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Electric

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Electric

    Electric

9卷第2

    ;20016

    ;含能材料

    ;ENERGE11CMATERIAkS

    ;Vol9.No.2

    ;June,2001

    ;AriideID:1006-9941(2001)024)060436

    ;ElectricSparkSensitivityofPolynitroCompounds.PartV. ;ARelationshipbetweenElectricSpark

    ;andImpactSensitivitiesofEnergeticMaterials

    ;Jib”KOCf,VladimirZEMAN,SvatoplukZEMAN

    ;DepartmentofTheo~‟andTechnologyofExplosives,UniversityofPardubiceCZ53210Pardubice,theCzechRepublic)

    ;Abstract:Thesparkenergy‟Erequiredfor50percentinitiationprobabilityof41polynitrocompoundswasdeter-

    ;minedTherelationshipsbetweerttheEEsvaluesandimpactsensitivityexpressedasdropeneesEJofthe”firstreac?

    ;tion”.reestablishedanddiscussed.Theconclusionismadethatdependingonintermolecularinteractionfactorsincrys?

    ;talsofenergeticmaterials,themechanismofimpactenergy+ ;transitiontothereactioncentreoftheirmoleculecfnbediffer ;fromthataftransitionofenergy.

    ;ofelectricspark

    ;Keywords:electricsparksensitivity;impactsensitivity;energeticmaterials

    ;CLCnuiaher:TQ56Documentcode:A

    ;1Latroduction

    ;Awidespectrumoftheeffectsinvolredindicatesthat ;therewillbeproblemsinformulatingauniquemodelof ;mechanismofelectricsparkinitiationofenergeticmateri

    ;als.Oneofthewaysofspecificationofthismechanism ;canlieilqstudiesofrelationshipsofthesaidsensitivityof ;hesematerialstotheirmoIeeolarstructure__.theresal ;t‟eactivitv[„Jandsen5itivivtoillechanic8timulil-,.,.

    ;Aroutinelyinvestigatedmechanicstimulusofinitia

    ;tionofenergeticmaterialsistheirimpactsensitivity.Its ;relationshiptotheelectricsparksensitivityismentioned ;byAmarietalandHasegawaetal_31.thethors

    ;claimthattheeneesrequiredfor50%probabilityofin

    ;itiationinimpacttestandinparktestaresimilarforma

    ;terialsofmediumsensitivity,however,highlysensitive ;materialsareinitiatedbyasparkmoreeasilythanbyan

    ;impact.Thesamepreblemwasalsopreliminarilydealt ;withbyZemanetal….whosefindingsaresubmittedto

    ;re-evaluationfromthestandpointoftestingofanextended ;setofpolynitrocompounds.

    ;2Experimental

    ;2.1DeterminationofElectricSparkSensitivity ;Themeasurementswerecarriedoutwiththehelpof ;Receireddate2o01.01-16

    ;theapparatusandproceduresdescribedintheprevious ;emmllunication..Asurveyofthepolynitrecorn

    ;poundsstudied,theircodedesignationandthemeasure

    ;meritresultsobtainedarepresentedinTable1. ;2.2DeterminationofImpactSensidvi~”

    ;FortheimpactsensitivitydeterminationintheBuda- ;pestlaboratoryoftheHungariancompanyGEOINFORM ;Szolnok,thestandardimpacttester(JuliusPeters)was ;usedwithexchangeabIeanvilandtheamountoftested ;substancewas025cm(refs.[1214]);2kgand

    ;5kgweightdrophammerswereused.Forapositive ;experimentwastakenthatconnectedwiththefirstdetect? ;abledecompositi0n.t4}(„thefirstreacti0n”.i.e.not

    ;only‟acousticeffect).Usingup—anddownmethodtheob?

;rainedsensitivityWasexpressedasdropenergj‟Elj

    ;whosevaluesarepresentedinTable1.

