Be a Great Speech Maker
(2007-10-31) Chapter One: To be a great speech maker
1. The Essentials of a Speech
？ Objective: Before you start to prepare a speech, you should ask yourself
“Why am I making this speech?” Do you need to inform, to persuade, to train
or to sell? Your objective should be clear in your mind. If it is not clear in
your mind, it cannot possibly be clear to your audience.
？ Audience: “Who am I making this speech to?” Sometimes this will be
obvious, but not always. You should try to inform yourself. How many
people? Who are they? Business people? Professional people? Political
people? Experts or non-experts? Will it be a small, intimate group of 4
colleagues or a large gathering of 400 competitors? How much do they know
already and what will they expect from you.
？ Venue: “Where am I making this speech? In a small hotel meeting-room or a
large conference hall? What facilities and equipment are available? What are
the seating arrangements?
？ Time and Length: “When am I making this speech and how long will it
be?” Will it be 5 minutes or one hour? Just before lunch, when your audience
will be hungry, or just after lunch, when your audience will be sleepy?
？ Method: How should I make this speech?” What approach should you use?
Formal or informal? Lots of visual aids ？视觉教具？or only a few? Will you
include anecdotes？奇闻轶事？ and humor for variety?
？ Content: “What should I say?” Now you must decide exactly what you want
to say. First, you should brainstorm your ideas. You will no doubt discover
many ideas that you want to include in your speech. But you must be
selective. You should include only information that is relevant to your
audience and your objective. You should exclude all other ideas. You also
need to create a title for your speech (if you have not already been given a
title). The title will help you to focus on the subject. You can always give
additional information during the questions after the speech.
？ Notes: When you give your speech, you should be or appear to be as
spontaneous ？自然产生的，自发的？ as possible. You should not read your
speech! You should be so familiar with your subject and with the information
that you want to deliver that you do not need to read a text. Reading a text is
boring! Reading a text will make your audience go to sleep! So if you don‟t
have a text to read, how can you remember to say everything you need to say?
With notes. You can create your own system of notes. Some people make
notes on small, A6 cards. Some people write down keywords to remind them.
The notes will give you confidence, but because you will have prepared your
speech fully, you may not even need them!
？ Rehearsal: You will become more familiar with what you want to say; You
will identify weaknesses in your speech; You will be able to practice difficult
pronunciations; You will be able to check the time that your speech takes and
make any necessary modifications.
Special Remarks: Rehearsal is Vital
Rehearsal is a vital part of preparation. You should leave time to practice your speech two or three times. Even the great speaker sometimes will be in panic (惊
慌) and slip into a bathroom for practice before making a speech.
-11-01？Strategies to Succeed in Public Speaking ？2007
1. Achieving Your Speaking Goals
Whenever you speak to people, the goals you are attempting to achieve are to verbally:
？ First, express your thoughts and ideas.
To achieve this point, you must:
； Know the topic well,
； Organize your thoughts before speaking,
； Try to keep things down to three major points.
？ Second, satisfy the listener or audience.
Important factors to remember in obtaining listener satisfaction are:
； Speak with confidence,
； Speak with clarity, and
； Get the audience to participate
？ Third, get rewards from the process.
What can be called a reward to you, the speaker? It‟s up to you, this may be:
； Applause from the audience
； Financial gain.
Don‟t set your expectations so high that you are never satisfied with
2. Preparation is Key!
If we fail to prepare--- We prepare to fail.
What is the purpose of your speech? To inform? To persuade? To entertain? Once you know the general purpose of your speech you can begin to prepare for your speech.
Ten steps for preparation
Step 1: Select a topic for your speech---Use the audience centered approach to select your topic.
Step 2: Compose your specific purpose statement, central idea, and main points---Use the audience centered approach to compose these.
Step 3: Research your speech---Internet resources-Virtual library. Step 4: Be audience centered---Audience analysis---Who is your audience and what are their needs?
