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Inscriptions in the Guangxu Hedong drought_4986

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Inscriptions in the Guangxu Hedong drought_4986

Inscriptions in the Guangxu Hedong drought

     Abstract socio-economic problems

     Text

     Stone, was known as a "talking stone." In the known as "Shanxi plaque commemorating the town" in Hadong, Guangxu three years

    (1877), the Lunar New Year Dingchou occurred in Shanxi Province, some 200-odd years has not been a major drought, so when people call it "Qi Ding Chou shortage", because this re - Drought also extended to the Guangxu four years, that the Tiger Chinese New Year, which is also known as "D E Oare." "D E Oare" in the official history records is an indisputable fact, however, too brief a number of

    official history records, for the disaster and relief measures and their left to the people of terrorist psychology, slightly but unknown. In

    fact, shortly after the catastrophe, many in the region east of the river villages have Kebei, account of this terrible disaster, in many ways

    set up for the gaps in history.

     First of all, the number of inscriptions of view, 10 the same number of pass monument inscription reads in a major event, even in the inscriptions of the township known as Shanxi Hedong history, there are also quite rare. Second, far as the contents of the inscription,

    recorded more of a surviving personal feelings, to speak out more of the details of my own eyes witnessed and become an important and complementary information on the history books. For example, stored in Yuncheng city, on King Township, Village of beef, "Dingchou

    Oare in mind," Yuncheng's "tragic famine song", Ruicheng County, "OSS and the plague wolf rat disaster injury in mind", "The Creation Shugo shrine Monument "," wolf rat disaster injury in mind, "Awayama County's" looted over the years in mind, "Wanrong

    County," village community disaster monument "," famine Zhi ", flat land County's" hidden violent bone in mind after the famine, " Whitehead Wenxi Township 18 Weir "Disaster Monument" and other inscriptions, the inscriptions, both personally experienced the

    catastrophe, the surviving people relegated to engraving, for the history books, what is lacking is the study of valuable information on the drought. Inscriptions record number of disasters such as the Oare the specific data of the detailed and rich in content, revealing people's

    hearts the bitter, the Qi-cut speech, motives of Liangku has to read is still vivid in my mind, soul shock.

     Since the 20th century, 80 years, there have been many scholars of this drought had fruitful research, how to Hon-wai's "Guangxu the

    early years (1876-1879) drought in North China" (Note: The Hong Kong Chinese University Press, 1980.), Mr. Hao Ping, Sun Liping, Miss Wang Jinxiang, as well as the author of a number of papers (Note: Li-Ping Sun: "Shanxi History (modern volumes)" Volume Lu, Shanxi People's Publishing House, 2001.

     Ping Hao: "Shanxi" D E surprising shortage "situation of the population of Wang Shi", "Journal of Shanxi University" (Philosophy and

    Social Science Edition), 2001 No. 6.

     Hao Ping: "Analysis of Shanxi" D E surprising shortage "of the affected intensity and the community to reflect," "Chinese Economic History Newsletter", 2002 No. 2.

     Wang Xiang: "Westernization and" D E qi shortage "," "The Yellow River University of Technology Journal", 1999 No. 2.

     Chun-Mei Guo: "dynasty of the early years of drought in Shanxi Province", "Chinese Local Records", 2003 Supplement.

     Chun-Mei Guo: "Qing dynasty, the monument village disaster research", "World Heritage", 2003, No. 5. ), All of the great famine of the

    disaster was the extent of disasters such as the Qing court disaster relief measures and the major causes and social impact studies carried out in different angles. Previous research data is based on handed down over the main literature, but this study to be in the original basis

    of information on the current inscriptions remaining in the main, local gazetteers information to the disaster was the most heavily Case Hedong area, From a representative study of the microstructure of the individual to start on this large social impact of famine on the east

    of the river to make a more detailed discussion. Attempt to explain the status of the individual areas of social issues to regional disasters

    such as the Qing government's disaster relief reflects prevailing conditions and as an example of plaque commemorating the data for

    understanding the unique value of this great disaster.

     1, east of the river occurred at a time of drought and food issues

     East of the river, ancient times, a major grain-producing area in Shanxi. Affected by geographical conditions and climate impact of the

    Qing Dynasty, the area, "repeated OSS." This should actually be saying in Shanxi and nature of the situation: "Ten years 9 drought."

    This "nine dry" is a folk have been accustomed to a "slightly affected by famine," a little dry, just as the inscription says "Since the self-

    ching Dingding, Li Chuan-9 Lord, his sixtieth four weeks, Jun San Chen Liang, Civil Aid Service Cathay Pacific, that is, Jiaqing癸酉,

    Daoguang DingWei, Xianfeng Gengshen, Tongzhi Bingyin, though repeated OSS, but a slight hunger. "(Note: Ruicheng County

    inscriptions" OSS and the plague wolf rat disaster injury in mind. ")

     The strange thing is, this big disaster in the "Qing Shigao" did not use too much ink. According to "Qing Shigao" records "(emperor)

    for three years in April, Wujin, Zhanhua, Ningyang, Southern music, Tangshan drought, should be mountains in summer and autumn drought. Four-year-Chun, Tung-ping, Sanyuan dry. July, which Hill, Jingxing, Shun Tin, Tangshan, flat rural, temporary dry elm. "(Note:" Qingshi Gao "Volume 43" Catastrophist 4 ", Zhonghua Book Company, 1977.)" Guangxu three years, the mountain, Shaanxi great hunger, (Wu Dacheng) was instructed to do relief in works-hsiang. Gong Li-disaster survey, all live very public. "(Note:" Qing

