Integrated Science Curriculum Development in China and
Countermeasures of the fetters of
【Summary】 From the late 20th century, 80 Northeast Normal University for the first time integrated science curriculum in practice one of this century and the new
basic education curriculum reform in the integrated science curriculum, our comprehensive science course traversed more than 20 years. I passed in the Northeast Normal University affiliated high school, Zhejiang and other places to inspect integrated science curriculum reform that the evaluation system, teacher quality, theoretical research, social environment that hinders the development of China's overall science course a major factor, so to come from the creation and Integrated Science Curriculum matching evaluation system, strengthen science teacher quality, and enhance the overall science curriculum theory, research, search for social support and other aspects of the promotion of contemporary "science" course implementation.
Abstract title】 Education Forum
【English Abstract After the new China established, our integrated science curriculum experiences more than 20 years from the curriculum of Accessorial Middle School of the Northeast Normal University to the curriculum of this curriculum reform. This
article finds out the main factors restrict the developing of our integrated science curriculum such as estimate system, the ability of teachers', the research of science curriculum theory and the background of society through analyzing the integrated
science curriculum reform of Accessorial Middle School of the Northeast Normal University and Zhejiang province. On the basis of the analyzing, the author gives some measure to solve these problems such as establishing felicitous estimate system,
improving the ability of teachers', enhancing the research of science curriculum theory and finding the sustain from society and so on.
Key words integrated science courses / yoke / Countermeasures
integrated science curriculum / fetter / countermeasure
Integrated science courses is actually relative to the physics, chemistry, biology, geography, etc. Sub-division science courses for the purposes is to reflect on Sub-
division science courses on the basis of the problems raised, so I agree that some
scholars call "straddle The physics, chemistry, biology and Earth Science for more than two subjects, breaking physics, chemistry, biology, geology and other scientific discipline lines, integration site preparation course content selection and organization
of scientific form of an integrated curriculum. "
The second half of the 20th century, integrated science course to become an international science education a focus of concern. After 80 years, China's integrated science curriculum has evolved through several courses of practice. Northeast Normal University, Zhejiang, Shanghai and Beijing and other regions have conducted a comprehensive science curriculum reform and testing. In 2000, China's new round of basic education curriculum reform started in the establishment of an integrated
primary and junior secondary science curriculum. The fall of 2001, "Science (7-9
grades)" curriculum standards and experimental teaching materials for teaching began to experiment in the experimental area. However, as an integrated science curriculum
in China has just started, is still a lack of experience, junior high school "science" courses in the implementation process has encountered difficulties, junior "science" courses in advance struggled. In order to "science" courses out of the woods, to
promote the development of China's overall science curriculum, the author of the Northeast Normal University affiliated high school, Zhejiang and other places of the integrated science curriculum reform, were studied. And on this basis, to explore the
constraints of China's integrated science curriculum development factors, and explore effective strategies to address these issues.
1, my fetters of Integrated Science Curriculum Development
(A) to evaluate system and integrated science curriculum does not match the
In our country's social background and culture under the influence of evaluation of the implementation of the guiding role of the curriculum is very strong, integrated science curriculum development needs to match it whom evaluation system to guide the right direction. As the Integrated Science Curriculum in China's development time is relatively short, lack of experience, has yet to establish an integrated science curriculum that matches the evaluation system. After 80 years in China a few of the integrated science curriculum in some areas of practice to inspect, one can clearly see that evaluation is a serious constraint factor in the implementation of an integrated science curriculum. China's current evaluation system allows students to study
integrated science and Sub-division science courses for students trained in the existence of competitive entrance examination. Examination by our thinking, teachers, parents, have expressed great value student achievement. This competition makes it an
integrated science course on the pilot school principals, school leaders, teachers, parents, and even the local educational administrative departments of the integrated science curriculum are suspect, for this competition, students worry about the success
of . Such suspicion and fear makes them into a "Qiuwen" mentality, but this is the psychological impact of their behavior. Educational administrative departments, school principals, parents do not understand, do not support the implementation of an
integrated science curriculum, making the implementation of an integrated science course encountered many difficulties and obstacles; teachers, instructional design, classroom teaching for subject teaching and so on in accordance with past, Integrated
Science Curriculum In fact a very small degree of implementation.
(B) the quality of science teachers for integrated science curriculum implementation
First, the integrated science curriculum of teacher's knowledge structure proposed
new requirements, teachers must also possess knowledge of various disciplines. While China is now the vast majority of institutions have not set a high division of science education professionals, there is no increase in the settings related to the curriculum.
