; It covers the first half of the 19th century.
; Pre-Romanticism –the beginning stage (1781-1830)
; Post-Romanticism；30 years’ flowering time (1830-1860);10 years’ declining time
; Major figures: Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry
David Thoreau, Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville,
William Cullen Bryant, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, Edgar
1. the nation’s political independence; ideals of democracy and equality; westward expansion 2. Literary milieu
1.European romantic movement
2.English romantic movement
Sir Walter Scott: his border tales and Waverley romances
Mrs Radcliffe ect. and “graveyard” poets: the Gothic novel, short stories and poems
Poetry: Burns and Byron etc.: lyrics
Distinct features of A. R.
1.Full of optimistic spirit, stressed individual dignity and value, believed that human nature was of good will
2.New materials for lit. creation: landscape of the new world, puritan colonial and revolutionary history, westward expansion
4.Influence of Puritanism : moralize rather than entertain, careful in approaching love and sex
American author, essayist, biographer and historian of the early 19th century. He was best
known for his short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle", both of which
appear in his book The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent.
James Fenimore Cooper
a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. He is best remembered as a novelist who wrote numerous sea-stories and the historical novels known as the Leatherstocking
Tales, featuring frontiersman Natty Bumppo. Among his most famous works is the Romantic
novel The Last of the Mohicans, which many consider to be his masterpiece
Preview: New England Transcendentalism, and Emerson