    Shigao "Volume Si Wu ?" Biography Diersanqi. ") are compiled according to major disaster" Shanxi Tong Chi "records, (Guangxu three years), Shanxi drought," and traced most of the disaster area has been really just ping, Po, Ze Xie, purple-red, Xi Huo state capital,

    autumn, Wo-free as, loss of species of spring wheat . "(Note: Wang Xuan, Yang Du, etc. Compiling:" Shanxi Annals "(Guangxu North Korea) volume 82," Famine Policy in mind, "Zhonghua Book Company, 1990, p. 5639.) from the" Qingshi Gao "and the Annals records

    a little while the unknown, we only know that three years of drought Guangxu this incident, but did not personally feel the large-scale

    disasters, when people on the devastating blow, but the inscription has taught us this feeling. Another drought occurred from the time

    point of view, the inscription is not the same record. Ruicheng County, Inscriptions, "OSS and the plague wolf rat disaster injury in

    mind," made it clear that Guangxu two years, drought in some areas east of the river has already become clear, the inscription describes:

    "The theft of Yi dynasty years, the Year of the Rat, weather Kang Han, Qiu Xia thin close. "illustrate Guangxu two years, some areas

    east of the river have appeared in varying degrees of drought, so that should have occurred in summer and autumn harvest" thin closed

    "phenomenon, which undoubtedly weakened the general public in the coming year here in the capacity of disaster .

     Documented in detail the various inscriptions Guangxu three four-year summer solstice, the spring of all aspects of information, such as

    Yuncheng inscription "Dingchou Oare mind" records "Year of the Ding Chou Chun-Guang Xu year in March, with light rain to the end

    of the year, no rain, wheat micro-Gordon, Qiu Wo do not,-year-old hunger. Ping Pu, solutions, purple-red, etc. is even worse. "(Note:

    Yuncheng inscriptions" Dingchou Oare in mind. ") Ruicheng County Inscription," OSS and the plague wolf rat disaster injury in mind

    "records" to the following year Dingchou, since the spring of magic as a child as of autumn drought, none of two cross-wheat soil. neither

    the old and new are hopeless, vacant room has been exhausted; Valley, immature, and vegetables is still Vladimir Health, abdominal

    hollow of a tree unbearable . "(Note: Ruicheng County inscriptions" OSS and the plague wolf rat disaster injury in mind. ") Yuncheng" tragic famine song "record" Guangxu three to four years, more than 10 provincial non-income fields. "Whitehead Township, Wenxi 18

    Yancun Guangxu three years "disaster monument" record "Guangxu year drought with great courage as a child, unfortunately, are calculated using the free fall of this year, four years without wheat." inscriptions above, not only documented at the time of year, spring

    and summer climate and crops can not be planting conditions, and a detailed description of drought people's living conditions, for the same record in this matter, "Annals of Shanxi" and the local history is an important complement of detail, so that future generations

    though after a hundred years, still seem to have witnessed the drought occurs scene. Datacom words different, but the content of similar

inscriptions, has shown both in scope and intensity of speaking, east of the river area are experiencing a very serious drought.

     Guangxu three-year drought of strong intensity, duration, significantly greater than what people expected and prepared for. Because simply can not seed, spring wheat to pay none of autumn wheat soil, rapidly soaring food prices, soaring prices far beyond the purchasing

    power of ordinary people. Inscription left us some real price of records.

     First, the Mai City, the Big Dipper plus six, more than 32 per Tam Tiao silver. To is that each stone silver gradually rose to 32 two zero,

    flour catty money to 200 text, 160 Wen Qian jin steamed tofu money to 48 per catty text, onion chives are also more than 30 per catty money Wen, Yu food equivalent. ... ... Used for housing, the right wood, catty essay sell for money, although I object to the cheap no sale.

    Each mu of land, changing face of several two, steamed a few. Family property to make payments, that is, a room hung exhausted nor yet Monensin protect their remaining years. (Note: Inscriptions in Yuncheng City, "Dingchou Oare in mind.")

     Mai Dou high prices 562, no silver difficult to buy up l kg of grain; fertile soil for the money value of over a hundred text, a few acres of slightly filling a meal of bread. Feed livestock of farmers, selling cattle and sheep, slaughtered just a few kilometers, chat wrap empty

    stomach; lack of support of the home, stripping bark, pulling roots Gouyan life. Jewelry re-Jin, goods when the light changes if the

    sediment; artifacts vertical well, the seller only cooking grass. Sri Lanka hungry poor quarter of women seeking to marry did not hesitate

    daughter body; went so far as to spoil her husband to escape, and forbearance, throwing three children. (Note: Ping Lu County,

    Inscriptions, "spelled disaster to hide after the violent bone in mind.")

     The time of the price of wheat, rice, more than 2 per Gui-to 30, while their land is not only cheap housing to ten times higher than Suri. (Note: Awayama County inscriptions "looted over the years in mind.")

     Several of these inscriptions, and information on local history with each other corroborative evidence, the record of changes in prices at

    that time. Drought occurs and prices rise, utensils housing their land prices reflects not only the laws of commodity run, but also the

    circumstances. However, such a large-scale grain prices soaring on the one hand reflects the severity and Hedong famine victims in the long-term severe food shortages of basic social conditions; the other hand, reflects the nature of food business are driven by greed, by

    disaster, Daihatsu ill-gotten gains, victims of food crisis by skillfully taking over the business of social facts; then on the one hand reflects the local government of corruption and management functions of the low, reflecting some of the grass-roots relationship between officials

    and businessmen. According to "Hejin County," recorded in the early years of Hejin Guangxu regional food every stone about one or two of silver. Guangxu three years, when a major disaster, Hejin as a prosperous shipping port, shipped food a lot of 13 grain lines no less

    than every grain Chin-line stocks, while the merchant to link with each other, grain prices rose on the 1st three, magistrate accept bribes, knowing that do not ask, so that every stone from the pre-disaster prices of silver 12, jumped to 32 or more (Note: Hejin gazetteer

    compiled editorial board: "Hejin Food Zhi", 1984 edition.). Disaster Relief Law by the Qing Dynasty, "folding Relief Commission of