Cultivate the students only to master the discipline of knowledge, knowledge about other subjects only remain at the high school have even forgotten. Graduate students, such as chemical physical, biological expertise poorly understood; physics graduate
students in chemical, biological and other disciplines of knowledge not well understood. Teachers integrated science course content is not yet fully grasp, there is no way to conduct science courses in addition to the content of the discipline of teaching, teachers, the lack of knowledge structure makes the teachers are not competent integrated science teaching and learning. Therefore, only the original Teacher in various disciplines together "cooperation" comprehensive science curriculum teaching,
chemistry teachers responsible for integrating science courses related to the contents of the chemical, physical teachers are responsible for the content of physics related. In this way, the original design of the integrated science curriculum has been artificially
separated into the content of the various disciplines of teaching, integrated science curriculum in the implementation of the disfigured. Teachers, the lack of knowledge structure that may affect teachers a comprehensive understanding of the science
curriculum, and teachers teaching behavior. Second, most science teachers do not understand, do not accept the Integrated Science curriculum, developed out of the curriculum programs do not understand on how to implement an integrated science
curriculum specifically there are significant doubts. Moreover, due to lack of experience and guidance to teachers on the problems encountered in the implementation process do not know how to solve.
(C) integrated science curriculum theory and curriculum research programs of the absence of perfect
China in the field of science education research, especially on the theory of an integrated science course there is a great lack of research, developed a comprehensive science curriculum programs still exist some drawbacks. According to the author of the Integrated Science Curriculum Study of the literature of statistics, we can see our current integrated science curricula and research most also have stayed at on integrated science curriculum content, features, functionality, value, scale, set up the necessary , etc. Some basic theoretical issues of research and overseas on the introduction of integrated science curriculum. There are a handful on the specific integrated science curriculum implementation, our comprehensive science curriculum implementation problems encountered and strategies to explore an integrated science curriculum localization studies, but they did not form a system of integrated science curriculum theoretical system. Integrated science curriculum theory research, the lack of impact on the characteristics of the development of curriculum programs and specific curriculum implementation. Due to lack of comprehensive experience and the guidance system theory, curriculum programs developed out of a lot of deficiencies still exist, curriculum programs imperfections affect the science teachers of the integrated understanding of the science curriculum, and thus constraining the implementation of an integrated science curriculum; due to lack of information about the implementation may be What are the specific problems encountered, what kind of question should be how to address specific issues such as research, allowing teachers to the lack of technical guidance for the implementation process and give up the teaching of
integrated science course to explore.
(D) the lack of an integrated science curriculum support of the community
Integrated science curriculum can not develop without a social environment is
inseparable from the wider society members for their understanding and support. The subject of China's cultural traditions, ways of thinking and some other factors, it is most reluctant to accept new things, new things, understanding the need for a longer
process. As the Sub-division science curriculum has been dominant in China, making an integrated science course lack of social support, hindered the development of an integrated science course. China in advancing the middle school "science" occurred during the course also explains the many obstacles that people of the integrated science curriculum does not endorse and is not supported. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
Second, to promote the development of China's strategy of Integrated Science
(A) create a system of integrated science curriculum evaluation
Evaluation of the curriculum implementation of a guiding role, we should bring into full play the guiding role of evaluation, creating and supporting an integrated science
curriculum program evaluation system. The most important thing is to improve the examination system, give full play to the role of the examination of the baton, so that the test for the integrated science curriculum implementation in the right direction. To
maximize the test to accurately diagnose the level of intellectual development of students, so that the exam questions to reflect the concept of integrated science curriculum, increase the comprehensive examination questions and practical.
(B) should be set up in Normal University Science and Education
Normal University is mainly based on education and training of teachers, high teacher trained teachers in schools should be able to meet the basic education requirements. Therefore, high normal university curriculum should be consistent with the basic education curriculum. Integrated science curriculum requiring teachers to have comprehensive knowledge structure, then the normal university should take steps to improve teachers subject knowledge structure, mainly through the following two ways. First, set the Normal University Science and Education, Integrated Science Curriculum for training qualified personnel. Specialty Teachers institutions should give full consideration to basic education curriculum. Teachers College is now in our country are generally not equipped with science and the teaching profession, with only the physical, chemical, biological and other professional. In China, a new basic education curriculum reform, a junior high school opened in the "science" courses, "science" courses needed to implement a large number of qualified science teachers. For these reasons, the institutions should be set to Normal Science and the teaching profession. Middle School 80 years of reform had been taken into account this point, will promote the reform of Teachers College as one of the objectives of reform. At present, China has a small number of Teachers Colleges (eg, Changchun Normal College, etc.) were tried, set science and the teaching profession. But the small number
of trained science teachers can not meet the "science" courses test and promote the needs of other teachers colleges should be actively pursued reform, set up science and education professionals in order to promote the reform of the institutions of Teachers
of basic education curriculum reform. Second, in the original creation of related disciplines in the professional courses. If the chemistry curricula for basic physics, biology courses. At present, China normal university curriculum to the professional
structure of a single, prominent disciplinary boundaries. In order to meet the "science" courses for science teachers, the requirements of knowledge structure, it should be in the original professional curriculum courses in related disciplines to increase. Students not only learn from the professional knowledge, but also knowledge of related disciplines to learn and expand knowledge of students.
