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9 Document Design TP

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9 Document Design TP

    Chapter 9

    Document Design文件设计

    Effective writing is more than writing, more than just words and sentences arranged in logical paragraphs. To be effective, the format and organization 格式与组织结构of your document are

    equally important. With huge amount of information coming at an amazing speed each day, readers have to read quickly and selectively. Traditional paragraph writing format produces a word-wall document像字墙一样的文件 that is difficult to read. To solve this problem, technical writers use document design to create a format that helps readers to find information quickly and to read selectively. Document design is an emerging field dealing with the ways in which you can organize and present information to facilitate accessibility and comprehensibility of documents. 文件设计是

    一个新生的领域,研究组织与表达信息的方法,以利于提高信息的可获得性和可理解性。When

    you design information in your documents, you should bear in mind four categories of elements:

     Textual elements: letters, numbers, and symbols (e.g. +, -, *, %, $) 文本成分(字母、数

    字和符号

     Spatial elements: spaces between textual elements as well as the size and location of

    textual and graphic elements 空间成分(文本成分之间的间距和文本与图像成分的大

    小与位置

     Graphic elements: tables, graphs, charts, and diagrams, etc.图表成分(表格、坐标图、

    示意图、图画等

     Typographic elements: type face, type size, type style, listing, underlining, shading,

    boxing, and color. 排版印刷成分(字体、字号、打印样式、列表、下划线或斜体、底

    纹、加框、颜色

    This chapter deals with these designing elements, focusing on how the design affects the accessibility, appropriateness and appeal of a document. There are generally three principles for you to follow: 1) chunking and labeling information by using headings and white space effectively; 2) arranging information by integrating visual and verbal chunks appropriately; 3) emphasizing information by applying typographic elements effectively. 1!使用标题和间距来分隔信息并给信

    息块加标记;2!通过吧图表和文字信息适当地结合来安排信息;通过有效使用排版印刷成分

    来强调信息。

I. Chunking and Labeling Information

    Chunking means to group topically related information into units or chunks; labeling means to mark the chunks of information with appropriate signs or labels. Chunking的意思是按照主题吧相关信

    息组合成信息单位,即信息块; labeling的意思是给信息块加上适当的标记。Chunking and

    labeling make the information in undifferentiated text more accessible to readers. Figures 9-1A, B and C demonstrate the sequence of chunking and labeling information. 块组合与加标记使原来没

    有差别的文本信息更便于查找。图表9-1ABC演示了对信息进行块组合并加标记的过程。

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Figure 9-1A Undifferentiated Text 没有差别的文本

    Various images of the environmental destruction, such as desertification, ozone depletion, global

    warming, deforestation, etc. are going on throughout the world. However people have neither paid

    enough attention to these problems, nor have they taken any effective action to solve these problems.

    According to the extent of their effects, these environmental problems can be classified into three

    groups: local problemsthose affecting a particular and small area; regional problemsthose

    affecting a larger area; strategic problemsthose affecting the global ecological system. Strategic

    environmental problems such as ozone depletion and global warming are threatening the survival of

    all animal and plant life in the world. This indicates that the entire relationship between humankind

    and the earth has been transformed because our civilization is suddenly capable of affecting the entire global environment, not just a particular area. There are two main factors causing the change

    of the relationship: the population explosion and the scientific and technological revolution. The unrestrained use of technology in exploiting the earth may bring the same disaster as a nuclear war would. We should realize that our power to harm the earth can indeed have global and permanent effects. We should realize that the only way to understand our new role as a co-architect of nature is

    to see ourselves as part of a complex system that does not operate according to the same simple rules

    of cause and effect we are used to. As a result, any solution to the problem will require a careful assessment of the relationship between the civilization and the earth’s ecological system.

    Figure 9-1A includes information about several subtopics related to global environmental destruction. The information is arranged in one paragraph without any design elements to aid readers. The page layout creates a word-wall effect字墙一样的效果, which makes it difficult for readers to

    catch key information quickly.

Figure 9-1B Chunked Text:对信息进行了块组合的文本

    Various images of the environmental destruction, such as desertification, ozone depletion, global

    warming, deforestation, etc. are going on throughout the world. However people have neither paid

    enough attention to these problems, nor have they taken any effective action to solve these problems.

