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I. Introduction

By Nicole Lawrence,2014-09-10 23:24
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I. Introduction

ATM Network Management

    A Thesis

    Presented to the

    Department of Computer Science

    In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree

    Master of Science

    ? Qinping Huang 1995

    by

    Qinping Huang

    November 1995

     This thesis by Qinping Huang is accepted in its present form by the Department of Computer Science of Brigham Young University as satisfying the thesis requirement for

    the degree of Master of Science.

    ________________________________________

    Mark Clement, Committee Chair

    ________________________________________

    Bryan Morse, Committee Member

    ________________________________________

    Scott Woodfield, Committee Member

    _______________ ________________________________________ Date Tony Martinez, Graduate Coordinator

    ii

Acknowledgments

     This thesis could not have been written without the support of others. I am grateful for this support, and I would like to thank the following people in particular.

     First of all, my gratitude goes to my supervisor Mark Clement who gave me the opportunity to do this research. He provided me with many new ideas and detailed comments on the proposal and various drafts of this thesis.

     I would like to thank the members of my committee, Bryan Morse, Scott Woodfield and Dennis Ng, who gave me important comments on my thesis proposal and drafts.

     Furthermore, I would like to thank the members of the networking research group for their comments on my thesis proposal and drafts.

     Thanks go to Mingkang Xu for his help in editing this thesis.

     Thanks also go to my colleagues at Lynden Inc., Ty Jenkins, John Cooper, and Joe Chao, whose continuous support and understanding I needed to complete this thesis.

     I cannot forget the importance of the technical support that is provided by Quanhong Zhu. He installed the network system in my home office, providing the link to the outside world.

     Finally, I want to thank my parents for giving me the opportunity to perform my study. Special gratitude goes to Vivien, whose continuous support and help I needed to perform this work.

    iii

    List of Figures

    Figure 2.1 SNMP Architecture ........................................................................................ 9 Figure 2.2 CMOT Architecture ..................................................................................... 10 Figure 2.3 The Centralized Network Management Architecture .................................... 12 Figure 2.4 The Decentralized Network Management Architecture ................................. 13 Figure 2.5 Time Required for a Single Polling Cycle...................................................... 16 Figure 2.6 A Decentralized ATM Network Management Architecture ........................... 25 Figure 2.7 Important Network Management Features .................................................... 28 Figure 2.8 The ORM for the Centralized Network Management Architecture ................ 31

    Figure 2.9 The ORM for the Decentralized Network Management Architecture ............ 32

    Figure 2.10 Add Managed Devices and Management Information Bases ....................... 36

    Figure 2.11 MIB Browser ............................................................................................. 37 Figure 2.12 ATM Switch Utilization Monitoring ........................................................... 38 Figure 3.1 Relationship among Cell Price, Cell Demand and Network Supply ................ 53 Figure 3.2 Demonstration of Cost Factors ..................................................................... 56 Figure 3.3 SCR Can Lower the Usage Charge ............................................................... 57 Figure 3.4 A Hierarchical ATM Network Accounting Model ........................................ 59

    iv

    List of Tables

    Table 2.1 Minimum Round Trip Time ........................................................................... 18 Table 2.2 Minimum Time Required for a Single Management Operation ....................... 19

    Table 2.3 The Maximum Number of Managed Devices in

     the Centralized Architecture .......................................................................... 21 Table 2.4 Management Traffic Overhead ....................................................................... 23 Table 2.5 OSI Management Functional Areas ................................................................ 29 Table 3.1 Per Cell Pricing.............................................................................................. 66 Table 3.2 QUPS Pricing ................................................................................................ 67 Table 3.3 Dropped Cells and Link Congestion Cost Factor............................................ 68 Table 3.4 Comparing Pricing Schemes .......................................................................... 69

    v

    List of Equations Equation 2.1 .................................................................................................................. 15 Equation 2.2 .................................................................................................................. 17 Equation 2.3 .................................................................................................................. 17 Equation 2.4 .................................................................................................................. 20 Equation 2.5 .................................................................................................................. 20 Equation 2.6 .................................................................................................................. 20 Equation 2.7 .................................................................................................................. 22 Equation 3.1 .................................................................................................................. 55 Equation 3.2 .................................................................................................................. 55 Equation 3.3 .................................................................................................................. 55 Equation 3.4 .................................................................................................................. 64

    vi

    Table of Contents

    Acknowledgments........................................................................................................... iii List of Figures ................................................................................................................. iv

    List of Tables ................................................................................................................... v

    List of Equations ............................................................................................................. vi

    Chapter I Introduction ................................................................................................... 1

    1.1 ATM Technology .......................................................................................... 1

    1.2 ATM Network Management .......................................................................... 2

    1.3 ATM Network Pricing Scheme ...................................................................... 3

    1.4 Thesis Statement ........................................................................................... 5

    1.5 Thesis Overview ............................................................................................ 5 Chapter II ATM Network Management Architecture ...................................................... 6

     2.1 Review of Current Network Management Architectures ................................ 6

    2.2 Properties of ATM Networks ...................................................................... 14

    2.3 ATM Network Management Architecture .................................................... 15

    2.3.1 The Maximum Number of Managed Devices ..................................... 15

    2.3.2 The Ratio of Network Throughput to the Amount of

    Management Information .................................................................. 22

    2.3.3 A Decentralized ATM Network Management Architecture ................ 24

    2.4 Implementation of a Network Manager Station ............................................ 26

    2.4.1 Network Management Requirements ................................................. 27

    2.4.2 Design of a Network Manager Station ............................................... 30

    vii

    2.4.3 Software Implementation ................................................................... 33

    2.5 Summary ..................................................................................................... 34

    Chapter III ATM Network Pricing Scheme ................................................................... 39

    3.1 Survey of Previous Network Pricing Schemes .............................................. 39

    3.2 Quality of Service in ATM Networks ........................................................... 43

    3.3 ATM Network Cost Structure ..................................................................... 46

    3.4 A Quality of Service and Usage Based Pricing Scheme (QUPS) ................... 47

    3.5 Implementation of the QUPS Pricing Scheme .............................................. 54

    3.6 Simulations .................................................................................................. 60

    3.6.1 Assumptions in Simulations ............................................................... 60

    3.6.2 Simulation Results ............................................................................. 63

    3.7 Summary ..................................................................................................... 65

    Chapter IV Conclusions and Future Work ..................................................................... 70

    4.1 Conclusions ................................................................................................. 70

    4.2 Future Work ................................................................................................ 70

    References ..................................................................................................................... 71

    viii

    Chapter I Introduction

     Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the transfer mode for implementing B-ISDN. ATM originated from the need for a worldwide standard to allow interpretability of information, regardless of the "end-system" or type of information. ATM is a method of communication that can be used for both LAN and WAN technologies. Over time, as ATM continues to be deployed, the line between local- and wide-area networks will blur to form a seamless network based on one standard ATM. ATM is available at various speeds from megabit to gigabit speeds [1-4].

    1.1 ATM Technology

     ATM is a layered architecture allowing multiple services like voice, data, and video to be mixed over the network. Three lower level layers have been defined to implement the features of ATM. The adaptation layer assures the appropriate service characteristics and divides all types of data into the 48 byte payload that will make up the ATM cell. The ATM layer takes the data to be sent and adds the 5-byte header information that assures the cell is sent on the right connection. The physical layer defines the electrical characteristics and network interfaces. This layer "puts the bits on the wire."

     ATM is not tied to a specific type of physical transport [5]. However, many new problems must be solved with ATM. For example: the impacts of possible cell loss, cell transmission delay and cell delay variation on service quality, congestion control, traffic

    1

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