By Vernon Black,2014-07-05 21:49
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    Be a Great Speech Maker

    (2007-10-31) Chapter One: To be a great speech maker

    1. The Essentials of a Speech

     Objective: Before you start to prepare a speech, you should ask yourself

    Why am I making this speech? Do you need to inform, to persuade, to train

    or to sell? Your objective should be clear in your mind. If it is not clear in

    your mind, it cannot possibly be clear to your audience.

Audience: Who am I making this speech to? Sometimes this will be

    obvious, but not always. You should try to inform yourself. How many

    people? Who are they? Business people? Professional people? Political

    people? Experts or non-experts? Will it be a small, intimate group of 4

    colleagues or a large gathering of 400 competitors? How much do they know

    already and what will they expect from you.

     Venue: Where am I making this speech? In a small hotel meeting-room or a

    large conference hall? What facilities and equipment are available? What are

    the seating arrangements?

Time and Length: When am I making this speech and how long will it

    be? Will it be 5 minutes or one hour? Just before lunch, when your audience

    will be hungry, or just after lunch, when your audience will be sleepy?

Method: How should I make this speech? What approach should you use?

    Formal or informal? Lots of visual aids ?视觉教具?or only a few? Will you

    include anecdotes?奇闻轶事? and humor for variety?

Content: What should I say? Now you must decide exactly what you want

    to say. First, you should brainstorm your ideas. You will no doubt discover

    many ideas that you want to include in your speech. But you must be

    selective. You should include only information that is relevant to your

    audience and your objective. You should exclude all other ideas. You also

    need to create a title for your speech (if you have not already been given a

    title). The title will help you to focus on the subject. You can always give

    additional information during the questions after the speech.

     Notes: When you give your speech, you should be or appear to be as

    spontaneous ?自然产生的,自发的? as possible. You should not read your

    speech! You should be so familiar with your subject and with the information

    that you want to deliver that you do not need to read a text. Reading a text is

    boring! Reading a text will make your audience go to sleep! So if you dont

    have a text to read, how can you remember to say everything you need to say?

    With notes. You can create your own system of notes. Some people make

    notes on small, A6 cards. Some people write down keywords to remind them.

    The notes will give you confidence, but because you will have prepared your

    speech fully, you may not even need them!

     Rehearsal: You will become more familiar with what you want to say; You

    will identify weaknesses in your speech; You will be able to practice difficult

    pronunciations; You will be able to check the time that your speech takes and

    make any necessary modifications.

     Special Remarks: Rehearsal is Vital

    Rehearsal is a vital part of preparation. You should leave time to practice your speech two or three times. Even the great speaker sometimes will be in panic (

    ) and slip into a bathroom for practice before making a speech.

    -11-01Strategies to Succeed in Public Speaking 2007

1. Achieving Your Speaking Goals

    Whenever you speak to people, the goals you are attempting to achieve are to verbally:

     First, express your thoughts and ideas.

    To achieve this point, you must:

     Know the topic well,

     Organize your thoughts before speaking,

     Try to keep things down to three major points.

     Second, satisfy the listener or audience.

    Important factors to remember in obtaining listener satisfaction are:

     Speak with confidence,

     Speak with clarity, and

     Get the audience to participate

     Third, get rewards from the process.

    What can be called a reward to you, the speaker? Its up to you, this may be:


     Applause from the audience

     Financial gain.

     Dont set your expectations so high that you are never satisfied with

    your performance.

2. Preparation is Key!

     If we fail to prepare--- We prepare to fail.

    What is the purpose of your speech? To inform? To persuade? To entertain? Once you know the general purpose of your speech you can begin to prepare for your speech.

Ten steps for preparation

    Step 1: Select a topic for your speech---Use the audience centered approach to select your topic.

    Step 2: Compose your specific purpose statement, central idea, and main points---Use the audience centered approach to compose these.

    Step 3: Research your speech---Internet resources-Virtual library. Step 4: Be audience centered---Audience analysis---Who is your audience and what are their needs?

