Inscriptions in the Guangxu Hedong drought
【Abstract】 socio-economic problems
Stone, was known as a "talking stone." In the known as "Shanxi plaque commemorating the town" in Hadong, Guangxu three years
(1877), the Lunar New Year Dingchou occurred in Shanxi Province, some 200-odd years has not been a major drought, so when people call it "Qi Ding Chou shortage", because this re - Drought also extended to the Guangxu four years, that the Tiger Chinese New Year, which is also known as "D E Oare." "D E Oare" in the official history records is an indisputable fact, however, too brief a number of
official history records, for the disaster and relief measures and their left to the people of terrorist psychology, slightly but unknown. In
fact, shortly after the catastrophe, many in the region east of the river villages have Kebei, account of this terrible disaster, in many ways
set up for the gaps in history.
First of all, the number of inscriptions of view, 10 the same number of pass monument inscription reads in a major event, even in the inscriptions of the township known as Shanxi Hedong history, there are also quite rare. Second, far as the contents of the inscription,
recorded more of a surviving personal feelings, to speak out more of the details of my own eyes witnessed and become an important and complementary information on the history books. For example, stored in Yuncheng city, on King Township, Village of beef, "Dingchou
Oare in mind," Yuncheng's "tragic famine song", Ruicheng County, "OSS and the plague wolf rat disaster injury in mind", "The Creation Shugo shrine Monument "," wolf rat disaster injury in mind, "Awayama County's" looted over the years in mind, "Wanrong
County," village community disaster monument "," famine Zhi ", flat land County's" hidden violent bone in mind after the famine, " Whitehead Wenxi Township 18 Weir "Disaster Monument" and other inscriptions, the inscriptions, both personally experienced the
catastrophe, the surviving people relegated to engraving, for the history books, what is lacking is the study of valuable information on the drought. Inscriptions record number of disasters such as the Oare the specific data of the detailed and rich in content, revealing people's
hearts the bitter, the Qi-cut speech, motives of Liangku has to read is still vivid in my mind, soul shock.
Since the 20th century, 80 years, there have been many scholars of this drought had fruitful research, how to Hon-wai's "Guangxu the
early years (1876-1879) drought in North China" (Note: The Hong Kong Chinese University Press, 1980.), Mr. Hao Ping, Sun Liping, Miss Wang Jinxiang, as well as the author of a number of papers (Note: Li-Ping Sun: "Shanxi History (modern volumes)" Volume Lu, Shanxi People's Publishing House, 2001.
Ping Hao: "Shanxi" D E surprising shortage "situation of the population of Wang Shi", "Journal of Shanxi University" (Philosophy and
Social Science Edition), 2001 No. 6.
Hao Ping: "Analysis of Shanxi" D E surprising shortage "of the affected intensity and the community to reflect," "Chinese Economic History Newsletter", 2002 No. 2.
Wang Xiang: "Westernization and" D E qi shortage "," "The Yellow River University of Technology Journal", 1999 No. 2.
Chun-Mei Guo: "dynasty of the early years of drought in Shanxi Province", "Chinese Local Records", 2003 Supplement.
Chun-Mei Guo: "Qing dynasty, the monument village disaster research", "World Heritage", 2003, No. 5. ), All of the great famine of the
disaster was the extent of disasters such as the Qing court disaster relief measures and the major causes and social impact studies carried out in different angles. Previous research data is based on handed down over the main literature, but this study to be in the original basis
of information on the current inscriptions remaining in the main, local gazetteers information to the disaster was the most heavily Case Hedong area, From a representative study of the microstructure of the individual to start on this large social impact of famine on the east
of the river to make a more detailed discussion. Attempt to explain the status of the individual areas of social issues to regional disasters
such as the Qing government's disaster relief reflects prevailing conditions and as an example of plaque commemorating the data for
understanding the unique value of this great disaster.
1, east of the river occurred at a time of drought and food issues
East of the river, ancient times, a major grain-producing area in Shanxi. Affected by geographical conditions and climate impact of the
Qing Dynasty, the area, "repeated OSS." This should actually be saying in Shanxi and nature of the situation: "Ten years 9 drought."