Step 5: Supporting your speech---Use support materials that are: pertinent (中肯的)，
),appropriate？恰当的？. varied, sufficient, detailed (详尽的
Step 6: Outlining your speech---Use the basic informative(信息充分的) outline to
Step 7: Select visual aids (视觉教具) for your speech---Guidelines and tips for using
Step 8: Practicing your speech---Perfect practice makes perfect. Step 9: Using creative visualization to ensure a successful speech---Tip on using visualization to help prepare you for your presentation.
Step 10: Presenting your speech on speech day---Tips on giving effective presentations and tips on dealing with that “extra energy” on “Game day.”
Practice Makes Perfect! (百炼成钢)
Practice your speech, you can try these ways/
No.1- Practice alone 自我练习
No.2- Use a mirror 对着镜子练习
No.3- Stand in the corner 站在墙角练习
No.4- Record your practice 把练习录音，过后思量
No.5- Use a friendly audience 请朋友帮忙练习
Be well-prepared before speaking to a group/
No.1- Leave nothing to chance 确保不会节外生枝
No.2- Your material 准备好演讲材料
No.3- Know the audience 了解观众情况
No.4- Conditions 留意周围环境因素
Special Remarks: Preparation is everything!
With good preparation and planning you will be totally confident and less nervous. And your audience will feel your confidence. Your audience, too, will be
confident. They will be confident in you. And this will give you control. Control
of your audience and of your speech. With control, you will be incharge and your
audience will listen positively to your message.
Special Tips: Know your audience
Before you speak to a group of people, you should know as much about the
audience and their interests as possible. This is so you can tailor your speech
to their needs and to better assure a positive reaction from them.
; Keep these questions in mind and you will be a considerate speaker:
； Why should I find out about the audience?
； How can I find out about the audience?
； What rewards can I get from knowing the audience?
3. Deliver with Confidence
The time comes, and you just present the right things in the right place at the
right time. Keep in mind that you should:
？ Have a backup, in case you forget what you want to say. ？ Use your outline or script.
？ Reduce anxiety by pausing and taking a breath. ？ Use a positive approach.
？ Use suitable facial expressions and gestures.
Special Tips: Survival Tactics
Sometimes you may have a certain problem in the speech, as a result of
which, these special tactics are necessary.
？ If you‟ve noticed you‟ve said something completely wrong, you could
say: “sorry, what I really meant is this…”
？ If you feel you‟ve said something far too quickly and your audience
can‟t keep up “so, let‟s just go over that last point again.”
？ Oops, you‟ve forgotten to quote a key fact for your main argument in
your presentation. You could say: “I should just mention one more
thing before I move on.”
？ You can‟t think of the right word… “My mind‟s a blank. Sorry, I can‟t
think of the English word for this.”
？ You look up at the clock and realize your time is almost up. “Right, to
finish, I‟d like to give you the main points again.”
？ You are not very sure about your memory. You may need a note or
scrip to remind you.
These notes should/
； Just highlight a few key words
； Just be used as a guide
； Just be easily seen with a simple glance
？2007-11-02？Basic Structure of a Successful Speech
A well-organized speech with a clear structure is easier for the audience to follow. It is
therefore more effective. You should organize the points you wish to make in a logical
order. Most speeches are organized in three parts, followed by questions.
The beginning of Introduction ； Welcome your audience
speech ； Introduce your subject
； Explain the structure of your speech
； Explain rules for questions
The middle of The core
speech ； Present the subject itself
The end of speech The conclusion ； Summarize your speech
； Thank your audience
； Invite questions
？ The beginning of the speech
； The Introduction
Let everyone know when you begin the presentation. If possible, don‟t start until
everyone has sat down and you have their full attention. ； Welcome your audience
Good morning, ladies and gentlemen.
Good afternoon, everybody.
； Introduce your subject
I am going to talk today about…
The purpose of my presentation is to introduce our new range of ； Explain the structure of your speech
Explain how you have organized the presentation at the beginning, so your
audience knows what to expect.
I‟ve divided my presentation into four parts. They are…
During my talk, I‟ll be looking at three areas, First, SMS costs, Second, SMS
charges, Third, SMS profits.
