With regard to Beijing's population Thoughts
〔Abstract〕 population problem was Beijing's need to make efforts to solve a major problem. The coming period, Beijing's population will remain a large-scale growth trend, China's urbanization process in today's
environment of accelerated under the strict control is not to solve the population problem of the effective way to Beijing, it should be used with economic and social development means of the market economy to gradually solve the population problem.
Key words Beijing; population; residence
A trend of population changes in recent years, Beijing.
From 1999 to 2007, the pace of economic development of Beijing has maintained double-digit growth in a row at the same time, Beijing resident
population and the native population also maintained a strong momentum of growth. Beijing in recent years, changes in population showed the following trends.
1. The population to maintain growth momentum.
Look at the past few years, Beijing 2007 resident population of 16.33 million people, compared with 12.456 million people in 1998, an annual increase of 9 years, Beijing's permanent population of 430,000 people, population growth continues to show a high level of growth.
2. Non-native population growth to maintain a larger scale.
Beijing's population growth is mainly caused by the non-native
Data show that nine years, the foreign population from 1998 to 1.541 million, an increase to 4.197 million people in 2007, an annual increase of 295,000 people, accounting for the resident population additional amount of 68.6%, that is, the population of every three new There are two native population ... ... This reflects the trend of foreign
resident population, so that controlling the growth of foreign population the size of Beijing's population management is an important issue.
3. Residence mechanical growth of population.
At present, people are concerned about Beijing's population growth
concentrated in the foreign population growth above the population growth of household registration is still insufficient attention. Through the data comparison can be seen over the past nine years, showed a substantial increase in household registration population growth trends, an annual increase of 135 thousand people, accounting for new resident population, 31.4%, equivalent to every three new population is a population household registration , household population growth increase of 90% from machinery,
and the resident population natural growth rate basically stable. While this growth is necessary for economic and social development, but the face of such rapid growth, there should be a corresponding response.
4. Regional population growth patterns of differentiation
The past five years, the demographic changes of the regional disparities of the most significant and most representative. A substantial reduction in the core area population of 671,000 people, to expand a
population of 1.909 million people a substantial increase in the development of new district population 860,000 people, conservation district population as a whole increased by 2.3 million people. The core area and the conservation of population change in the number of
development objectives in line with Beijing's population, but the expansion area is too large alien population growth rate (annual increase in population of 47.7 million people), development of new districts the ability to attract the downtown population is relatively less than a year just to attract 76000 people.
1. Beijing faced with rapid population growth has tremendous pressure.
By a net increase of 430,000 people a year are now the size of the
resident population of Beijing in 2010 will reach 17.62 million people by 2020 will reach 21.92 million people, far beyond Beijing's 'Eleventh Five-
Year' planning and urban master plan to 2010 and 2020 population size. And in 2007 Beijing resident population added 520,000 people, equivalent to a medium-sized cities abroad, the size of the largest ever one-year
population growth, population growth, showing a trend of accelerated expansion, if not to be a reasonable solution, future population The above
projections are even more than large. This is Beijing's resources, energy, environment, urban services and so the pressure will keep rising.
2. Non-native population is too concentrated in the expanding area.
Development areas has now become the main gathering places outside the population.
2002 - 2006, the expansion of area added 561,000 non-native
population, accounting for additional outside Beijing, 58.1% of the population, expanding area a good investment environment, education level,
the development of space (of employment to attract, to attract home buyers, academic attracted) to attract a growing number of foreign population, resulting in the distribution of population also showed 'the pie' type development. This non-native population is too focused on the
trends in expanding area is not conducive to the overall development of Beijing City.
3. Metro central city population of the evacuation function of commitment should be strengthened.
At present, the Metro region about Beijing's commitment to one third of the foreign population, mainly concentrated in urban development of new districts, foreign population accounted for 83,3% of the entire Metro area. Metro's population should be said that the combined effect
starting to show. But as the future population of the evacuation of the key areas of Beijing, its capacity is still relatively weak industrial agglomeration, the bearing capacity of the population need to be further strengthened. [Free Paper Download Center hi138 \ Com]
4. Surrounding area is lagging behind.
According to 'Blue Paper on China's regional development' shows that in 2006, Tianjin and Hebei region 'poverty belt around Beijing and Tianjin' poverty-stricken population reached 272,6 million, This shows
that despite Beijing's own development is fast, but the radiation on the
surrounding region weak leading role. Lagging behind the development of surrounding areas, resulting in the poor population in the region continue to flock to Beijing, resulting in Beijing's exports of poor population, the population-only no, it is difficult to evacuate.
This is also the native population in recent years Beijing (lower quality of the population) continue to increase in an important factor.
5. Household registration management and the census should be strengthened.
The long residence management and policy relaxation is the main reason for population growth machinery. The central, municipal and military hold the three systems are the right of Beijing to account for approval (involving 26 units in 41 departments), small towns, real estate, export, colleges and universities in Beijing to indicators such as household registration management policies are also more relaxed. At the
same time, because the policy causes a more serious person family separation. According to Bureau of Statistics survey data, as of the end of 2005 in Beijing were isolated population has reached 2.286 million households, accounting for 19.4% of the total population, household
registration, one-fifth of the population of the household registration of Household. Population management of the loose, resulting in demographic work is unclear, the population policy point is unknown.