    Shanxi Province, a stone price per meter Silver 126 money. Each stone pricing, Silver Valley, a nine money six points," Yan Jingming,

    and Zeng Guoquan the spirit of ", and food should be saving, put the money should be discretion by "principle, in his memorial in the

    Qing court's estimate, big mouth and some day take 12 to 16 Man Man, the small mouth take about six to eight days in (Note: Wang

    Xuan, Yang Du, etc. Compiling:" Shanxi Tong Chi "(Guangxu North Korea) volume 82," Famine Policy in mind, "Zhonghua Book Company, 1990.). The actual prices in Yuncheng are like the inscription said, "the first time, wheat City, the Big Dipper plus six, more

    than 32 per Tam Tiao silver. To is that each stone silver gradually rose to 32 two zero, flour catty Money 200 Man, 160 Man bun catty

    money, money, 48 per catty text tofu, onion chives are also catty 30 YU Wen Qian, Yu food equal. "(Note: Inscriptions in Yuncheng City"

    Dingchou Oare in mind. ") Rui City "500 l m of money Ishiguri 42, clothes, their land is change the value of 12, selling only a few points,

    housing timber is difficult relief, re-six kilos of Jinshou 3 Man." (Note: Ruicheng County stone inscription, "Shortage drought and plague wolf rat disaster injury in mind. ") view of this, according to the local government with limited relief in silver, the victims received relief

    in silver with a day of food to buy less than 12. When the big drought, food scarcity, when the local government fails to assume the responsibility of an effective, the provincial government not only brought into a large number of food, some local grass-roots officials

    have failed to control prices, and even some people still pay bribes asylum speculation business. Either way, grain merchants raise prices, food spikes, which is inevitable in the. And this situation is hungry can not survive even if the bankrupt one of the elements.

     Second, the local government's relief measures

     Droughts and large area of such a tragic occurrence, as the local government, its role and function becomes particularly important.

     The Qing Dynasty, the Qing government attaches great importance to disaster-relief work, and local officials and relief work, there are

    strict requirements and detailed requirements. Local governments responsible for the reported disaster, exploration and disaster relief

    work of Deng Xiang. In this 200-odd years have not encountered a major drought in the local government's work becomes particularly important.

     Continuous years of drought since the dynasty after the occurrence of then-governor of Shanxi, Bing Bao Qing Zeng Guoquan On the

    one hand, while opening up Kuratani, and to make local officials in the dynasty years in July before the "A donation of clean pension, and keep all the gentry Fu Bao village, "Open Relief Commission with effect from July to November (Note: Wang Xuan, Yang Du, etc.

    Compiling:" Shanxi Annals "(Guangxu North Korea) volume 82," Famine Policy in mind, "Zhonghua Book Company, 1990, No. 5628.).

     First, assume the local government to raise grain loan fund-raising and relief in the responsibilities and tasks. It is compiled by major disaster Guangxu the direction of "Annals of Shanxi," contained in this great disaster stories related to seven of view, of which five were east of the river officials. Xian Li in this great disaster were carried out in the first and foremost task is to "advocated tax pension

    payments, multi-relief" (Note: Wang Xuan, Yang Du, etc. Compiling: "Shanxi Annals" (Guangxu North Korea) volume 111, "Ming Huan Lu", p. 7913-7914 page.). In these five people, are they or "people eat porridge" or "supervision Relief Commission services, in person at county-eup survey" or "trying to raise donations, get 2000 gold, set up Bureau of sub-Relief Commission." To raise food fund-

    raising and relief officials as their top priority.

     After the famine, if adequate and timely relief supplies distributed to the victims in the hands of the social order will basically be in a stable state. And inscriptions from the historical point of view, or the looting and riots took place. Historical records, "(Hejin County) the

    value of great evil force, hungry Silue will chaos. (YUAN Cheung) is the splitter arrest, have been dozens of stealing. Ju research first from, ? 10 a person, place only Yasushi." (Note: WANG Xuan, Yang Du, etc. Compiling: "Shanxi Annals" (Guangxu North Korea) volume 111, "Ming Huan Lu", p. 7915.) starvation has been a threat to human life, the human instinct will lead to people to snatch food. But the problem is hungry riots and looting of the time what is when? This actually reflects the actual results of the local government

    disaster relief and disaster victims survive the deadline. Lacking in this respect to historical records, while the inscription records them in detail to let us know, "the cause of nine, in October, the hungry people uneasy sub-persons, gangs in groups, day and night Diao looting,

    although intrinsic official study governance, life under the yoke of those who do not shoot at low, this style has been unable to interest

    rates. "(Note: Ping Lu County, Inscriptions," spelled disaster to hide after the violent bone in mind. ")" Since the 9, October 5 as well as a

    four-year, in June, strong fugitives who robbed, killed infirm gully . "(Note: Inscriptions in Yuncheng City" Dingchou Oare in mind. ")

    These two inscriptions, and flight information on the victims of riots in the time since the dynasty years 9, in October between the

    beginning and at the moment, it is time for local disaster relief. There Yan Jingming, Zeng Guoquan of the memorial as evidence, "lest

    they be invited to follow the usual relief in the month, regardless of the severity of disaster points of reunification seven, eight, nine, ten, in November and so on to open relief in effect until next year, after wheat cooked "(Note: Wang Xuan, Yang Du, etc. Compiling:" Shanxi

    Annals "(Guangxu North Korea) volume 82," Famine Policy in mind, "Zhonghua Book Company, 1990.). From the inscriptions, and statistics show that victims of riots and flight time is the time for relief activities, so, why there are hungry people riot? Only one fact can

    illustrate this problem, which is actually the relief measures for victims in terms of little effect, the local government's disaster relief services there serious problems. Yongji County, a data recording in detail the circumstances of this disaster: "Guangxu three years,

