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7 Ethics and Documentation TP

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7 Ethics and Documentation TP

    Chapter 7

    Ethics and Documentation交际伦理与文献引证

    The word ethic means moral custombeliefs about good or bad behavior. Ethics can refer to

    individual standards of behavior, standards of a particular group, or universal standards. In this chapter, ethic specifically refers to the standard governing the conduct for a particular groupthose

    who communicate technical information.

    Documentation means supporting statements in a book or article with in-text citations and reference lists. 使用引证和和参考文献表来支持文中的陈述。If you write for publication, you

    will be required to document your sources. Writers acknowledge their sources in order to increase their credibility and avoid plagiarism. They document their sources as a service to the reader by providing the information that allows the reader to locate the original source of the information cited.

I. Intellectual Property and Ethics知识产权与伦理

    In writing you must respect the intellectual property of others and give complete credit to those whose information you use. Failing to acknowledge the ideas of others is unethical; publishing the ideas of others as your own is illegal. 在写作中要尊重他人的知识产权:并对引用的信息说明材

    料来源。未能承认他人的意见是不道德的:把他人的意见作为自己的意见发表是违法的。

    Therefore, you must document the sources of all ideas or expressions that are neither your own nor common knowledge.

    However, it is often difficult to distinguish just what is common knowledge and what is not. Common knowledge refers to facts and ideas that are widely known and available from a number of sources. Read the following examples and tell which expresses common knowledge and which should be documented.

    1) The Mars is the fourth planet from the sun.

    2) The Mars has a sidereal period 恒星周期of revolution around the sun of 687 days at a

    mean distance平均距离 of 227.8 million kilometers and a mean diameter二次平均直径

    of approximately 6,726 kilometers.

    3) There are living organisms on the Mars.

    The first two sentences are common knowledge because they are generally recognized knowledge that can be found in common textbooks, dictionaries and encyclopedias. However, because there is some disagreement over whether there are really living organisms on the Mars, the third statement should be documented.

    One popular problem now is the widespread availability of information on the Internet. Information gets passed around very quickly through the World Wide Web. You should avoid the temptation to simply download information from the Internet and use it, without giving credit. Even if you don‟t know whom to give credit to, you should at least cite the source.

II. Incorporating Source Material in Your Writing把原始资料引入文章

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    In technical writing you may frequently use the ideas you have learned from others through your reading. Reporting the results of reading can be as important as the research itself. Generally there are three methods of reporting the results of your reading.

     Quotation: using the author‟s exact words

     Paraphrase: putting the ideas into your own words

     Summary: condensing the ideas into a shorter passage

1. Quotations

    Quotations are direct citations from the previous works of others or your own. Quotations are accurate, but they can be lengthy and difficult to understand. In general, you should only use direct citations when you cannot say the same thing more clearly or more concisely than the original, or when the original language is so distinctive that you would lose something in a paraphrase or a summary.

    Quotations are introduced and closed with double quotation marks. For clarity, you should incorporate quotations into the text as much as possible:

    Stickle et al. reported that “the patients who received nifedipine were about half as likely to

    need an aortic-valve replacement as those who took digoxin over the next five years” (1996).

    斯狄科等报告说:“在以后的五年中:服用心痛定的患者需要行主动脉瓣替换手术的比服

    用地高辛的患者低50%。”;1996,。

    To indicate a quotation within a quotation, use single quotation marks:

    The Medical Quarterly reported that “Taylor found „spirochete-like elements‟ in skin-biopsy

    specimens of erythema chronicum migrans.”《医学季刊》报告说:“泰勒发现在慢性游走性

    红斑病的活检标本有‘类螺旋菌成分’”。

    Use ellipses省略号 to indicate omitted material. If the omission occurs within a sentence, use three periods with a space before and after each period to indicate omitted material: 如果省略出现在句

    子里面:使用三个句号并在每一个句号前后空一格。

    ORIGINAL PASSAGE:

    The disaster of the space shuttle Challenger in 1986, which killed all seven astronauts on board,

    is regarded as the most disastrous space-traveling accident in history.

    ELLIPTICAL QUOTATION:

    The disaster of the space shuttle Challenger in 1986 . . . is regarded as the most disastrous

    space-traveling accident in history.

    You can use brackets to clarify something in the original that might not be clear to the reader. For example, since the reader might not know what the pronoun “it” refers to in the following

    citation, the writer has added the reference in brackets:

    Taylor claims that, “Indeed, if it [the virus] exists, it may be much shorter lived in animals than

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    in human beings.”

    You can also use brackets to show that an error in the text appears in the original. The most common way of indicating an error in a quotation which is not the writer‟s mistake is to place “sic” (Latin for

    “thus” or “so”) within brackets:

    The epidemic is nondiscriminating, as it effects [sic] both sexes and all ages. ;此处本应该

    affects

    If the quoted material is lengthy, you should set it off as an indented block缩排的信息块.

