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key points of the lectures

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key points of the lectures

    Lecture One Manuscript Form

    ?4. Writing test forms & requirements in TEM-4

     Two sections of writing tested in TEM-4: Section A (Composition) (15 marks)

    & Section B (Note-writing) (10

    marks)

    1) Section A: Composition (200 words in 35 minutes )

    Youre required to write a composition of about 200 words on a certain topic implied in the given context. Generally speaking, marks will be awarded for content,

    organization, grammar, and appropriacy.

     Namely, writing a composition of about 200 words according to the given title/outline/instructions/figure statistics, etc., right grammar, accurate words, fluent expressions, relevant content, rigid organization, and proper style are required.

     The writing style may be argumentative, expositive, narrative, and descriptive. In most cases, the former two styles are tested in TEM-4, esp., argumentative. The topic of a composition tested in TEM-4 is usually about college students’ life, study, and

    heated social problems, etc. which students are familiar with.(The Best Way to Stay Healthy 2002; To Save Money or Not 2006; My View on University Art Festival 2005)

    2) Section B: Note-writing (50-60 words in 10 minutes)

    (1) Note-writing is a type of informal letters, generally including Notices, Notes,

    Greetings, Letters, Invitations, Congratulations, Inquires, etc.

    (2) Note-writing in TEM-4 includes Date, Addressing/Heading, Body, Closing, and

    Signature in terms of format.

    (3) Content

     Youre required to write a note based on the given situations. Marks will be

    awarded for content, organization, grammar, and appropriacy. Here, grammar

    mistakes & spelling errors will result in a loss of many marks. (4) Your note cannot have words more than 80 nor less than 40.

1. General principles of writing the title

    1) Write the title in the middle of the first line of a page;

    2) Capitalize the key words in the title (including words following hyphens in compound words);

    3) Not capitalize articles (a, an, the), coordinating conjunctions (and, or, but, nor,

    for, ), short prepositions(in, on, at, to, for..), nor the to in infinitives; but if one f

    them is at the beginning of a title, it should be capitalized; 4)No period is used at the end of a title;

     (Use a question mark if the title is a direct question, but do not use one if it is an

    indirect question);

    5) Use quotation marks with quotes or titles of articles;

    6) Underline/ italicize names of books.

     ?Note: You can capitalize each letter of the words in the title (full capitalization),

    or you can capitalize the initial letter of key words in the title. IV. Capitalization

    Capitals are used mainly at three places:

    1. Capitalize the first words of a sentence;

     Not only a complete sentence, but a sentence fragment treated as a sentence in

    order to create a special effect in some novels/prose, should begin with a capital

    letter.

     For example: Money. Money. Money. It makes the world go round.

    2. Capitalize the title /a work of art;

    3. Capitalize proper nouns and their abbreviations;

     Proper nouns are the names of specific people, places, or things, names that set off

    the individual form the species. The following are all proper nouns:

    Names and nicknames of people John F. Kennedy, Stonewall Jackson

    Names of geographical places & Asia, the U.S.A., the Great Lakes

    political units

    Official names of organization and the U.S., Department of Defense,

    religions Buddhism, Christian

    Days of the week, months, special days Monday, July, Christmas

    Ethnic groups, nationalities, and their English, Americans, Japanese

    languages

    Names of prizes, treaties, and famous the Nobel Prize

    documents the Declaration of Independence

    Names of a piece of an article, a Pride and Prejudice,

    book

    Names of streets, buildings, parks, and Broadway, Central Park, Sony, the

    companies Empire State Building

    Military and civilian titles General MacArthur

    Academic degrees Ph. D.

    V. Word Division

    Never squeeze a word into the margin; you have to decide whether to divide the word or to write it on the next line. There are some principles of dividing words.

    The general principle of dividing a word according to its syllables.

    Some other principles:

    1. One-syllable words like thought, park cannot be divided;

    2. Do not write one letter of a word at the end or at the beginning of a line, even if

    that one letter makes up a syllable, such as a-wake, rain-y;

    3. Do not put a two-letter syllable at the beginning of a line, like hat-ed, cab-in;

    4. Avoid separating proper names of people or places, such as Chi-na, Pa-ris;

    5. Divide hyphenated words only at the hyphen: sister-in-law, second-handed,

    well-known;

    6. Do not divide words in a way that may mislead the reader: re-ally, pea=cock;

    7. Do not divide the last word on a page; you may write the whole word on the next

    page;

    8. Divide words with prefixes or suffixes between the prefix or suffix and the base

    part of the word, such as develop-ment, un-like, careful-ness, ir-regular,

    9. Divide two-syllables words with double consonants between the two consonants:

    set-ting, quar-rel, bet-ter.