    Yongji, Yu Heung drought, wheat thin income, acres less than the Big Dipper. Autumn no income, no species of wheat. The Qing government sent and Industry assistant minister Yan Jingming host Relief Commission Works, located Ping Tiao, relief 2 Board, to

    purchase food Chaguan 4. Ran rare passers-feet away, to buy easy to transport and difficult, although relief, but few, the poor sub-polar

    times, I am the size of the monthly release grain once, big mouth and 3 pounds, small mouth half kilogram, 'Relief Commission to do their

    best Relief Commission, the deceased is still dead' "(Note: Yongji gazetteer compiled Committee:" Yongji County ", Shanxi People's Publishing House 1991, p. 301.). The monument inscription reads this information and mutual support that the Qing government for

    distribution to the victims of the actual relief meager rations, simply can not meet the basic survival of the victims. In this case the hungry

    riots and escape to some farmers east of the river is actually a reflection of food cut off.

     Victims immediately after the uprising was suppressed local officials, local officials were from the initial relief work to maintain social order, suppress the hungry riot, robbery suppression of the task changes, the Qing government described the multiple functions of local

    officials, but also illustrates the social grass-roots of basic living conditions to deteriorate. The inscription records the actual reflection of the Qing government's disaster relief is extremely limited capabilities and areas east of the river of grass-roots community in the face of

    great disaster and helplessness.

     Secondly, the basic stability and social order after the cut off the face of some of the critical food situation of farmers, officials in some

    areas east of the river have also taken corresponding measures, forced to make well-off donation satisfied. Local Records in this respect throughout the well-documented tax inclusive, but instead inscriptions in this area have different real record: "the cause of nine, in

    October, the hungry people uneasy sub-persons, gangs in groups, day and night Diao looting, although intrinsic official study governance, life under the yoke of those who shoot in a lot of this style has been unable to interest rates. Fortunately I am out on the Constitution

    'Jiudizhengfa, shoot to kill' explicit, since the evil party, after getting slim, the people may be less An Yi Shu. sense of resignation out of

    reported that well-off donation, will the service-Yong capture, torture recovery ratio, often to persons who were Fuhou Xing Lu, tooth

    Texaco and Menggou shame those who carry on. Alas! Qi residues also! from that, more than who should pay his official without food

    were difficult to Our Time. "(Note: Ping Lu County, Inscriptions," spelled disaster to hide after the violent bone in mind. ") forced the

    well-off tax on the satisfied, will the inscription recorded, the data shows that at least in the At the time, several situations : First, forced

    to donate their time in nine sodium, October Guanfu after the suppression of riots by hungry, that is rich for the first time contributing money to the gentry, as well as the Government may, after the first disaster relief; 2 is the local share of grain appeared in the

    polarization, Some farmers completely without food, some well-off family quite a surplus; these two situations shows the central government has no hope of relief in the meantime, the provinces lack of relief supplies off. Therefore, such a forced donation of self-

    satisfied and local disaster relief measures with the color of violence. Indicates that the majority of jurisdictions survival of life is threatened, the local government's functions and not only to maintain the privileges of minorities and survival, the need to preserve the

    continuation of life in most jurisdictions.

     In addition, from the inscription of the account, we can also see the local people, especially the local representatives - the local gentry and

    officials of local government recognition of the work relief. If Yuncheng Inscriptions "Dingchou Oare in mind," this kind of description:

    "I emperor relief in loan-to-frequency increase of grain tax to make Juan." Ping Lu County's "hidden violent bone in mind after the famine," stone inscription records that "His Majesty Zhen Meng I read China to depend on public funds payments to hundreds of

    thousands of hair of two poor to buy corn-based porridge factory town, village-based relief in before then. "Awayama County

    inscriptions" looted over the years in mind "also describes:" The emperor famine emergency, Tian Miao on the rotten, the state tax-free

    free food. "expressed by local people and the gentry of the Qing government and local governments in disaster relief work, recognition

    and heartfelt gratitude. From the above point of view, the inscription drought recorded in the time and the specific role of local government have become our research in this drought, more detailed factual information. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free

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     Third, the landlord is satisfied with the squire's tax situation

     Landlords and the gentry, is a grass-roots power to representatives. Landlords and gentry in the Great Qing Dynasty during the tax satisfied disaster activities, from a variety of historical materials and local history can be found in a large number of records. In the large-

    scale famine, they are still the main force of local tax inclusive. Records from the east of the river around the local gazetteers, the

    donation can be seen in the large-scale disaster relief in the activities of Fusion activities of contributing money.

     From the concentration of social wealth, social status, prestige and influence of speaking, a local gentry are mostly rich and status of this

    region's most influential spokesmen for groups. Office agency warehouses, creating Yi Xue, Chi-Yi Tian, and other social welfare

    undertakings, mostly in a region which is rich gentry. They are both in the region, enjoying a certain degree of privilege, but also for the

    protection of the area has certain obligations. From China's traditional moral requirements and social psychology perspective, the donor out of millet to help the local self-help, not only the requirements of traditional morality, but also further enhance the local reputation and is conducive to safeguarding the vested interests of a rich gentry human claims. From the gentry and the rich in terms of the relationship between the Qing government, the Qing government is rich defenders gentry, the gentry and rich is the Qing government to maintain the

    stability of the grass-roots level of local authority representatives. Thus, in the event of major incidents, the landlords and gentry there is

    to assist the local government to solve the obligations and responsibilities. This is above the reference to "the protection the village has

    also made rich gentry." In order to overcome the large-scale famine, to mobilize local forces, the Qing government also expressly provides that open prospective donors can donate to help relief in Road House, state, county 4 real officer. Therefore, the gentry and rich relief

    Juanyin are as many as tens of thousands of two, ranging from a few hundred two, a few Shi Qian (Note: This is scattered throughout the