(C) improve the in-service teacher training
Currently integrated science curriculum pilot area teachers are not trained and integrated science courses suited to higher education. In other words, at present the vast majority of science teachers were trained before the Sub-division students.
Therefore, improving in-service teacher training system, enhance in-service teachers of
science teaching capacity is also to promote the development needs of China's overall science curriculum, one of major tasks. Teachers in science teaching in the test prior to the training of teachers and specific training objectives, training content, training methods should be with the teachers, the state changes constantly changing. According to the status of teachers to determine the goal of this phase, teacher training, after training under the training objectives to choose the content, then according to the characteristics of training content to determine the specific training methods.
Of teachers of integrated science courses that do not understand or know very little of the time, the main objective of the training is to allow teachers to understand, understanding and acceptance of integrated science courses. According to this goal, selects the appropriate training content, is an integrated science course some of the basic theoretical knowledge. The main answer the following questions: What is an integrated science curriculum; Integrated Science curriculum, which values and functions; Why should I open my integrated science curriculum; Integrated Science Curriculum What are the requirements for teachers and so on. Through the teachers on the concept of integrated science courses, function, value, set up such issues as the need to allow teachers to understand, accept and integrated science courses. The method of training can be mainly informative introduction, supplemented by other
means, specific training methods to determine the characteristics of the light of training content and the specific conditions of teachers, flexible use.
In the teacher's understanding, acceptance, after an integrated science curriculum,
the goal of this phase of training is to improve teachers subject knowledge structure that allows teachers to meet the integrated science curriculum an interdisciplinary, comprehensive features for teachers requests. Training is a comprehensive science
curriculum requiring teachers to possess knowledge of the various disciplines, including biology, physics, chemistry, geology and other scientific knowledge. First, make sure teachers teaching integrated science curriculum, specifically what should
have knowledge of. According to the answer to that question, select the various disciplines of knowledge for teachers training. Training at this stage are more difficult, training time is limited, should be taken to the teaching, guidance and teacher training
methods of combining self-study. Advise teachers should learn what the various
disciplines of knowledge, as well as some basic knowledge, the rest of the knowledge can be self-teachers.
Teachers to master some basic knowledge of various disciplines, the training goal is to allow teachers to learn how to conduct science teaching. Training is mainly the teaching level, a number of issues, such as how to instructional design; how teaching samples; what kind of teaching should be used and so on. , Taking into account the characteristics of training, this stage of training can contact the teaching of specific
cases, the theoretical analysis.
In short, the training objectives, training content, training methods, etc. to
determine the overall training is necessary to the purpose of the guidance, so that a concrete analysis of specific problems. The various stages of the training objectives and content is not fixed and can be flexible. Teacher subject knowledge during the learning
can be added gradually during the teaching experiment enough, you can gradually accumulate in the teaching process the experience and maturity.
(D) allows teachers to participate in the development of an integrated science curriculum
At present, China Integrated Science Curriculum is one of the difficulties facing the development of science teachers do not understand, do not accept the Integrated Science curriculum, developed out of the curriculum programs do not understand.
Therefore, measures should be taken so that teachers integrated science curriculum, enhance the teacher's understanding of the science curriculum program. Teachers to participate in curriculum development is a more effective as a method. Teachers involved in curriculum development, will enable teachers to be concerned first of all, understand, study integrated science curriculum, which teachers will understand, accept and integrated science courses. Teachers involved in curriculum development, it will make teachers very familiar with the characteristics of an integrated science curriculum programs and requirements, will know how a specific implementation of how to deal with such problems. It will promote China's development of an integrated science curriculum.
(E) Enhanced Integrated Science Curriculum Theory Research
First, we must strengthen the integrated science curricula and research abroad for China's integrated science curricula and research and development reference. Abroad on a comprehensive study of the science curriculum as early as in our country, but also more mature. We need to study abroad on the theory of integrated science curriculum, integrated science curriculum materials, status of implementation of an integrated science curriculum, problems encountered, and what similarities and differences between China and so on. This will help to understand China's overall science curriculum stage of development, problems, how to promote China's integrated science curriculum development. Secondly, in line with China's educational status and
conditions, to accelerate the localization of an integrated theory of the process of science curriculum. Domestic and international educational status and conditions are very different, foreign integrated science curriculum theory can only provide a
reference for us and can not mechanically copy. In referring to foreign research results,
based on the education must be integrated with China's specific conditions and circumstances to find a comprehensive science curriculum development suited to China's road of development of China's integrated science curriculum theory, to build
China's integrated science curriculum program.
(Vi) to educate the members on the integrated science curriculum, find social support
In order to promote China's integrated science curriculum development, through various effective channels to the community members on an integrated science curriculum. Make people aware of, understand and then to support the integrated
science courses. Can use the TV, radio, newspapers and other media. Can also be through schools, parents will be open to parents of an integrated science courses.
 Yu Yan-xia, ZHOU Xing-guo. "Science" courses challenging science teachers in subject knowledge structure [J]., Anhui Normal University, 2003,31 (6). Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://www.hi138. com