    According to the extent of their effects, these environmental problems can be classified into three

    groups: local problemsthose affecting a particular and small area; regional problemsthose

    affecting a larger area; strategic problemsthose affecting the global ecological system. Strategic

    environmental problems such as ozone depletion and global warming are threatening the survival of

    all animal and plant life in the world. This indicates that the entire relationship between humankind

    and the earth has been transformed because our civilization is suddenly capable of affecting the entire global environment, not just a particular area.

    There are two main factors causing the change of the relationship: the population explosion and the scientific and technological revolution. The unrestrained use of technology in exploiting the earth may bring the same disaster as a nuclear war would.

    We should realize that our power to harm the earth can indeed have global and permanent effects. We should realize that the only way to understand our new role as a co-architect of nature is to see

    ourselves as part of a complex system that does not operate according to the same simple rules of

    cause and effect we are used to. As a result, any solution to the problem will require a careful assessment of the relationship between the civilization and the earth’s ecological system.

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    In Figure 9-1B, the information about the different subtopics is topically chunked and then visually separated into four paragraphs.

Figure 9-1C Labeled Text对组合信息加了标记的文本

    Introduction. Various images of the environmental destruction, such as desertification, ozone depletion, global warming, deforestation, etc. are going on throughout the world. However people

    have neither paid enough attention to these problems, nor have they taken any effective action to solve these problems.

    Classification of Environmental Problems. According to the extent of their effects, these

    environmental problems can be classified into three groups:

    ; Local problems: those affecting a particular and small area.

    ; Regional problems: those affecting a larger area.

    ; Strategic problems: those affecting the global ecological system.

    Strategic environmental problems such as ozone depletion and global warming are threatening the survival of all animal and plant life in the world. This indicates that the entire relationship between humankind and the earth has been transformed because our civilization is suddenly capable of

    affecting the entire global environment, not just a particular area.

    Causes of the Change of Relationship between Man and the Earth. There are two main factors

    causing the change of the relationship: the population explosion and the scientific and technological

    revolution. The unrestrained use of technology in exploiting the earth may bring the same disaster as a nuclear war would.

    Solution to the Environmental Problems. We should realize that our power to harm the earth can

    indeed have global and permanent effects. We should realize that the only way to understand our new role as a co-architect of nature is to see ourselves as part of a complex system that does not operate according to the same simple rules of cause and effect we are used to. As a result, any

    solution to the problem will require a careful assessment of the relationship between the civilization and the earth’s ecological system.

    In Figure 9-1C, the subtopics in each paragraph are labeled with run-in, bold-faced headings for readers to catch the right information quickly. A bulleted list and a ragged-right margin make reading easier. 项目符号列表和留边不齐的右边缘更便于阅读。

1. White Space Used to Chunk Information 用于分隔信息的空白间隔

    White space is the part of any page that is blank. Although white space presents no information, it separates and signals chunks of information空白间隔用于分隔和显示信息块, and appropriate use

    of white space also makes documents more appealing更加引人注意. Once you have determined the

    chunks of information, you can separate these chunks by using white space and then label them with headings.

    White space is commonly used for margins, between lines within a paragraph (called leading

    间距), between paragraphs and sections of a document, and around visuals. Improper use of white

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    space may affect attractiveness of your document and make the reading difficult. Figure 9-2A and B illustrate the impact of white space in page design. Figure 9-2A is designed with crowded printing and skimpy margins拥挤的印刷和过窄的边缘空白, which make it hard to read; Figure 9-2B is

    designed with wider margins and more space between lines.

Figure 9-2A Skimpy White Space Figure 9-2B Appropriate White Space

     The heart-lung machine is an apparatus The heart-lung machine is an apparatus used for maintaining the circulation of blood supply used for maintaining the circulation of during a surgical operation when the patients blood supply during a surgical operation heart and lungs stop working. It bypasses and takes over the functions of the heart and the when the patients heart and lungs stop lungs. working. It bypasses and takes over the

    functions of the heart and the lungs.