    Chronicles of the dynasty, North Korea Famine, righteous, and documented in a variety of characters.). However, the inscription there are several words to convey an important message that drought occurs, the east of the river in some areas there was also another case that

    is likely to take the initiative to donate Na Na after the forced donation. In Yan, two of the memorials have been explicitly mentioned Guangxu three years ago in July, the provincial government except to make local officials "A donation of clean pension", the "also makes

    the security-rich village gentry" (Note: Wang Xuan, Yang Tuk etc. Compiling: "Shanxi Annals" (Guangxu North Korea) volume 82, "Famine Policy in mind," Zhonghua Book Company, 1990.), from the implementation of the exact time point of view, should be in before

    the emperor for three years in July. Sodium-rich gentry, what are the number of donated Although there is no exact statistics to prove, but some circumstantial information to suggest some things. Such as "Yongji County deeds," the information contained in the chapter,

    there are well-off "Shang-Wen Deng addition to tax relief in, the neighborhood where the eight weeks, a total of over a hundred out of Su Shi. Qiyoujisi were fifty or sixty; xiang sheng SHI Yoshinori dreams ... ... his nephew to donate 400 gold to help relief in pens outside, but

    on the native land in particular Zhou Yan-shirts, all live without operator; Qubing by Kaohsiung people ... ... dynasty in 2034-year-old

    evil force, each donated dozens of Su Shi, Shi Qian relief of poor amount of money. "(Note:" Yongji County "(Guangxu North Korea)"

    righteous. ") others less. This guess up, these people out of a total of about 300 stone donated millet, while the dynasty years of the

    indigenous people who Yongji County, a total of 55279, the size of a total of 337,000 Qianerbaiqi mouth (Note: "Yongji County"

    (Guangxu North Korea) "land tax accounts."). As can be seen, several well-off in terms of contributing money to the victims, still utterly inadequate. Information related to this are "yuanqu County," records, "old, relief more relief from the gentleman unlocked the cells, the

    number of little." (Note: yuanqu gazetteer compiled Committee: "yuanqu County", Shanxi People's Publishing House, 1993, p. 448.)

    "Ping Lu County," it reads: Guangxu three years, "county tax enjoyable Silver Su totaling six thousand two, sub-11 Board to relief the

    people." (Note: Ping Lu gazetteer compilation prepared by the Committee: "Ping Lu County", China Cartographic Publishing House,

    1992, p. 382.) Description of the Fusion were contributing money, but the limited number of donations. The Qing court during the

    drought, although issued to open the prospective donor can donate to help relief in Road House, state, county 4 real officer. But the

    inscription referred to in the phenomenon of forced donations reported, the actual implied to the fact that some rich gentry at this time no one can foresee the end of the period of drought, there is food that is meant to protect the life, there is. To donate part of the remaining

    part of the security policy of both the donor has become a part of the rich gentry for their strategy and human instinct choice. This leaves us with food, as previously mentioned in the polarization, Yuncheng plaque commemorating the "tragic famine song" provides us with

    factual information in this regard: "Guangxu three to four years, more than 10 provincial non-closed fields. Flat-bed Michael Price 232,

    Autumn 5000 price of 120. vegetable mixed with bran to be Qinjuan, bark grinding fresh young and old. belly hunger really hard for me

    to go door-rich divisions difficult. hunger and thin, such as firewood fell in and died in roadside Poor . "Yongji tax relief in addition to well-Shang Tang, the" Qiyoujishi those fifty or sixty. " These data are the polarization of the food share. Differentiation and to what

    extent? Historical data in this regard can not give future generations a definite answer. The inscriptions in this area for posterity provides

    an important information. Wanrong County, Township, south fire Guanghua Village inscriptions "famine Chi" recorded after the big

    disaster, the entire village "All the villagers 500 zero, leaving 180. 120 households have zero, leaving 40 zero. cattle 70 zero, leaving 10. "

    Demise of the population starved to death after more than 60%, and some people left some livestock. Obviously, only a large well-off

    grain reserves have strength left livestock. Note that the polarization of the amount of food occupy too great, therefore, can there be

    forced reported donation situation. This is a truthful record of the inscription in some areas east of the river at that time social conditions. In the case of forcible coercion, "There is reason to who should pay more than his official non-food are difficult to Our Time." (Note:

    Yuncheng inscriptions "Dingchou Oare in mind.") Carried out another donation satisfied, though, "village tax relief in better-off tenants

    seen their homes destroyed, no less, such as many people and food. "(Note: Ruicheng County inscriptions" OSS and the plague wolf rat

    disaster injury in mind. ") rich gentry were final and can only be done as part of the extension of the degree of self-preservation of human

    life after the disaster.

     4, large drought in the region east of the river tragic disaster like the

     East of the river area in the large-scale disaster in losses, while the destruction of life and the family is even more alarming. Shanxi into the Qing Dynasty, as the country, the population has entered a steady period of rapid growth, according to statistics, the Qianlong twelve

    years, Shanxi population of 9.509 million people, Sanshiliunian of 10.626 million people, Sishiyinian of 12.503 million people, to Sishibanian, Shanxi current population of 13.036 million people, it can be seen at this time of the population increase rate. By the nine-

    year dynasty, suddenly attenuation of 10.744 million people (Note: Wang Xuan, Yang Du, etc. Compiling: "Shanxi Annals" (Guangxu North Korea), Volume 65, "Account.").