Today, I‟ll mainly talk about these three points…
To start with I‟ll describe the progress made this year, then I‟ll mention some of
the problems we‟ve encountered and how we overcame them, after that I‟ll
consider the possibilities for further growth next year, finally, I‟ll summarize my
presentation before concluding with some recommendations. ； Explain rules for questions
Do feel free to interrupt me if you have any questions.
I‟ll try to answer all of your questions after the presentation.
I plan to keep some time for questions after the presentation.
？ The middle of speech
； The main part of your presentation will probably consist of several different
points to highlight your message.
So, to start with, I‟d like to talk about the…
The first problem today is that…
Let‟s go to the first topic…
； You can make sure your audience knows that you have finished one point or topic
That‟s all that I have to say about that…
The above is my understanding of…
Just now we have covered the point of…
； To begin a new topic or point
Now, let‟s turn to…
Ok, we‟ll move on to…
Now, if I could just move on to…
Next, we come to…
The next point I‟d like to make is…
I‟d like to continue now by looking at
？ The end of speech
； The conclusion
A conclusion should:
; Inform the audience that you are about to finish
; Summarize the main points
; Leave the audience with something to remember
； Summarize your speech
To conclude, …
In conclusion, …
Now, to sum up…
So let me summarise/recap what I‟ve said
Finally, may I remind you of some of the main points we‟ve considered. To conclude, I‟d like to repeat the point I made at the beginning.”
To summarize, then, we expect to see a marked increase in online profit this quarter.
To finish, I‟d like to recap on the three main points in my talk.”
； Giving recommendations
In conclusion, my recommendations are…
I therefore suggest/propose/recommend the following stategy.
； Thank your audience
Many thanks for your attention.
May I thank you all for being such an attentive audience.
； Invite questions
ow I‟ll try to answer any questions you may have. N
Can I answer any questions?
Are there any questions?
Do you have any questions?
Are there any final questions?
Special Tips: How to Control the Questions Period
Questions are a good opportunity for you to interact with your audience. It
may be helpful for you to try to predict what questions will be asked so
that you can prepare your response in advance. You may wish to accept
questions at any time during your presentation, or to keep a time for
questions after your presentation. Normally, it‟s your decision, and you
should make it clear during the introduction. Be polite with all
questioners, even if they ask difficult questions. They are showing interest
in what you have to say and they deserve attention. Sometimes you can
reformulate a question. Or answer the question with another question. Or
even ask for comment from the rest of the audience.
？2007-11-05？Requirements of Language
Simplicity and Clarity
？ If you want your audience to understand your message, your language must
be simple and clear.
？ Use short words and short sentence.
？ Do not use jargon(行话), unless you are certain that your audience
？ In general, talk about concrete facts rather than abstract ideas. ？ Use active verbs instead of passive verbs. Active verbs are much easier to
understand. They are much more powerful.
--------------------------------END OF CHAPTER ONE-------------------------------------
？2007-11-06？Chapter 2: Group Speech
1、Group Speech Introduction
Decision-making group speeches are everywhere, and you will almost certainly have opportunities to participate in them. Your skill in doing so can make a significant contribution to your group‟s success and to your own as well. A decision-making
group is any collection of three to eleven individuals who share a common problem or goal and interact with each other and are mutually dependent.
People join groups because groups collectively provide more resources than individuals and tend to be better at controlling error. Participation in groups means
giving your best effort, behaving rationally, playing fair, and participating fully. ？在
are essential to a group. They imply that you must learn to be flexible and democratic, that you value group processes over individual enterprise(个人利益服从集体利益),
and that you plan carefully.
Leadership is individual‟s ability to assess a communication situation and provide the ideas and information needed by the group. Decision-making groups need leadership in identifying and understanding problems and solutions. An effective leader knows when to focus on task concerns, when to focus on relationship issues, and when to focus on procedures.