    There is little agreement among technical writing as to exactly what “lengthy” means and just how many spaces to indent. A general rule to follow is that if the quoted material runs longer than four lines, youd better indent the passage five spaces with single space between the lines. Do not enclose the passage in quotation marks but set it in italics.

    We think they (Chinese colleagues) need to continue along this line (teaching vocabulary) but

    we also think they should make additional efforts in a somewhat different direction. For

    example, they could take advantage of the current ESP courses to introduce rhetorical issues,

    such as audience, purpose, information selection, and page layout. When both instructors and

    students feel more comfortable, other rhetorical issues may be introduced. (Ding & Jablonski,

    2001, p. 432)

    Be careful when you copy information, and double-check when you edit. If you spell a source‟s

    name wrong, if you write the wrong date, if you transpose numbers, or if you inadvertently give the wrong page number in your documentation, that error might well cause a reader to question all your facts.

2. Paraphrase

    Paraphrase means to restate the ideas of others in a more easily understood form. Generally, a paraphrase is about the same length as the original passage, and is used when a writer wants to include many of the details in the original:

    ORIGINAL PASSAGE:

    The instability of the heavy elements relative to those of mass number around 60, as is shown

    by the binding energy curve, suggests the possibility of spontaneous decomposition of the

    heavy elements into fragments of approximately half size.

    结合能曲线显示:同原子量在60左右的元素相比:重元素是不稳定的:这说明重元素有

    可能自发分裂成两个大小大致相等的碎片。

    PARAPHRASE:

    The binding energy curve shows that heavy elements are less stable than those of mass number

    around 60. This suggests that the heavy elements can possibly split up by themselves into parts

    of about half size.

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    The original is a long sentence with complex structures, including nominalization and too many modifiers. The paraphrase simplifies the structure by dividing the original into two sentences, and converting nominalization (instability, possibility, decomposition) into verbs or adjectives (less stable, possibly, split up). Thus the meaning of the passage becomes clearer and easier to understand.

3. Summary

    A summary also retells the idea of the original but is much briefer than the original. It reflects the language and tone of the original, and is used when the writer does not want to include many details in the original. The following is an example of a summary.

    ORIGINAL PASSAGE:

    Laser light is very different from ordinary light. The light from a flashlight, for example, is

    incoherent, that is, it travels in all directions. Laser light is coherent, which is to say that the

    outer edges of the beam are almost perfectly parallel to each other. A laser beam one-half inch

    in diameter will diverge to become only three inches in diameter after traveling more than one

    mile; or, to look at it another way, that half inch beam, if fired from the earth to the moon,

    would illuminate an area on the lunar surface only slightly greater than one mile in diameter. By

    focusing the laser beam through a lens system, even smaller areas of coverage can be achieved.

    Laser light, in addition to being coherent, is also monochromatic. Ordinary light is

    polychromatic, which means it consists of all light frequencies ranging from infrared to

    ultraviolet. Laser light normally consists of only one frequency or at most a few frequencies.

    激光与普通光有很大不同。例如:从手电筒中发出的光是不相干的:也就是说:它向各

    个方向传播。激光是相干光:也就是说:光束的外缘是几乎完全相互平行的。直径为一

    英寸的一束激光在传播一英里多之后直径只扩散到直径3英寸~用另一种方式讲:如果

    把直径为半英寸的激光束照射到月球上去:光束只会覆盖直径略大于一英里的月面。如

    果用透镜系统对激光束进行聚焦:激光束的扩散面会更小。激光除了具有相干性之外:

    还具有单色性。普通光是多色的:包含从红外线到紫外线的所有频率的光波。激光通常

    只含有一个频率:至多不过几个频率。

    SUMMARY:

    Laser light is different from ordinary light in that laser light is a kind of parallel light which

    consists of only one color or one frequency, whereas ordinary light is a kind of unparallel light

    which consists of all colors or all light frequencies.

    Summary is the most frequently used form for reporting the results of your reading. In writing summaries you should make complex ideas more easily understandable by using more familiar language. You need to combine information from several sources in the same summary section, rearrange the material, and delete the material that is not important to your writing.

     Guidelines for Incorporating Source Material 4.

    Audience

     If your readers are experts, you will not have to define many terms or offer many

    paraphrases. A direct quotation may be necessary.

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     If your material is highly technical and your readers are novices, they will likely need

    summaries and paraphrases that they can understand.

     If readers are concerned primarily in getting a general understanding of the material than

    in absorbing details, you may use more summary than paraphrase.

     If readers are looking for information to help them make a decision, they will likely be

    looking for summaries that will help them make those decisions.

     If your readers are looking for detailed information, you will likely include a lot of details

    in your paraphrases.