Beijing's population growth should primarily be to attract high-
end talent in order to achieve 'high-end, high efficiency, high-radiation'
industrial development, but the current status of population management is difficult to do this.
Three countermeasures and proposals.
Rapid urbanization across the country, major population movement against the backdrop of Beijing's population and resources to achieve the coordinated development, it should be Duocuobingju. One must rely on management to take the market economic measures in order to optimize the industrial structure and strengthen infrastructure construction as the guide, lead the population to free flow of legitimate, but also to attract high-end talent to meet the needs; 2 to rely on persuasion, from the
perspective of the development of the entire region consider the population of the evacuation, put more people into the new town, the surrounding area and throughout the country to go.
1. Optimize the spatial structure of Beijing's population growth.
According to Beijing's urban space layout planning should be to adjust the industrial structure as the main line, and gradually form the main functions targeted by demographic trends, and strive to 5 years to achieve the proportion of population decline in the core area, expanding the proportion of the district's population is basically stable, the new district population the proportion of a marked increase in the level of conservation areas the concentration of population increase.
First, optimize the industrial structure of the main functional areas to control the functional areas corresponding proportion of the population to ease the transfer of some functions of central cities to the Metro, through the adjustment of industrial structure to achieve the
population and orderly, rational flow.
Second, control of household registration policies, appropriate restrictions on the size of the eight urban districts of the foreign population, and actively guide the native population into the development
of new districts. Encouragement of foreign population in the development
of new districts into the system of household registration to reduce the eight districts in downtown outside the pressure of continued population growth and achieving rational distribution of space in Beijing's population. Such as adding machine to move the population, account priority landed Metro; move from a central city's population, their children may be given preferential access to Metro-quality primary and
The third is to strengthen the regulation and management of real estate industry. Real estate in the city within the framework of rational distribution, in the development of new districts and rail traffic near the site and take active measures to become the main evacuation of the downtown population, the control of Metro export ratio of commercial housing, to avoid becoming a field of floating population of 'Metro'. The layout of urban space can meet the requirements of residential areas a low
cost of living policy.
The fourth is to strengthen Metro's quality public service facilities, efforts to solve the Metro in education, health care, sports and other aspects of the phenomenon of the congenitally deficient.
Construction of a number of key projects to encourage central city for quality public services and facilities moved to the Metro as a whole in order to enhance the attractiveness Metro's population.
2. To strengthen regional cooperation.
Accelerate the Beijing and Tianjin regions in infrastructure, industrial development, environmental protection and other aspects of collaboration, from a regional perspective balance of resources and industries and the development of surrounding areas, and guide the
population in large areas of space on the circulation.
First, accelerating the Beijing and Tianjin region in the distribution of infrastructure, industrial development, urban construction and other aspects to carry out substantive cooperation in order to ease
the transfer of industrial employment and lead the population to alleviate pressure on Beijing's population influx.
Second, special attention should be with the Langfang the cooperation of neighboring small cities and enhance its carrying capacity,
through affordable housing, elderly apartments, university transfer and other fields, lead the population to ease out.
The third is to strengthen off-site dispersal of population policy
research, to explore off-site medical pension, social security policies to encourage cross-regional movement of population.
3. To strengthen population management.
Population management is a long-term, complicated and arduous
task, should be in the traditional household registration management tools
and economic and social development, labor supply and demand and urban carrying capacity, improve the services and effective control of population size to find balance between the reality of conflict, based on existing conditions, the guidance of scientific concept of development, and constantly improve the population management and service levels.
First, set up by the relevant state ministries and commissions, units stationed in Beijing and the Beijing municipal government
departments to participate in the capital of Population and Development Commission, a unified leadership, coordination of the capital, population management policies and regulations of the research, development, implementation and revision; clean up household registration policy to
move and change 'Multi-pen' approval for the 'one pen' approval, improve the quality of the population moving into residence, the capital of economic development indeed provide a strong intellectual support.
The second is the establishment of mobile population management information system, coordinate all the functions of the department, establish uniform criteria, the city's population in a comprehensive and complementary dynamic information management platform, to grasp the city's
demographic information, to improve population management efficiency, reduce the cost of population management.
Third, foreign workers from the implementation of normal management. Improve the social security system, strengthen labor
inspection, labor standard acts of the employing units, such as the guaranteed minimum wage level, a sound social security mechanism, improve the enterprises to employ foreign labor costs; strictly limit the extensive use of non-native population as the main business and industrial
Fourth, the foreign population in the public service. Place to live according to the law to strengthen the management and services, improve foreign population living and working conditions, such as clean-up
regulation 'Villages', urban-rural, urban underground space, habitat,
prevent the formation of 'slums'; reasonable adjustments to water, electricity, prices of natural gas and other elements of life, improve Beijing's housing, cost of living, thereby to control and reduce the 'three no' personnel, the population of the blind into the dwelling type.
 Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics. Beijing Statistical Yearbook. China Statistics Press, 2008.
 Beijing Academy of Social Sciences. Blue Paper on China's Regional Development, Social Sciences Academic Press, 2007. [Free Paper Download Center hi138/Com]