The three most common problems that decision-making groups have to face: membership dissatisfaction, interpersonal conflict, and a phenomenon called groupthink. These problems call for effective leadership. When tension levels are too high, talk about the sources of the tension. When they are too low, talk about procedures. When they are just right, stay with an agenda that contributes to effective decision making.
？ Today we gather together here to have a discussion on the problem. ？ Since no one dis-opposed, we‟ll proceed to the next item of business.
？ Hearing no objections, I suggest we continue.
？ Does anyone have further information on this point?
？ Could you explain a bit more in detail?
？ Would you perhaps offer some concrete examples to illustrate that point? ？ How do you feel about his opinion?
？ Come on, let‟s get down to business.
？ To summarize the results of our discussion, we find that we have two positions, A
？ Let‟s go back to the main theme.
？ I may be missing something, but I do not see the relevance of this discussion to
our problem. Can we return to the point?
m not quite clear on where it leaves ？ This has been an interesting discussion, but I‟
？ Because of the shortage of time, I will have to skip over the next two points and
concentrate on the last point.
？ According to the rules of this meeting, the question will be put to a vote. ？ Our time is up. So let us cut off our discussion at this point for the time being. ？ It‟s time for us to vote and get the result.
？ The opinions presented so far may be summarized as follow…
？ In my opinion, we should…
？ I think plan B is more suitable for us.
？ We ought to take Ken‟s advice.
？ May I interrupt? I don‟t think Jerry will be a good help.
？ Sorry for interrupting, but I really want to say that …
？ Project D is just the right plan for us. For one thing, it holds a good position; for
another, it cuts the costs.
2. Group Argument
？ Structuring an Argument
The following information may help you to understand the basis for developing a persuasive argument.
1) To structure the argument one needs to do the following
？ You make a claim(论点)
； A claim is the conclusion of your claim
； A claim worded as a declarative statement that you want your listeners to
？ You offer evidence to prove your claim
？ You show how the evidence proves the claim
Discussion on how to make the best choice
A: Everyone‟s here? Fine. Let‟s get down to business. We are here today to pick out one plan from these three to be the best title of the year. What do you guys think?
B: I choose plan C. it‟s attractive and romantic. Our customers will be definitely surprised at the first sight of it.
C: On the contrary, Plan A is my favorite.
A: Why, can you be more specific?
C: Well, first, our business is cosmetics. And what our clients need is comfort, right? Plan C is too bright and too sharp to meet this need.
D: That sounds reasonable.
C: Second, look at Plan B. A gray bird flies in the air? Don‟t you think it‟s too dull?
B: I agree.
E: I come to this point. That‟s it!
A: I think we have the conclusion. Ok, any other opinions? If not, we‟ll pick out Plan
A as the best title of the year.
(2007-11-13) SAMPLE TWO！
A！Today we gather together here to have a discussion on the problem of the new business site.
B: We need this talk? Haven‟t we finished it last week?
C: You had just 3 votes, remember? But we have 7 people.
D: Yeah, that‟s the problem. B‟s suggestion covers only the advantages but you…
B: You see my advantages! City center and subway, right?
A: Let D finish B.
D: But you miss 2 points. One is that a mega market is being built 150 meters west to your site, right in the middle between the subway and your land.
E: Do you mean that market will be an obstacle to ours?
D: Bingo. That market is 5 times as large as yours and who can assure people will come round to your shop?
F: We will lose 60% of the customers from the subway.
B: But our modern building design will win everyone‟s attention.
F: That may be true. It is really beautiful, isn‟t it?
D: Beautiful. Only on the blueprint.
G: I would like to have your second fact, D.
D: Thank you. The modern design will contrast sharply with the surrounding streets, which have a history of more than 300 years. It will just be awkward! B: So I see… How did I ignore it!
A: In this case we have to discuss where we should set up our new site and what kind of style it should be. Do you have any suggestion, D?
D: In my opinion we should…
The Conclusion of a Talk
A: Let the minute show that we have agreed upon the following points: organize an
thoutdoor party in Central Park on May 5 and that will be at our company‟s expense.