     According to Guang Xu "Yongji County" and the "risk of Rural County" contains, Yongji County dynasty, there are 59279 years,

    337,207 people, after a severe drought, Guangxu twelve remaining 21171, 75513 people. Yu Heung County, thirty-seven years in the

    Qianlong (1772) has 18721, 105,655 people, by the emperor, after three years of drought, only 8641, 35625 people (Note: Yongji gazetteer

    compiled Committee: "Yongji County", the Shanxi People Press, 1991, p. 81.). These historical records are mostly abstract figures, but

    the inscriptions on the record apart from a very detailed and more emphasis on the tragic aftermath of the big picture. As documented in the region of Yuncheng Inscriptions "When someone dies, or eat its meat, while those who have cheap, and even his son Sagara,

    daughter-phase meal, compared with Yizaiersi, Analysis of the bones of the body in order to cook as a particularly cool. Since 9, in October as well as four-five, in June, strong fugitives who robbed, killed the old weak ravines. to the sea at Tao Jin, line profit passers-by

    starvation. a dozen ports, save lives only 23, a dozen or so, extinct Heng 8 9. ... ... The village of 172 households were never dead, men and women 1084, a total of seven points more than the number of the dead. "(Note: Yuncheng inscriptions" Dingchou Oare in mind. ")

    Ruicheng Inscriptions recorded in the county people, "or extracts Sophora japonica real hunger to treatment, or peeling skin while Enmei elm, or pick up goose feces for cakes, broiled Leather Strap and for the soup, everywhere Hongsi mouse sob, everyone swan-dove-

    shaped surface. beggar the distance, the pro-old commission ravines, and Afar do to make the ghost; flee homes hometown, son of David

set the road, crying without killing the soul master. cannibalism and dog eat dog, smell of fish the sky, ghosts and gods whom night

    crying; the parent abandoned the child and the husband and wife, hungry littered wild, space earmarked for deep black color. 8 death of 56 homes, 10 room's left-eup, 23. "(Note: Ruicheng County inscriptions" OSS and the plague wolf rat disaster injury in mind. " ) Ruicheng County ximo Jhongying Village Township, Red Dream by Li Guangxu nineteen inscriptions "The Creation Shugo shrine monument," records, "the value of D E Oare, He Jia is not Gordon, who compared dog food, only 20 more than the deposit 23 Yan. "

    Ping Lu County, Inscriptions, "spelled disaster to hide after the violent bone in mind," documented "study of the walking dead to flee everywhere occipital bones of the body can be saved relative to who is very into, but 23 per village." Wenxi Whitehead Township 18

    Yancun Guangxu three years "Disaster Monument" also recorded in 50 households before disaster, man 188; harvest after only 17 dollars to depositors, people 55.

     From this point of view, because east of the river is the hardest hit by the losses suffered in terms of even more serious than other regions,

    the sharp reduction in the extent of population, far exceeding the provincial average. By inscriptions and local history records, or at least

    reduced six tenths, seven, so that the level of productivity and population growth has been hit hard.

     5, for "Jane go to extravagant worship, I cultivated a three" traditional understanding of the re -

     Customs of the region is a concrete manifestation of cultural heritage carriers, but also real-time evolution of the specific conditions of

    social life portrayal. From the east of the river Regionally, public moral is the mainstream, there are also luxury for the branch; old thrift

    as a legacy, big disaster in some areas before the extravagance of fashion. "Annals of Shanxi," recorded in county areas, mostly east of

    the river, "Yuan (Qu) China Chun-Hou, M Qin Geng, female ground weaving, Chong thrift, Atsushi Takatomo, acute kung fu, evil, obscene wind, fear punishment provision, not speak of merchants, China is not something extravagant "(Note: yuanqu gazetteer

    compiled Committee:" yuanqu County ", Shanxi People's Publishing House, 1993, p. 611.).

     At a time when a number of local chronicles and inscriptions more detailed records of the local customs change.

     Such as "linjin County," reads: "Pro said thrifty folk elements, there is Tang Wei legacy. Recently gradually into the luxury, marriage ceremony of the matter, which ended with the first seven Gui, gradually add the Shiquan, but also added for 6688 , each boast more than

    nominal gate extravagant, and almost indispensable, clothing, traveling Jieyou Huayi Zeng Yan heel things. ... ... the beginning of the

    funeral or burial funeral, do not you ask geomancy, not an obituary friends and relatives, do not drum. The family was unable to of, that

    of the 'steal buried'. but not move burning paper trays, will be optional on the other funeral. ... folk customs that are very heavy. (see also

    Day and burial) Tomb Sweeping Festival, October Moon, enjoyable family prepared to sacrifice in the ancestral Shangfen. big ancestral

    build more stage, the day of acting worship of ancestors, as much for the graves were, Shi-li of the companies which are also the line of

    the heel. Well! Chun Lu Zai akishimo the sometimes tolerate this. "language" goes: 'custom shift, people-yin is unable to avoid '... Tangyu

    case of three generations of today, the wind is no longer peace! "(Note:" linjin County "(Guangxu North Korea)" customs. ")

     "Puzhou County" also documented and lamented that "the county with thrifty folk who have heard of Jiu Yi. Ran it as a ground person, or by knife cone at the end of rich, but not the peace force fields silkworm, namely, I do not know peace tree animals. Fortunately, one-

    year-old was , then the women's children eat three square meals and Hee, a husband and rest the negative column. ... thrift also lost an old Yan. "(Note:" Po state capital-chi "(Guangxu North Korea) Volume Three," customs. ")

     Yasumura gazetteer also records, "Near-halogen of the area, learning for the extravagance." (Note: "anyi County" (Guangxu North

    Korea) to Volume 2, "custom.")

     Hejin County is due to be at the Trade Center, "Today and Business Jiaying passers-by are getting busy. Solid-edge teeth, more and

    more, but also efforts to hold the wind by those who wish to teach in addition yi" (Note: "and Jin County" (Guangxu North Korea) The second volume, "customs.").

     Inscriptions Wenxi also this kind of description: "The I Chong a few years, or smoking foreign cigarettes, or greed good extravagance,

    which are held, there is no accumulation, a fierce case of-year-old, just wait to die." (Note: wenxi Whitehead Township 18 counties

disaster three years Yancun dynasty inscription.)