    Step 5: Supporting your speech---Use support materials that are: pertinent (中肯的)

    ),appropriate?恰当的?. varied, sufficient, detailed (详尽的

    Step 6: Outlining your speech---Use the basic informative(信息充分的) outline to

    organize materials.

    Step 7: Select visual aids (视觉教具) for your speech---Guidelines and tips for using

    visual aids.

    Step 8: Practicing your speech---Perfect practice makes perfect. Step 9: Using creative visualization to ensure a successful speech---Tip on using visualization to help prepare you for your presentation.

    Step 10: Presenting your speech on speech day---Tips on giving effective presentations and tips on dealing with that extra energy on Game day.

Practice Makes Perfect! (百炼成钢)

    Practice your speech, you can try these ways/

    No.1- Practice alone 自我练习

    No.2- Use a mirror 对着镜子练习

    No.3- Stand in the corner 站在墙角练习

    No.4- Record your practice 把练习录音,过后思量

    No.5- Use a friendly audience 请朋友帮忙练习

    Be well-prepared before speaking to a group/

    No.1- Leave nothing to chance 确保不会节外生枝

    No.2- Your material 准备好演讲材料

    No.3- Know the audience 了解观众情况

    No.4- Conditions 留意周围环境因素

     Special Remarks: Preparation is everything!

    With good preparation and planning you will be totally confident and less nervous. And your audience will feel your confidence. Your audience, too, will be

confident. They will be confident in you. And this will give you control. Control

    of your audience and of your speech. With control, you will be incharge and your

    audience will listen positively to your message.

     Special Tips: Know your audience

    Before you speak to a group of people, you should know as much about the

    audience and their interests as possible. This is so you can tailor your speech

    to their needs and to better assure a positive reaction from them.

    ; Keep these questions in mind and you will be a considerate speaker:

     Why should I find out about the audience?

     How can I find out about the audience?

     What rewards can I get from knowing the audience?

3. Deliver with Confidence

    The time comes, and you just present the right things in the right place at the

    right time. Keep in mind that you should:

     Have a backup, in case you forget what you want to say. Use your outline or script.

     Reduce anxiety by pausing and taking a breath. Use a positive approach.

     Use suitable facial expressions and gestures.

     Special Tips: Survival Tactics

     Sometimes you may have a certain problem in the speech, as a result of

     which, these special tactics are necessary.

     If youve noticed youve said something completely wrong, you could

     say: sorry, what I really meant is this…”

     If you feel youve said something far too quickly and your audience

     cant keep up “so, lets just go over that last point again.

     Oops, youve forgotten to quote a key fact for your main argument in

     your presentation. You could say: “I should just mention one more

     thing before I move on.

     You cant think of the right word My minds a blank. Sorry, I cant

     think of the English word for this.

     You look up at the clock and realize your time is almost up. Right, to

     finish, I‟d like to give you the main points again.

     You are not very sure about your memory. You may need a note or

     scrip to remind you.

     These notes should/

     Just highlight a few key words

     Just be used as a guide

     Just be easily seen with a simple glance

2007-11-02Basic Structure of a Successful Speech

A well-organized speech with a clear structure is easier for the audience to follow. It is

    therefore more effective. You should organize the points you wish to make in a logical

    order. Most speeches are organized in three parts, followed by questions.

The beginning of Introduction Welcome your audience

    speech Introduce your subject

     Explain the structure of your speech

     Explain rules for questions

    The middle of The core

    speech Present the subject itself

The end of speech The conclusion Summarize your speech

     Thank your audience

     Invite questions

The beginning of the speech

     The Introduction

    Let everyone know when you begin the presentation. If possible, dont start until

    everyone has sat down and you have their full attention. Welcome your audience

    Good morning, ladies and gentlemen.

    Good afternoon, everybody.

     Introduce your subject

    I am going to talk today about

    The purpose of my presentation is to introduce our new range of Explain the structure of your speech

    Explain how you have organized the presentation at the beginning, so your

    audience knows what to expect.