This "nine dry" is a folk have been accustomed to a "slightly affected by famine," a little dry, just as the inscription says "Since the self-
ching Dingding, Li Chuan-9 Lord, his sixtieth four weeks, Jun San Chen Liang, Civil Aid Service Cathay Pacific, that is, Jiaqing癸酉,
Daoguang DingWei, Xianfeng Gengshen, Tongzhi Bingyin, though repeated OSS, but a slight hunger. "(Note: Ruicheng County
inscriptions" OSS and the plague wolf rat disaster injury in mind. ")
The strange thing is, this big disaster in the "Qing Shigao" did not use too much ink. According to "Qing Shigao" records "(emperor)
for three years in April, Wujin, Zhanhua, Ningyang, Southern music, Tangshan drought, should be mountains in summer and autumn drought. Four-year-Chun, Tung-ping, Sanyuan dry. July, which Hill, Jingxing, Shun Tin, Tangshan, flat rural, temporary dry elm. "(Note:" Qingshi Gao "Volume 43" Catastrophist 4 ", Zhonghua Book Company, 1977.)" Guangxu three years, the mountain, Shaanxi great hunger, (Wu Dacheng) was instructed to do relief in works-hsiang. Gong Li-disaster survey, all live very public. "(Note:" Qing
Shigao "Volume Si Wu ?" Biography Diersanqi. ") are compiled according to major disaster" Shanxi Tong Chi "records, (Guangxu three years), Shanxi drought," and traced most of the disaster area has been really just ping, Po, Ze Xie, purple-red, Xi Huo state capital,
autumn, Wo-free as, loss of species of spring wheat . "(Note: Wang Xuan, Yang Du, etc. Compiling:" Shanxi Annals "(Guangxu North Korea) volume 82," Famine Policy in mind, "Zhonghua Book Company, 1990, p. 5639.) from the" Qingshi Gao "and the Annals records
a little while the unknown, we only know that three years of drought Guangxu this incident, but did not personally feel the large-scale
disasters, when people on the devastating blow, but the inscription has taught us this feeling. Another drought occurred from the time
point of view, the inscription is not the same record. Ruicheng County, Inscriptions, "OSS and the plague wolf rat disaster injury in
mind," made it clear that Guangxu two years, drought in some areas east of the river has already become clear, the inscription describes:
"The theft of Yi dynasty years, the Year of the Rat, weather Kang Han, Qiu Xia thin close. "illustrate Guangxu two years, some areas
east of the river have appeared in varying degrees of drought, so that should have occurred in summer and autumn harvest" thin closed
"phenomenon, which undoubtedly weakened the general public in the coming year here in the capacity of disaster .
Documented in detail the various inscriptions Guangxu three four-year summer solstice, the spring of all aspects of information, such as
Yuncheng inscription "Dingchou Oare mind" records "Year of the Ding Chou Chun-Guang Xu year in March, with light rain to the end
of the year, no rain, wheat micro-Gordon, Qiu Wo do not,-year-old hunger. Ping Pu, solutions, purple-red, etc. is even worse. "(Note:
Yuncheng inscriptions" Dingchou Oare in mind. ") Ruicheng County Inscription," OSS and the plague wolf rat disaster injury in mind
"records" to the following year Dingchou, since the spring of magic as a child as of autumn drought, none of two cross-wheat soil. neither
the old and new are hopeless, vacant room has been exhausted; Valley, immature, and vegetables is still Vladimir Health, abdominal
hollow of a tree unbearable . "(Note: Ruicheng County inscriptions" OSS and the plague wolf rat disaster injury in mind. ") Yuncheng" tragic famine song "record" Guangxu three to four years, more than 10 provincial non-income fields. "Whitehead Township, Wenxi 18
Yancun Guangxu three years "disaster monument" record "Guangxu year drought with great courage as a child, unfortunately, are calculated using the free fall of this year, four years without wheat." inscriptions above, not only documented at the time of year, spring
and summer climate and crops can not be planting conditions, and a detailed description of drought people's living conditions, for the same record in this matter, "Annals of Shanxi" and the local history is an important complement of detail, so that future generations
though after a hundred years, still seem to have witnessed the drought occurs scene. Datacom words different, but the content of similar
inscriptions, has shown both in scope and intensity of speaking, east of the river area are experiencing a very serious drought.
Guangxu three-year drought of strong intensity, duration, significantly greater than what people expected and prepared for. Because simply can not seed, spring wheat to pay none of autumn wheat soil, rapidly soaring food prices, soaring prices far beyond the purchasing
power of ordinary people. Inscription left us some real price of records.
First, the Mai City, the Big Dipper plus six, more than 32 per Tam Tiao silver. To is that each stone silver gradually rose to 32 two zero,
flour catty money to 200 text, 160 Wen Qian jin steamed tofu money to 48 per catty text, onion chives are also more than 30 per catty money Wen, Yu food equivalent. ... ... Used for housing, the right wood, catty essay sell for money, although I object to the cheap no sale.
Each mu of land, changing face of several two, steamed a few. Family property to make payments, that is, a room hung exhausted nor yet Monensin protect their remaining years. (Note: Inscriptions in Yuncheng City, "Dingchou Oare in mind.")
Mai Dou high prices 562, no silver difficult to buy up l kg of grain; fertile soil for the money value of over a hundred text, a few acres of slightly filling a meal of bread. Feed livestock of farmers, selling cattle and sheep, slaughtered just a few kilometers, chat wrap empty
stomach; lack of support of the home, stripping bark, pulling roots Gouyan life. Jewelry re-Jin, goods when the light changes if the
sediment; artifacts vertical well, the seller only cooking grass. Sri Lanka hungry poor quarter of women seeking to marry did not hesitate
daughter body; went so far as to spoil her husband to escape, and forbearance, throwing three children. (Note: Ping Lu County,
Inscriptions, "spelled disaster to hide after the violent bone in mind.")