     View of this, before the catastrophe, east of the river region, most people indulge in a worry of peace and prosperity unknown Taotao Ran into. Due to social stability, food and clothing basic worries, the community pay attention to etiquette, the comparisons pomp become

    a fashion, and even the general people at home he has no savings, resulting in severe drought after the arrival, there is no prevention and preparation it is difficult to overcome this major disaster, suffered pain and loss is even greater, even heavier.

     Relentless fight against natural disasters, so that people wound their hearts, unforgettable. Disaster has slowed down, the survivors would have the author's tree monument detailing the disaster as a warning to future generations.

     Throughout the various inscriptions, invariably carried out on this great drought, deep reflection: "sigh-fu! This Haotian God does not

    worry me, parents, ancestors to the forbearance of Masaya! Also indulge in the extravagance person, on dry days so angry that this ear."

    (Note : Ping Lu County, Inscriptions, "spelled disaster to hide after the violent bone in mind."), "Yue-year-old natural disaster, the

    suppression of people who are not also have to be ready for drought." (Note: Yuncheng inscriptions "Dingchou Oare in mind."), "the

    speaker said that famine Qiang-sheng, days really whom. sub-generation that otherwise stolen. fu natural epidemic, where there are defiled with blood, the remedy by which the human ear. "(Note: Wenxi Whitehead Township, 18 years Yancun Guangxu Disaster

    Inscription .) "think of natural disasters, theft epidemic, ancient inevitably, even formidable this, the luxury of the Road, actually addressed the shortage of great people." (Note: Guanghua Wanrong County, Township, Village, Southern fire inscriptions "famine-chi.")

     This is a great pre-disaster lifestyle reflection, it deep and filled with self-reproach, to the inevitable natural disasters, as when the person's behavior and way of life caused by the excessive, asking people to never forget that bloody lesson request people will always

    maintain a kind of human behavior, self-discipline and saving, always maintained a reverence for nature and cautious.

     In the destruction of countless lives and families, the survivors of the inscription to the manner Le backward people expressed the frugal

    is not only a virtue, but also ruthless in the naturally occurring changes in his life, when the basis for survival. Throughout the various

    inscriptions, almost all of the repeated admonitions of future generations, from this great disaster bear in mind the lessons of the ancients,

    "Kozo I a" tradition of frugality. "Since now on, all I farmers, incomparable body after my heart, dismiss flashy, Chong thrift, cultivated

    for more than three one, till 9 I 3. Though fierce-year-old has been endless, there is no fear of Masaya prepared. I closed the life-sized

    disaster, the pro - taste bitter, fear of long years of submerged world, forget their difficult, so Zhi Zhu Shi, Yong-Jiong warning clouds for

    the Fall. "(Note: Ruicheng County inscriptions" OSS and the plague wolf rat disaster injury in mind. ")," Xi toSan doors proof sufficient to eat first, covered with food for the people days, was the then Health, mandrax have died. Reason of course, also. Is a person free from

    Xiongnian hungry years of age, when the cultivation of more than nine three, farming for more than three a quasi-kingship as often by

    Yan. Otherwise, carry on then save the dead do not age support. "(Note: Yuncheng inscriptions" Dingchou Oare in mind. ")" The

    ancients cultivated for more than three one, till 9 I 3, Qi Wei-year-old Takaya fierce. "(Note: Wenxi Whitehead Township 18 Yancun dynasty inscription disaster three years.)

Inscriptions and the Chronicles of Ancient Chinese sage records from the perspective of the argument and the fine Chinese tradition of

    the virtues of starting, to the tragic disaster of this big event, send a warning back, it is Qinli Zhe, but also the blood of survivors of

    caution is a People extravagant lifestyle of caution, so that people feel the deep soul of touch, has a unique value.

     6, from east of the river catastrophe few of the conclusions drawn from

The grain-producing areas east of the river in Shanxi, but also the large-scale special disaster-stricken area. Its understanding and

    analysis can be epitomized under serious famine situation of civil society. Through research and analysis the important grain-producing

    area in Shanxi Province - east of the river in this area before and after the catastrophe the above information, we can initially come to the

    following conclusions:

     1.Although very close from the capital of Shanxi, also received strong contributions to the outside world, according to historical records,

    in addition to the direct funding of the Central Ministry of households, as well as coastal defense and training costs money and Tianjin

    soldier's interest-bearing and silver; to lose donated Shanxi province, there is the north Shandong, Zhili and other provinces, the southern provinces Yuanshe as Jiangsu, Anhui, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian, Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Guangdong and Shanghai, a total of

    18 provinces and regions, but this time the drought illustrates, in the At that time the productive forces backward, traffic closed state

    under the local social, encounter such a natural disaster, in large part can only survive on its own, unable to withstand a major natural disaster.

     2.Although the Qing government attention to relief work, but a major disaster relief capabilities and financial resources are very limited.据统计?从光绪三年到五年?清廷凡支发银一千七十万三百一十五两有奇?钱二十七万六千五百五十七千有奇?粮一1,001,657

    stone, and strange, but also to spend m Kuratani soldiers, and strange stone beans 768,393, 103,675 cotton-padded clothes "(Note: WANG

    Xuan, Yang Du, etc. Compiling: "Shanxi Annals" (Guangxu North Korea) volume 82, "Famine Policy in mind," Zhonghua Book Company,1990. ). This shows that the Qing Government in this period more than two years come up with an average of about one-

    tenth of the financial and taxation Qing Li saved the money but they are still unable to meet the huge demand for the victims, relief

    supplies are still extremely scarce appear, the limited relief supplies in the longer period of time, large areas of natural disasters, can not prevent the starving death of a large scale.