    Three factors of white space affect the chunking of information. They are margins, justification and leading, which are discussed as follows.

    Margins页边空白. Margins are blank spaces bordering the printed area on a page. The four margins of a page usually have different widths. According to the printing convention, the top margin is the narrowest; the inner margins (gutters左右两页中间的空白,订口) are wider to leave

    enough room for the binding装订; the outer margin is wider still; and the bottom margins are

    usually the widest. Sometimes however, outside margins are even wider than bottom margins to provide space for note taking or for marginal notes that emphasize particular points. In a page design, you may take these principles to your advantage and make the page both effective and attractive.

Justification排列整齐;对齐. Justification means arranging the spacing within lines in a

    document so that the lines end evenly at a straight margin对齐指的是安排行内词的距离以便使各

    行长短一样. If all the lines of type on a page are exactly the same length, the lines have been justifiedadjusted to equal length by proportional spacing between words on each individual line. In printing, the left-hand margin is usually justified左对齐; the right-hand margin can be justified or

    unjustified. A justified right-hand margin gives a document a neat, clean appearance, as Figure 9-3 (a) shows; an unjustified right-hand margin is ragged参差不齐的, as Figure 9-3 (b) illustrates.

    Although editors traditionally prefer that both left and right margins be justified because it looks neat and more words can be fit on a page, fully justified text is not as easy to read as text with a ragged right margin. Because all the lines in a fully justified text are the same length, it’s easy for readers to lose their place.尽管编辑们在传统上要求左右边缘都对齐,两端对齐!,因为这样看

    起来整洁并且可以多排一些词;但是,完全对齐的文本不如右边缘不齐的文本容易读。由于

    在完全对齐的文本中所有的行都是一样的长度,很容易使读者读串行。

Figure 9-3. Justification

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Leading and Line Length行距与行的长度. Leading refers to the spacing between lines of type,

    usually measured in points. It is another way of chunking information that improves legibility易读

     and thus increases ease and speed of reading. Generally speaking, a text is easiest to read when it has line spacing that is one-and-one-half times the letter height.

    Lines that are too short make readers change lines so frequently as to slow down their reading speed, while lines that are too long are difficult to follow. However, the length of a line is mainly related to font size rather than to absolute line length. In general, font size larger than 12 points would remind people of their elementary school reading, while font size smaller than 7 points is too tiny to read easily. Figure 9-4 A and B illustrate how leading and line length can affect the ease of reading.

Figure 9-4A 8-point Arial, 8-point leading, full justification, and long lines

    Up to less than ten years ago viruses were looked upon as intangible entities in the existence of which no one would have believed had it not been for the undeniable reality of the diseases produced by them in every type of living organism. But the difficulty was that so many of the properties of viruses were entirely negative; you couldn’t see them, you couldn’t grow them in nutritive broth in the same way as bacteria, and you could not find them by examining the tissues or juices of their hosts.

    Figure 9-4B 8-point Arial, 12-point leading, ragged-right margin, and shorter lines Up to less than ten years ago viruses were looked upon as intangible entities in the existence

    of which no one would have believed had it not been for the undeniable reality of the diseases

    produced by them in every type of living organism. But the difficulty was that so many of the

    properties of viruses were entirely negative; you couldn’t see them, you couldn’t grow them in

    nutritive broth in the same way as bacteria, and you could not find them by examining the

    tissues or juices of their hosts.

    Although both the font size and font type are of the same in the two passages, the longer lines and narrower leading in Figure 9-4A make letters appear smaller and harder to read. On the other hand, the shorter lines and wider leading in Figure 9-4B make letters appear larger and easier to read.

2. Headings Used to Label Chunked Information用于给信息块加标记的标题

    Headings and subheadings show how a document is organized, point readers to what they need, and divide the document into accessible chunks. An informative heading提供有效信息的标题 can help

    a person decide whether a section is worth reading. Besides cutting down on reading and retrieval time, headings help readers remember information. 除了有利于减少阅读和检索时间外,标题还有

    助于读者记忆信息。Figure 9-5 shows various ways you can use to incorporate headings into your

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    documents. You may indicate the relative importance of each heading by using capitalization, type size, and typeface.

