day, regardless of whether the petrochemical enterprises and tax payment receipt. At present, the sale of oil in place payment normally takes about 7 days or so, sales of businesses and other customers in
arrears payment refinery is a very common phenomenon, and the huge amount of each business. If the arrears payments to the phenomenon does not occur in the flow of funds on the refinery would have little impact. But the reality is, at present, domestic
and international petroleum products market is still a situation of supply exceeding demand, production enterprises in order to smooth product factory, had to sell some businesses the convenience and buffer time. If funds are not withdrawn from
circulation in time, then the refinery is not only not receive the money, but also need to come up with a sum of tax advance. The current domestic ex-factory price of gasoline is
about 2860 yuan / t, diesel 2465 yuan / t, if the collection 1596 and 1117 yuan
respectively, the fuel tax, an annual processing volume of 3 million t of crude oil refining business, the year is expected to be turned over 2 billion fuel tax yuan. As the fuel tax required to pay the day of the sale of oil and oil products without payment in
place in time, companies will face a huge liquidity gap. Preliminary estimates, companies need long-term advances of about 50 million yuan of liquidity. In this way, companies had to borrow from banks. The fuel tax would not only financially to the
refinery has put pressure on enterprises, also petroleum products marketing company to bring pressure, they are bound to reduce the oil stocks, to ensure their own money flow. Thus, the pressure on stocks will be shifted refinery, allowing refineries to