    Ive divided my presentation into four parts. They are

    During my talk, I‟ll be looking at three areas, First, SMS costs, Second, SMS

    charges, Third, SMS profits.

    Today, I‟ll mainly talk about these three points

    To start with I‟ll describe the progress made this year, then I‟ll mention some of

    the problems weve encountered and how we overcame them, after that I‟ll

    consider the possibilities for further growth next year, finally, I‟ll summarize my

    presentation before concluding with some recommendations. Explain rules for questions

    Do feel free to interrupt me if you have any questions.

    I‟ll try to answer all of your questions after the presentation.

    I plan to keep some time for questions after the presentation.

The middle of speech

     The main part of your presentation will probably consist of several different

    points to highlight your message.

     So, to start with, I‟d like to talk about the

    The first problem today is that…

    Lets go to the first topic

You can make sure your audience knows that you have finished one point or topic

    Thats all that I have to say about that

    The above is my understanding of

    Just now we have covered the point of

To begin a new topic or point

    Now, lets turn to

    Ok, well move on to

    Now, if I could just move on to

    Next, we come to

    The next point I‟d like to make is

    I‟d like to continue now by looking at

The end of speech

     The conclusion

    A conclusion should:

    ; Inform the audience that you are about to finish

    ; Summarize the main points

    ; Leave the audience with something to remember

Summarize your speech

    To conclude,

    In conclusion,

    Now, to sum up

    So let me summarise/recap what I‟ve said

    Finally, may I remind you of some of the main points weve considered. To conclude, I‟d like to repeat the point I made at the beginning.

    To summarize, then, we expect to see a marked increase in online profit this quarter.

    To finish, I‟d like to recap on the three main points in my talk.

Giving recommendations

    In conclusion, my recommendations are

    I therefore suggest/propose/recommend the following stategy.

Thank your audience

    Many thanks for your attention.

    May I thank you all for being such an attentive audience.

Invite questions

    ow I‟ll try to answer any questions you may have. N

    Can I answer any questions?

    Are there any questions?

    Do you have any questions?

    Are there any final questions?

     Special Tips: How to Control the Questions Period

    Questions are a good opportunity for you to interact with your audience. It

    may be helpful for you to try to predict what questions will be asked so

    that you can prepare your response in advance. You may wish to accept

    questions at any time during your presentation, or to keep a time for

    questions after your presentation. Normally, its your decision, and you

    should make it clear during the introduction. Be polite with all

    questioners, even if they ask difficult questions. They are showing interest

    in what you have to say and they deserve attention. Sometimes you can

    reformulate a question. Or answer the question with another question. Or

    even ask for comment from the rest of the audience.

2007-11-05Requirements of Language

Simplicity and Clarity

If you want your audience to understand your message, your language must

    be simple and clear.

     Use short words and short sentence.

     Do not use jargon(行话), unless you are certain that your audience

    understands it.

     In general, talk about concrete facts rather than abstract ideas. Use active verbs instead of passive verbs. Active verbs are much easier to

    understand. They are much more powerful.

--------------------------------END OF CHAPTER ONE-------------------------------------

2007-11-06Chapter 2: Group Speech

1Group Speech Introduction

    Decision-making group speeches are everywhere, and you will almost certainly have opportunities to participate in them. Your skill in doing so can make a significant contribution to your groups success and to your own as well. A decision-making

    group is any collection of three to eleven individuals who share a common problem or goal and interact with each other and are mutually dependent.

    People join groups because groups collectively provide more resources than individuals and tend to be better at controlling error. Participation in groups means

    giving your best effort, behaving rationally, playing fair, and participating fully. ?在

    小组中参与活动意味着全情投入、理性行动、公平竞争和全面参与。?These things

    are essential to a group. They imply that you must learn to be flexible and democratic, that you value group processes over individual enterprise(个人利益服从集体利益),

    and that you plan carefully.

    Leadership is individuals ability to assess a communication situation and provide the ideas and information needed by the group. Decision-making groups need leadership in identifying and understanding problems and solutions. An effective leader knows when to focus on task concerns, when to focus on relationship issues, and when to focus on procedures.