Figure 9-5 Heading Placement

    B

    A

    C

    In this figure, arrow A shows that headings can be pulled out of the text and placed in a separate column used specially for headings and annotations. Arrow B shows that subheadings can signal a change of topic. Arrow C shows headings for different columns.

    Actual documents usually have more complex headings and subheadings as shown in Figure 9-6. This figure shows a sequence of the title and some of the headings and subheadings from this chapter.

Figure 9-6 Distinguishing Headings and Subheadings

    Chapter title Document Design

    Level-1 heading 1 I. Chunking and Labeling Information

    Level-2 heading 1 1. White Space Used to Chunk Information

    Level-3 heading 1 Margins

    Level-3 heading 2 Justification

    Level-3 heading 3 Leading and Line Length

    Level-2 heading 2 2. Headings Used to Label Chunked Information

    Level-1 heading 2 II. Arranging Related Chunks of Verbal and Visual

     Information

    When headings show the relationships among all the parts, readers can grasp at a glance how a document is organized. Follow these suggestions for using headlines effectively:

     Generally use no more than four levels of headings. Excessive headings and subheadings

    make a document seem cluttered or fragmented, which may cause readers to lose their

    direction.

     Use different font sizes to indicate levels of headings. Set major heads in a larger font size.

     Insert one additional line of space above each heading. For single-spaced text, use double

    space before the heading, and single space after it; for double-spaced text, use triple space

    before the heading, and double space after it.

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     Divide headings logically. Be sure each higher-level heading yields at least two lower

    level headings.注意在上一级标题的下面至少要有两个下一级的标题。

     Don’t leave a heading floating as the final line of a page. Unless two lines of text can fit

    below the heading, carry it over to the top of the next page.不要把标题作为一页的最后

    一行。标题下至少要有两行词语,否则要把标题移至下一页的开头。

     Dont begin the sentence right after the heading with “this,” “it,” or some other pronoun

    referring to the heading. Make the meaning of the sentence independent of the heading.

    题后面或下面的第一句话不要用代表标题的“this”“it”或其他代词开头。要使句

    子的意思独立于标题。

     To help users navigate a long document with multiple sections or chapters, include a

    chapter or section heading across the top (headers) or bottom (footers) of each page.对于

    包含多个部分或章节的长文件,把各章或各部分标题作为每一页的页眉或页脚,以

    便读者浏览查阅。

II. Organizing Information

    After chunking and labeling information, you should integrate the related chunks of both verbal and visual information in an easily manageable way以便于进行文件处理的方式把文本和图像信息整

    合起来. You should design your page and the entire document for readers to catch the right information quickly and read with ease. You should also avoid some commonly occurring problems in arranging information.

1. Grids分栏

    The efficient way to design a document is to see the page as a grid with columns and rows that help you arrange the verbal and visual blocks. In most situations, people use one-column, two-column, or three-column grids, as shown in Figure 9-7.

Figure 9-7 Columns for Grids

    Different grids are appropriate for different purposes and audiences. For example, the one-column grid in Figure 9-7(a) could be used for technical reports and correspondence. The two-column grid in part (b) is typically used for manuals, brochures and journals. The three-column grid in part (c) could be for a corporate newsletter. You should be able to select the appropriate grids for your page design.

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2. Visuals图表

    Visuals such as graphs, charts and diagrams should be placed as near to the related text as possible. Readers dont like to turn back and forth constantly between the page they’re reading. They

    usually prefer visuals integrated into the text rather than placed in an appendix, unless several consecutive pages of visuals interrupt the flow of the text and distract the reader. Figure 9-8 shows several acceptable possibilities for incorporating visuals into your text.

Figure 9-8 Placement of Visuals

    A

    C

    B

    From Figure 9-8, we can see that visuals can be pulled out of the text entirely and placed in the margin, as is indicated by arrow A; they can be incorporated in the text, fitting into one column on the grid, as is signaled by arrow B; they can also take up the whole or part of a grids column, as is

    indicated by arrow C.

3. Avoiding Problems in Information Organization避免信息组织中的问题

    When you organize information for document design, you should be careful with some commonly occurring problems. They are heading placement, tombstoning, widows and orphans.