     3.The feudal objectives and main functions of local government is to make a stable and orderly society in a state of, and do not focus on

    the rich and open side of the surrounding environment, China was forced to open the door more than 30 years later, the mainland by land Basically there is no improvement in traffic conditions, still remain substantially closed. The large-scale disaster in a very serious

    impact on the traffic situation behind a limited number of relief supplies into the disaster area, from the big disaster in Shanxi Province

    during the backward blocking traffic as well as civil people can be a general lack of silver grains reflect this. This point and dynasties over

    the years the work of local government has a very close relationship. If Yuanqu County, as early as BC636In the winter, Duke Wen of Jin

    Xiu talked on the fall by Gao Yang Fan "East Road", after more than two thousand years after the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the Tao is

    still Shanxi and Henan, one of the main post road. Yuanqu total of nine of the Tuo Yun Tao length respectively60Km47.7Km 230Km23Km24.6Km17.4Km13.5Km6.3Km. Tuo Yun Lu mostly rugged mountains and narrow winding path, Pavilion Road, Plank

    Road, or Threatened cliff into the abyss, or the Yellow River waterfront, steep and dangerous, and often blocked by snow. Transportation

    mainly by passenger shoulder Tiaodan and animal Tuoyun (Note: yuanqu gazetteer compiled Committee: "yuanqu County", Shanxi

    People's Publishing House,1993, P.448Page. ). Ping Lu, too, "the main village road connected to begin with Tuoyun", "continue to rely on

    animal farm Jiase Tuoyun." Tuoyun tools are mainly animal, and every time the number of at most three Tuo Yun jin (Note: Ping Lu

    gazetteer compilation prepared by the Committee: "Ping Lu County", China Map Press,1992, P.382Page. ). This ancient description of

    traffic conditions on the same local governments in the management side, the focus has always been stable and the local community,

    rather than well-off party, open side responsibility landscape. The impact of the extreme poor transport relief supplies into the affected areas and timely access to the main objective constraints. Basically a zone east of the river in Shanxi Hirakawa transport situation in the region like this, the mountains of northern transportation system can deliver. If Guangxu four years in April, for the surviving victims,

    the time is imminent, the Qing court ordered relief in fast-food Qi Jie, however, "all surrounded by mountains Jinzhong, unreasonable Zhou Ji. ... ... (And transportation to Henan, Hebei, Shandong) away from Jin sector, are in thousands of miles away. Scotia boat landing,

    Gu Ju extremely difficult. one into the Jin Jiang, then the rugged trails, roads, cramped. Tuoyun switch to mule and, after flying distribution affected areas, there are 1000 ranging from a few hundred years. "(Note: Wang Xuan, Yang Du, etc. Compiling:" Shanxi

    Annals "(Guangxu North Korea) volume 82," Famine Policy in mind, "Zhonghua Book Company,1990. ) Even if the same province,

    Taiyuan, "shift millet Hedong, thousands of miles away, although the name without the reality" (Note: King Ding-cheng General ÄĄ:

    "anyi County" Volume 12, Shanxi People's Publishing House,1991, P.205Page. ). Inconvenient to make significant changes in his local community and events, it is difficult to be timely and effective outside assistance. This makes it difficult in the short term relief in food

    reaches the victims.

     4.Natural disasters, the ancient Chinese society, a major stumbling block, and war is a serious breach of the same productivity, extinction

    population, the culprit that hampers social development. This major disaster hit the region on the east of the river and even a few years to

    several decades later find it difficult to recover, such as Ruicheng "Though to (dynasty) in 2089, were not open shortage of idle fields have

    been opened are still drought." (Note: Ruicheng County inscriptions "OSS and the plague wolf rat disaster injury in mind.") Another example is Pinglu County, in this large disaster, until the1949Years to develop to the county's population100482人?69An increase

    of62524People, an average increase of906People (Note: Ping Lu gazetteer compilation prepared by the Committee: "Ping Lu County",

    China Cartographic Publishing House,1992, P.58Page. ). Was originally the richest regions in Shanxi Province, in the big disaster to

    become a dying land.

     5.A large-scale famine recorded in inscriptions on there at this time, both east of the river area of culture and a plaque commemorating the outstanding performance and more clear to the survivors out of the good intentions cherished Hedong and a social identity, indicating

    even the major grain-producing area, normal food and clothing worry-free, but the way of life must be vigilant and proactive sense of

anxiety: "thrifty, cultivated for more than three one take preventive measures, Chong Jane to extravagance." Yes, the survivors of this

    catastrophe are left to future generations The admonition, but also survivors fear that future generations ignore the "cultivation of more

    than a 3", "Jane go to extravagant worship" philosophy and way of life and recurrence of the pains. As the inscription says "memory

    shortage conditions, walking on thin ice, if not distinctly Le in the stones, the smell fear of epigenetic and not trustworthy. So like to

    blog." (Note: Guanghua Wanrong County, Township, Village, Southern fire inscriptions "famine-chi.") "I generation Koen among

    themselves, was witness to the event, for fear of later generations Lok-sang while forgetting die. Žļ Benten few words to show that warn, and changed for the rich village of weir 18. Shuji punish the former non-pain, hanging ring in the future. As a result, households are Su-

    Feng, people do eat places, Aioi-phase support, as well as household fan, but also enlightenment renaissance. is the generation of the

    verdict, the desire to Cardiff. "(Note: Wenxi Whitehead three township 18 Yancun Guangxu disaster inscription.)

     Conclusion

Natural disasters are difficult to circumvent the natural phenomenon of human beings, it is disregard of the people's will transfer.

    However, the disaster in the first place, imperial disaster at a minimum, but it is through the efforts of mankind can do. And this effort not only to use a good position to have excellent natural conditions, greater attention to human factors. These documented serious famine

    in the east of the river area inscriptions and information, as a carrier of historical and cultural heritage, in the back, while the facts were

    clear to even convey valuable knowledge and good intentions cherished deep. This is not only to reflect the parties, but also modern

    people royal disaster preparedness and prevention of a valuable asset.

This part of the information collected in the later stage of the process, had obtained the support of Comrade Hao Ping, to express my

    gratitude. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://

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