    VI. Punctuation

    1.The general uses of punctuations:

    1) Put one space after punctuation;

    2) Put no space before punctuation, but always put a space between words;

    Exceptions: a. put 2 spaces after colon (:) and between sentences,

     b. put no space after periods/stops (.) inside abbreviations,

     c. put no space before or after an apostrophe (——),

     d. put no space on the inside of parentheses[ ( ) ].

    3) Put end-of sentence punctuation inside quotation marks ( );

     E.g.: ---Did you go the zoo yesterday? she asked her son.

     ---Yes, I did, he said. ―I had a good time there.

    4) Put commas (,) and other punctuation outside of parentheses; 5) Put a comma & a space before and, but, or, nor when they join 2 dependent

    clauses within a sentence;

    6) If you use an adj.-plus-noun/adv.-adj./ phrase to modify another noon, this kind

    of phrase should be joined with hyphen (-), (e.g.: two-part solution; )

    7) Names of newspapers, books, movies, ships, magazines, journals, and poems are

    usually italicized or underlined;

    8) Ellipsis() is used to show that something has been omitted (three dots only); 9) The semicolon (;) is not used widely in English and probably should be avoided

    by non-native speakers/writers

    ?2. Quotation marks & the quoted speech

    1) Double quotation marks are used to enclose direct quotations either in

    dialogue or from a book; single quotation marks are used to enclose a

    quotation within a quotation.

    (1) Chomsky suggested that, Language is a system that can be described in an

    algebraic notation.

    (2) Clinton said, How do you like my budget?

    2) When other marks of punctuation are used with quoted words, phrases, or

    sentences, American practices are as follows:

    The period (.) & the comma (,) are placed within the quotation marks,

    A. 如果一句话的成分被说话动词隔开(包括主、谓语/主、从句/呼语与句子等的隔开)( 中间都

    用“(”( 只需大写被引用句中的第一个单词的首字母!特殊的专有名词除外,。

    (3) Bob, she said, Ive lost my globes.

    (4) After that, she says, he go home and spend a sleepless night. (P283)

    (5) All right, ―I say, but make it fast. (Contemporary College English II P282)

    (6) Im trying to get you to admit, she says, that other people might know what

    love is besides you. (P286)

    B. 但说话动词前后各有独立的句子时(第二个被引用的句子仍要大写第一个单词的首字母。

    并且(第一个被引用的句子内部用“(”!是问句时问号用在引号内部,(“。”用在说

    话动词后。

    (7) But he does make me happy, she says. Hes absolutely ideal for me.

    (8) You are not making sense,‖Arthur said. Youd better leave. (P252)

    (9) It wont take long to explain, replied Mr. Steward. May I come in? (P251)

    (10) Which of us is cruel? I ask her. Me or Jocelyn? (P284)

    C. 如果引用的话是用“;”被说话动作分开的两个并列分句(则把分号防在说话动词后面(

    第一个被引用的分句后在引号内用逗号。

    (11) It is quite warm for the time of the year, said Frampton; but has that window

    got anything to do with the tragedy? (P220)

    (12) I hope you dont mind the open window, said Mrs. Appleton briskly; my

    husband and brothers will be home directly from shooting. (P221 )

    D. The dash , ?, ! are placed within the quotation marks when

    they are connected only with the quoted words, as shown in (9), (10),

    (15); they are placed outside when they are connected with the whole

    sentence.

    (13) What is the meaning of New Criticism?

    (14) Help! Help! she cried.

    (15) She asked what does modernism mean?

    (16) How do you know all this? the Duke asked.

    I. Sentence of different types

    A. Declarative, Interrogative, Imperative and Exclamatory Sentences According to their use, sentences are declarative, interrogative, imperative or exclamatory. A

    declarative sentence makes an assertion or a statement. An interrogative sentence asks a question.

    An imperative sentence expresses a command or a request. An exclamatory sentence expresses a strong feeling or emotion, such as surprise, pain, or joy.

    B. Simple, Compound, Complex, and Compound-Complex Sentences

    According to their structure, sentences are simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex.

    SIMPLE SENTENCE: subject +predicate-verb

    A simple sentence has only one subject and one predicate-verb,

    COMPOUND SENTENCE: simple sentences + simple sentence (of equal weight /

    importance)

    A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses (or simple sentences) related to each other in meaning, and linked by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, so, for, etc.) or by a semicolon without a conjunction. Coordinated ideas should be compatible and roughly equal in importance, or take shape one by one in orderly sequence.

