Unit 8 Lesson 16 Friendship
By Ralph Waldo Emerson
maugre / 'mɔ:ɡə/ prep. notwithstanding; in spite of But, maugre all hardships, they pursued their journey cheerily .虽然诸多
Nature says, he is my creature, and maugre all his impertinent griefs, he
shall be glad with me.大自然说(他是我的孩子(尽管有再多莫名的痛
ether / 'i:θə / n. the clear sky天空(太空：晴空;苍穹： 乙醚
rejoice in(at /over) v. to feel or show great happiness about sth.
He often rejoices at other people's misfortunes.他常常对别人幸灾乐祸。
The ball fans rejoiced over the news of their team's victory.这些球迷听
The admission notice he received from the university rejoiced his
exhilaration / iɡ,zilə'reiʃən / n. excitement and happiness benevolence / bi'nevələns / n. kindness
complacency / [kəm'pleisənsi / n. a feeling of calm
irradiation [i,reidi'eiʃən] n. the act of exposing to radiation or the
condition of being so exposed照射：发光(放射
meditation / ,medi'teiʃən / n. serious thought or study
forthwith / 'fɔ:θ'wið / adv. immediately立刻(立即：不犹豫地
These violations of the code must cease forthwith. 这些违犯法规的行为
invest v. to surround with troops or ships; besiege包围
palpitation / ,pælpi'teiʃən / n. irregular, rapid beating of the heart心
commend v. to formally praise someone or sth.; to express approval of 称赞(表扬(推荐
14；betwixt / bi'twikst / prep. between
14；get up ， to organize a group of people to do sth.
15；wont / wəunt, wʌnt, wɔnt / adj. 习惯于accustomed,(postpositive)
If you are wont to do sth., you have the habit of doing it. He was wont to come early.
Some of our comrades are wont to take radical measures, thinking they can do better without the help of people from the upper strata. 我们有些同志往往采取激进的办法(以为不通过上层分子能搞得更
n. a manner or action habitually employed by or associated with someone (often in the phrase: as is my wont, as is his wont vb. (when tr. Usually passive) to become accustomed to
16. kinsfolk / 'kinzfəuk / n. members of the same family
Closed/ remote kinsfolk 直系亲属、远亲
17. partiality / [,pɑ:ʃi'æliti / n. favorable prejudice or bias偏心：偏袒：
18. vulgarity / vʌl'ɡærəti / n.sth., such as an act or expression, that offends good taste or propriety粗俗：粗俗语：粗野的动作
19. misapprehension / 'mis,æpri'henʃən / n. a failure to understand sth., or an understanding or belief about sth. that is not correct 20. metamorphose / metə'mɔ:fəuz, -fəus / vt. to change into a
completely different form or type. 变质：变形：使变成
It is suitable for drying heat sensitive raw materials that can decompose
and polymerize and metamorphose at high temperature. 适用于在高温下易分解(聚合和变质的热敏性物料的低温干燥：
21.ennui/ 'ɔnwi:/ n. (literary) a feeling of boredom and mental tiredness caused by having nothing interesting or exciting to do！法，厌倦(无聊：
23；chide / tʃaid / v. to scold mildly so as to correct or improve; reprimand ['reprimɑ:nd, repri'm-, -mænd, -'mænd]
24；in succession ， happening one after another连接地、连续地
25. substantiate / səb'stænʃieit / v. to show sth. to be true, or to support a claim with facts证实：使实体化
26. pilgrim n. a traveler
27. traditionary / [trə'diʃənəri / adj.=traditional
II TEXT EXPLANATIONS
This text is an excerpt from Emerson's essay “Friendship” which was written in 1841.
In the essay we can find that the author's discussion on friendship is not confined to the relationship between friends, but rather extends to the emotions of benevolence and complacency which are felt towards others. Given this proposition, the author discusses the nature of human affection in general and provides his own perception about the importance of such affection in human life.
How does the author elaborate on the emotion of benevolence and the importance of human affection?
The author elaborates on the emotion of benevolence with an example of an expected friend visiting our household. This is a demonstration of goodwill. The author perceives this general human affection as a gift of God and nature that brightens our lives and makes a young world for us again.
Detailed study of the text
At the very beginning the author makes it clear that his definition of friendship is much broader than is usually understood. It is “an element of love” such as “kindness.” To him this element of love is pervasive in human society (“the whole human family is bathed with an element of love like a fine ether”).
1)“Read the language of these wandering eyebeams.” — We can see
this kindness in casual but smiling eyes.