    Heading Placement标题位置. In arranging the text in your document, if you leave too few lines after a heading or subheading at the top or bottom of a column or page, readers may feel the heading and the text are not quite coherent. Figure 9-9 (a) shows the problem of not leaving at least three lines in a column (or on a page) before beginning a new heading or having at least three lines following a new heading at the bottom of a column. Figure 9-9 (b) shows that the problem is rectified by including a few more lines.

Figure 9-9 Placement of Headings

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Avoiding Tombstoning避免标题的墓碑式排列. The problem of tombstoning involves aligning

    headings in two or three columns so that readers may mistakenly chunk the text when they look at the page标题的墓碑式排列问题是位于两栏或三栏中的标题排列在同一行上,这有可能造成读

    者错误地分割文本信息. In Figure 9-10 (a), two headings fall into one line, resembling tomb stones in a graveyard. Readers could easily believe that the top half of the page was one section and the bottom half was another. Figure 9-10 (b) shows that you can rearrange the headings to avoid this potential confusion.

Figure 9-10 Tombstoning

Avoiding Widows and Orphans避免单词行和孤立行. The problem of widows and orphans

    concerns the text arrangement. Widows are leftover wordsone or two words hanging on as the last

    line of a paragraph.单词行指的是在段落的最后一行只有一个或两个词。 You can revise the

    sentences in the paragraph by adding or deleting a few words so that one or two are not left on the last line alone. Orphans are leftover lines. An orphan happens when a column break (or page break) occurs in a paragraph before the last line (or after the first line) of the paragraph (see Figure 9-11). 孤立行是与上文或下文相关但被分栏符或分页符分开的文本的一行。You can arrange column or

    page breaks after a few lines rather than at the very beginning or end of a paragraph.

Figure 9-11. Widows and Orphans

    Orphans

    Widows

III. Emphasizing Information强调信息

    After you have chunked, labeled, and arranged the information in a document, you may still need to highlight certain portions of the text to make some particular points more accessible, comprehensible,

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and usable. Typographic elements 排印成分such as typeface, type size, type style, bullets, icons,

    underlining, shading, boxing, and color, are important for creating emphasis.

1. Typeface字体

    Typeface is the surface or appearance of a block of type. It may affect reader’s reactions to a

    document and their ability to read the text easily and quickly. Document design requires that you know some basic characteristics about typefaces.

Serif or Sans Serif衬线和无衬线字体. Typefaces can be either serif or sans serif. Serifs are the

    tiny fine lines at the top or bottom of letters. The following are examples of uppercase and lowercase versions of the letter r and y in serif and sans serif typefaces:

    serif: R r Y y (14-point Times New Roman(14点新罗马体)

    sans serif: R r Y y (14-point Arial(14点无衬线体)

    Sans serif typefaces have a neat, appealing appearance and are often used for short documents. Thus business letters and documents for children, the elderly, people with visual impairments or disabilities and people with learning disabilities are often printed in sans serif typefaces. On the other hand, serif typefaces make a long printed body more readable because the horizontal lines (serifs) bind the individual letter and thereby guide the readers eyes from letter to letter. Thus, long

    documents (for example, long technical reports, journal articles and textbooks) often use a serif typeface so that readers won’t tire so quickly.

    Typeface Variations. With your word processor, you can choose various typefaces. However, you should select the typeface according to the kind of document and your sense of how the readers will react. Readers are discouraged if typefaces are inappropriate for the document or situation, or are difficult to read. The following three sentences, printed in different typefaces, tell the general function of each.

     This typeface is called Edwardian Script爱德华手写体 and is usually used only for social

    announcements.

     This typeface is called Arial and is often used for standard business letters.

     This typeface is called Times New Roman and is often used for typesetting lengthy reports

    and books.

2. Type Size字号

    The size of the type can also affect readers. Unusually small type in an instruction manual would make it difficult for users to read and thus reduce its usability. On the other hand, unnecessarily large type can make a document seem elementary because people associate large type with children’s

    reading. People generally use 10 to 12 point点(印刷的字体与行距测量点位(in the UK and US

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