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key points of the lectures

By Dustin Baker,2014-06-20 13:55
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key points of the lectures

    Lecture One Manuscript Form

    ?4. Writing test forms & requirements in TEM-4

     Two sections of writing tested in TEM-4: Section A (Composition) (15 marks)

    & Section B (Note-writing) (10

    marks)

    1) Section A: Composition (200 words in 35 minutes )

    Youre required to write a composition of about 200 words on a certain topic implied in the given context. Generally speaking, marks will be awarded for content,

    organization, grammar, and appropriacy.

     Namely, writing a composition of about 200 words according to the given title/outline/instructions/figure statistics, etc., right grammar, accurate words, fluent expressions, relevant content, rigid organization, and proper style are required.

     The writing style may be argumentative, expositive, narrative, and descriptive. In most cases, the former two styles are tested in TEM-4, esp., argumentative. The topic of a composition tested in TEM-4 is usually about college students’ life, study, and

    heated social problems, etc. which students are familiar with.(The Best Way to Stay Healthy 2002; To Save Money or Not 2006; My View on University Art Festival 2005)

    2) Section B: Note-writing (50-60 words in 10 minutes)

    (1) Note-writing is a type of informal letters, generally including Notices, Notes,

    Greetings, Letters, Invitations, Congratulations, Inquires, etc.

    (2) Note-writing in TEM-4 includes Date, Addressing/Heading, Body, Closing, and

    Signature in terms of format.

    (3) Content

     Youre required to write a note based on the given situations. Marks will be

    awarded for content, organization, grammar, and appropriacy. Here, grammar

    mistakes & spelling errors will result in a loss of many marks. (4) Your note cannot have words more than 80 nor less than 40.

1. General principles of writing the title

    1) Write the title in the middle of the first line of a page;

    2) Capitalize the key words in the title (including words following hyphens in compound words);

    3) Not capitalize articles (a, an, the), coordinating conjunctions (and, or, but, nor,

    for, ), short prepositions(in, on, at, to, for..), nor the to in infinitives; but if one f

    them is at the beginning of a title, it should be capitalized; 4)No period is used at the end of a title;

     (Use a question mark if the title is a direct question, but do not use one if it is an

    indirect question);

    5) Use quotation marks with quotes or titles of articles;

    6) Underline/ italicize names of books.

     ?Note: You can capitalize each letter of the words in the title (full capitalization),

    or you can capitalize the initial letter of key words in the title. IV. Capitalization

    Capitals are used mainly at three places:

    1. Capitalize the first words of a sentence;

     Not only a complete sentence, but a sentence fragment treated as a sentence in

    order to create a special effect in some novels/prose, should begin with a capital

    letter.

     For example: Money. Money. Money. It makes the world go round.

    2. Capitalize the title /a work of art;

    3. Capitalize proper nouns and their abbreviations;

     Proper nouns are the names of specific people, places, or things, names that set off

    the individual form the species. The following are all proper nouns:

    Names and nicknames of people John F. Kennedy, Stonewall Jackson

    Names of geographical places & Asia, the U.S.A., the Great Lakes

    political units

    Official names of organization and the U.S., Department of Defense,

    religions Buddhism, Christian

    Days of the week, months, special days Monday, July, Christmas

    Ethnic groups, nationalities, and their English, Americans, Japanese

    languages

    Names of prizes, treaties, and famous the Nobel Prize

    documents the Declaration of Independence

    Names of a piece of an article, a Pride and Prejudice,

    book

    Names of streets, buildings, parks, and Broadway, Central Park, Sony, the

    companies Empire State Building

    Military and civilian titles General MacArthur

    Academic degrees Ph. D.

    V. Word Division

    Never squeeze a word into the margin; you have to decide whether to divide the word or to write it on the next line. There are some principles of dividing words.

    The general principle of dividing a word according to its syllables.

    Some other principles:

    1. One-syllable words like thought, park cannot be divided;

    2. Do not write one letter of a word at the end or at the beginning of a line, even if

    that one letter makes up a syllable, such as a-wake, rain-y;

    3. Do not put a two-letter syllable at the beginning of a line, like hat-ed, cab-in;

    4. Avoid separating proper names of people or places, such as Chi-na, Pa-ris;

    5. Divide hyphenated words only at the hyphen: sister-in-law, second-handed,

    well-known;

    6. Do not divide words in a way that may mislead the reader: re-ally, pea=cock;

    7. Do not divide the last word on a page; you may write the whole word on the next

    page;

    8. Divide words with prefixes or suffixes between the prefix or suffix and the base

    part of the word, such as develop-ment, un-like, careful-ness, ir-regular,

    9. Divide two-syllables words with double consonants between the two consonants:

    set-ting, quar-rel, bet-ter.

    VI. Punctuation

    1.The general uses of punctuations:

    1) Put one space after punctuation;

    2) Put no space before punctuation, but always put a space between words;

    Exceptions: a. put 2 spaces after colon (:) and between sentences,

     b. put no space after periods/stops (.) inside abbreviations,

     c. put no space before or after an apostrophe (——),

     d. put no space on the inside of parentheses[ ( ) ].

    3) Put end-of sentence punctuation inside quotation marks ( );

     E.g.: ---Did you go the zoo yesterday? she asked her son.

     ---Yes, I did, he said. ―I had a good time there.

    4) Put commas (,) and other punctuation outside of parentheses; 5) Put a comma & a space before and, but, or, nor when they join 2 dependent

    clauses within a sentence;

    6) If you use an adj.-plus-noun/adv.-adj./ phrase to modify another noon, this kind

    of phrase should be joined with hyphen (-), (e.g.: two-part solution; )

    7) Names of newspapers, books, movies, ships, magazines, journals, and poems are

    usually italicized or underlined;

    8) Ellipsis() is used to show that something has been omitted (three dots only); 9) The semicolon (;) is not used widely in English and probably should be avoided

    by non-native speakers/writers

    ?2. Quotation marks & the quoted speech

    1) Double quotation marks are used to enclose direct quotations either in

    dialogue or from a book; single quotation marks are used to enclose a

    quotation within a quotation.

    (1) Chomsky suggested that, Language is a system that can be described in an

    algebraic notation.

    (2) Clinton said, How do you like my budget?

    2) When other marks of punctuation are used with quoted words, phrases, or

    sentences, American practices are as follows:

    The period (.) & the comma (,) are placed within the quotation marks,

    A. 如果一句话的成分被说话动词隔开(包括主、谓语/主、从句/呼语与句子等的隔开)( 中间都

    用“(”( 只需大写被引用句中的第一个单词的首字母!特殊的专有名词除外,。

    (3) Bob, she said, Ive lost my globes.

    (4) After that, she says, he go home and spend a sleepless night. (P283)

    (5) All right, ―I say, but make it fast. (Contemporary College English II P282)

    (6) Im trying to get you to admit, she says, that other people might know what

    love is besides you. (P286)

    B. 但说话动词前后各有独立的句子时(第二个被引用的句子仍要大写第一个单词的首字母。

    并且(第一个被引用的句子内部用“(”!是问句时问号用在引号内部,(“。”用在说

    话动词后。

    (7) But he does make me happy, she says. He