    COMPLEX SENTENCE: main clause + subordinate clause (to emphasize one idea over another)

    A complex sentence contains one main (or principal) clause and one or more dependent (or subordinate) clauses, with a connective word denoting the relation between the two parts. The dependent clause may play the part of a subject, an object, a predicative, an attribute, or an adverbial in the main clause. As a rule, the major idea is expressed in the main clause and the idea or ideas of lesser importance in the subordinate clauses.

    e.g. 1. The government banned the high-blood-pressure pills because they produced side effects.

     2. Although the shop advertised same-day service, my car was not ready

    for three days.

     3. These apple trees, which my father planted three years ago, have not borne any fruit.

     COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE :simple sentence(s) + complex sentence(s)

    A compound-complex sentence contains at least two main clauses and at least one dependent clausea combination of a compound and a complex sentence.

    e.g.

    1. After I returned to school following a long illness, the math teacher gave me make-up work, but the history teacher made me drop her course.

     2. When the power line snapped, Tom was listening to the stereo, and Teresa was reading in bed.

     3. Lisa disliked walking home from the bus stop, because the street had no overhead light and it was lined with abandoned buildings.

C. Loose and Periodic Sentences

    A loose sentence puts the main idea before all supplementary information; in other words, it puts first things first, and lets the reader know what it is mainly about when he has read the first few words. The reverse arrangement makes a periodic sentence: the main idea is expressed at or near the end of it, and it is not grammatically complete until the end is reached. The reader does not know what it is mainly about until he fin E) The periodic sentence

    Rhetorically, we have two types of sentences: periodic sentences and loose sentences. A periodic sentence is one in which the thought is not complete until the very end of the sentence. Often this type of sentence is more effective than one in which the main thought is given first, followed by one or more modifying clauses or phrases. It is because withholding the key word or words of the sentence until the end creates a sense of anticipation in the reader. Therefore, a periodic sentence is likely to be more emphatic than a sentence with a loose construction. D. Short and Long Sentences

    Short sentences are usually emphatic, whereas long sentences are capable of expressing complex ideas with precision, because it may contain many modifiers.

    Short sentences are suitable for the presentation of important facts and ideas, and long sentences for the explanation of views and theories, or the description of things with many details.

    In contrast to short sentences, long sentences are particularly useful for presenting a set of complex, interlocking ideas. They are common in legal, political and theoretical writing, which depends on modification for accuracy. In fiction long sentences are sometimes used to describe a person, a thing or a scene.

    Mrs. Chalmers was kind of fat and her hair was pretty blond and her complexion was soft and pink and she always looked as though she had been in the beauty parlor all afternoon. She always said ―My, you’re getting to be a big boy‖ to Peter when she met him in the elevator, in a soft voice, as though she was just about to laugh. She must have said that fifty times by now. She had a good, strong smell of perfume on her all the time, too. Mr. Chalmers wore pince-nez glasses

    most of the time and he was getting bald and he worked late at his office a good many evenings of the week. When he met Peter in the elevator he would say, ―It’s getting colder,‖ or ―It’s getting

    warmer,‖ and that was all, so Peter had no opinion about him, except that he looked like the principal of a school. But now Mrs. Chalmers was on her knees in the vestibule and her dress was torn and she was crying and there were black streaks on her cheeks and she didn’t look as though she’d just come from the beauty parlor. And Mr. Chalmers wasn’t wearing a jacket and he didn’t have his glasses on and what hair he had was mussed all over his head and he was leaning against the Early American wallpaper making this animal noise, and he had a big, heavy pistol in his hand and he was pointing it right at Mrs. Chalmers.

    ---Irwin Shaw

    Although series of short and long sentences can both be effective in individual situations, frequent alternation in sentence length characterize much memorable writing. After one or more long sentences that express complex ideas or images, the pitch of a short sentence can be refreshing. Look at the following example:

    We are now so easily misled by vision. Most of the things before our eyes are plainly there, not mistakable for other things except for the illusions created by professional magicians and, sometimes, the look of the light of downtown New York against a sky so black as to make it seem a near view of eternity. Our eyes are not easy to fool.

    Similarly, a long sentence that follows a series of short ones can serve as a climax or summing-up that relaxes the tension or fulfills that expectation created by the series, giving readers a sense of completion. Here is a good example:

    We now have, as a result of modern means of communication, hundreds of words flung at us daily. We are constantly being talked at, by teachers, preachers, salesmen, public officials, and motion-picture sound tracks. The cries of advertisers pursue us into our very home, thanks to the TVand in some houses

    the TV is never turned off from morning to night. Daily the newsboy brings us, in large cities, from thirty to fifty enormous pages of print, and almost three times that amount on Sunday. We go out and get more words at bookstores and libraries. Words fill our lives.

Conclusive remarks:

    Functionally, declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences;

    Grammatically, simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences;

    Rhetorically, loose, periodic, (long, short), and balanced sentences

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