    The three most common problems that decision-making groups have to face: membership dissatisfaction, interpersonal conflict, and a phenomenon called groupthink. These problems call for effective leadership. When tension levels are too high, talk about the sources of the tension. When they are too low, talk about procedures. When they are just right, stay with an agenda that contributes to effective decision making.



     Today we gather together here to have a discussion on the problem. Since no one dis-opposed, well proceed to the next item of business.

     Hearing no objections, I suggest we continue.

     Does anyone have further information on this point?

     Could you explain a bit more in detail?

     Would you perhaps offer some concrete examples to illustrate that point? How do you feel about his opinion?

     Come on, lets get down to business.

     To summarize the results of our discussion, we find that we have two positions, A

    and B.

     Lets go back to the main theme.

     I may be missing something, but I do not see the relevance of this discussion to

    our problem. Can we return to the point?

    m not quite clear on where it leaves This has been an interesting discussion, but I‟


     Because of the shortage of time, I will have to skip over the next two points and

    concentrate on the last point.

     According to the rules of this meeting, the question will be put to a vote. Our time is up. So let us cut off our discussion at this point for the time being. Its time for us to vote and get the result.

     The opinions presented so far may be summarized as follow



In my opinion, we should

     I think plan B is more suitable for us.

     We ought to take Kens advice.

     May I interrupt? I dont think Jerry will be a good help.

     Sorry for interrupting, but I really want to say that

     Project D is just the right plan for us. For one thing, it holds a good position; for

    another, it cuts the costs.

2. Group Argument

     Structuring an Argument

    The following information may help you to understand the basis for developing a persuasive argument.

    1) To structure the argument one needs to do the following

     You make a claim(论点)

     A claim is the conclusion of your claim

     A claim worded as a declarative statement that you want your listeners to


     You offer evidence to prove your claim

     You show how the evidence proves the claim

     Discussion on how to make the best choice


    A: Everyones here? Fine. Lets get down to business. We are here today to pick out one plan from these three to be the best title of the year. What do you guys think?

    B: I choose plan C. its attractive and romantic. Our customers will be definitely surprised at the first sight of it.

C: On the contrary, Plan A is my favorite.

    A: Why, can you be more specific?

    C: Well, first, our business is cosmetics. And what our clients need is comfort, right? Plan C is too bright and too sharp to meet this need.

    D: That sounds reasonable.

    A: And?

    C: Second, look at Plan B. A gray bird flies in the air? Dont you think its too dull?

    B: I agree.

    E: I come to this point. Thats it!

    A: I think we have the conclusion. Ok, any other opinions? If not, well pick out Plan

    A as the best title of the year.

(2007-11-13) SAMPLE TWO

    AToday we gather together here to have a discussion on the problem of the new business site.

    B: We need this talk? Havent we finished it last week?

    C: You had just 3 votes, remember? But we have 7 people.

D: Yeah, thats the problem. Bs suggestion covers only the advantages but you

    B: You see my advantages! City center and subway, right?

    A: Let D finish B.

    D: But you miss 2 points. One is that a mega market is being built 150 meters west to your site, right in the middle between the subway and your land.

    E: Do you mean that market will be an obstacle to ours?

    D: Bingo. That market is 5 times as large as yours and who can assure people will come round to your shop?

    F: We will lose 60% of the customers from the subway.

    B: But our modern building design will win everyones attention.

    F: That may be true. It is really beautiful, isnt it?

    D: Beautiful. Only on the blueprint.

    G: I would like to have your second fact, D.

    D: Thank you. The modern design will contrast sharply with the surrounding streets, which have a history of more than 300 years. It will just be awkward! B: So I see How did I ignore it!

    A: In this case we have to discuss where we should set up our new site and what kind of style it should be. Do you have any suggestion, D?

    D: In my opinion we should


    The Conclusion of a Talk

    A: Let the minute show that we have agreed upon the following points: organize an

    thoutdoor party in Central Park on May 5 and that will be at our companys expense.

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