2)Notice that the essay is written in very formal, even archaic language, so some words and expressions sound alien to modern readers: “Maugre” — in spite of
“knoweth” — knows (The same applies to “showeth” in Paragraph 6)
How many we see in the street, or sit with in church, whom, though silently, we warmly rejoice to be with!
There are many people in the street or in the church whom we are glad to be with though there is no verbal communication between us. Everyone rejoiced at the news of his safe return.
She rejoiced in her good fortune.
There was much rejoicing at/over the good news.
In the second paragraph the author extends this “element of love” to
“affection” and “emotions of benevolence.” Thus the author defines
the scope of his discussion “from the highest degree of passionate love, to the lowest degree of good will.”
What does the author intend to convey by “fire” and “irradiations”?
The author intends to convey the image of the emotions of benevolence and complacency we express in poetry or common speech (“fire”) to
others and that of the same emotions we feel inwardly (“the inward irradiations”).
The effect of the indulgence of this human affection is a certain cordial exhilaration.
The fact that we allow ourselves to fully enjoy this human affection makes us truly happy.
The soccer fans indulged their patriotism, waving flags and singing
I love champagne but I don't often indulge myself.
Chocolate is my only indulgence.
All the pleasures and indulgences of the weekend are over, and I must get down to some serious hard work.
Relations between the two leaders are said to be cordial. You are cordially invited to attend our annual winetasting evening.
They were both exhilarated by the motorbike ride.
We came back from an exhilarating walk in the mountains.
In this paragraph that author points out that our intellectual and active powers increase with our affection, but not vice versa. Notes:
“... forthwith troops of gentle thoughts invest themselves, on every hand, with chosen words.”:… immediately groups of gentle thoughts rush into his mind with carefully chosen words ...
“troops of ...” (a troop of) — a lot of ... / a train of ...
“on every hand” — This phrase and “troops of gentle thoughts” form
a metaphor which compare each thought to a soldier. The whole sentence literally means each soldier (thought) carries in his hand some well
chosen words to express himself.
Why does the author mention the case of a scholar's writing a letter to a friend?
The author intends to show that years of hard work may result in nothing, but when it comes to human affection, you find it always there in your heart.
The scholar sits down to write, and all his years of meditation do not furnish him with one good thought or happy expression ... The scholar sits down to write, and he finds that for all his years of intellectual pursuit he still cannot come up with any good idea or good expression.
His house is furnished with things he's collected on his travels around the world.
The travel company has furnished us with all the details of our journey. We can furnish everything you need for a successful party.
This long paragraph tells us what friendship should be like — “sincere,
graceful, rich communications” which enhance our intellectual powers and which are free from intrusions of personal “partialities,” “definitions,” and “defects.”
1)“... an uneasiness betwixt pleasure and pain invades all the hearts of a household.” — all people in the household have a mixed feeling of excitement and fear.
The word “pain” carries roughly the same meaning as the word “fear” in the subsequent sentence.
“betwixt” — between
“all the hearts” — all people
2)“all things fly into their places” — all things are quickly set in their
3)“they must get up a dinner if they can.” — they must arrange a dinner if
4)“He stands to us for humanity.” — He represents kindness and
Humanity: kindness and thoughtfulness; mankind
5)“... invested him” — endowed him with certain quality.
This sentence should be interpreted together with the preceding ones “only the good report is told by others, only the good and new is heard by us. He stands to us for humanity. He is what we wish.”
6)“we ask how we should stand related in conversation and action with such a man ...” — we ask how we should communicate and act with such a man ... (Notice that here “stand” is a link verb meaning “to be in a particular condition or situation,” followed by an adjective.)
... we become 7)“... our dumb devil has taken leave for the time.” —
more expressive and fluent in the communication. Here “our dumb devil” refers to our inability and awkwardness when speaking.
8)“so that they who sit by, of our own kinsfolk and acquaintance, shall
feel a lively surprise at our unusual powers.” — so our relatives and
friends who are present during our conversations shall be pleasantly surprised to find our unusual ability to talk.
9)“... as soon as the stranger begins to intrude his partialities, his
definitions, his defects, into the conversation, it is all over.” — as soon as
the stranger begins to thrust his biases, his arbitrary assertions and his errors into the conversation, the sincere, graceful, rich communications come to an end.
10)“He has heard the first, the last and best he will ever hear from us.” — The sentence implies that we will never engage in any sincere conversation with him again.
11)“... but the throbbing of the heart, ... no more” — but his arrival will
bring no more excitement and fear.