    ;3ResultsandDiscussion

    ;Therelationshipbetweenimpactsensitivityandelec

    ;tricsparksensitivityispresentedinFigs.13The

    ;picturesshinythatthewholesetofpolynitrocompounds ;studiedfallsintoseveralgmups,asitwasthecaseinthe ;preliminarystudy…too.Thestartingpointofinterpreta—

    ;tionofthisfactisthefindingthattheinitiati0nofener-

    ;getiematerialswithelectricsparkisdominantlygoremed ;byprimaD‟ehemicalmechanismsoftheirthennolvsisand

    ;byintemmlecuIarinteractionfactors

    ;2CectficSparkSensitivityofPolynit:6

    ;Notes:a)Theresultofthispaper:

    ;blhevaluecorrespondtosuhstatmewithmin97lmreentwtofs-HN1W(E.1val

    ueforpures-HNIWwapredicted.beof

    ;5.38J);

    ;cThevaluedeterminedbyAccreditedalLab.K01025ofiResInsiituteofCoa1.

    d..inOstravaaccording1o

    ;methodrpraeticallyinthesenseofmethod,

    ;含能材料第9

    ;4

;8

    ;_‟

    ;,

    ;.

    ;,6

    ;4

    ;O

    ;0

    ;O

    ;EEz,,J

    ;Fig.IRelationshipbetweendropenergy.()andsparkenergyE)forsubstances

    ;with2.4,6-trinitrofonytbuildingunitsintheirmoleculesaadforTENPO.

    ;246I(I21416

    ;EFs,J

    ;Fig2Relationshipbetweendropenergy,()andsparkenerg3,‟(EFs)forsubstances

    ;withasulphurhe~tero-atottlintheirmolecules(groupsAandB).andfor”genuine”polynitroaD~nCS

    ;z.ectricSparkSensi

    ;.

    ;tivityofPolynil

;

    ;Par

    ;

    ;tV

    ;

    ;.ARelationsl

    ;D,eIeel3tecmc~parKaBE1]paei1i1iJurgeitGwLll_0ensvL…1.JJI‟J…lJ…

    ;02461U124

    ;E,j

    ;Fig3Relationshipbetweendropenergy(Ed)andsparkener~‟3,fEs)fornkramines,I/TOandPETN

    ;GroupsinFiglmainlyconsistofpolynitrocorn

    ;poundshavingahydrogensubstituentboundatposition

    ;tonitrogroup,iecompoundsexhibitingthe2,30called

    ;“trinitmtoluenemechanism”oftheirprimary‟thennoly—

    ;ss:I.Trwascfaceaftheeonditi0ns0fiim

    ;pacttestappliedrNBandHNBrepresent”genuine”

    ;po[ynitroatoneswithC—NObondprimary‟fissionin

    ;theirthermol~-sisPrimal‟homolysesofC—Sbondsin

    ;DIPSandDIPSOandcN(abridge)bondin

    ;HNABwereoriginall~rpJesumediorthermol~.

;sisof

    ;thesecompounds:correspondingactivationentropy,ralues ;prove,however.thatprimal-thermolysisofthesaidCOIII

    ;poundsgoesbycyclicmechanism:Jfseesoin

    ;f.[7]).

    ;Thestudiedpah.

    ;nitroeompotrodsaTedividedintoin-

    ;divJdualgroupsonthebasisofdistinctcharacteristicsof ;molecularstructureinFig2.Herethesubstancesof ;groupsAantiBcontainasulphurhetero-atomintheir ;moleculesGroupAintheFig.2includesDiMeDIPS, ;whichisinactixreattheconditionsoftheimpacttestap? ;plied.SubstancesofgroupCare”genuine”polyaitro

    ;arenes,largelypolynitmnaphthalenes:dataofTENN, ;whosemoleculeiseentrosvmmetlica1.donotcorrelate ;withthegroup.

    ;Fromwhathasbeensaidsofaritf.Ilowsthatthein

    ;dividualgroupsinFigs1and2arenothomogenousfrom ;thepointofvenofprimaofission.Thegmupofpobni

    ;trocompoundsinFig3,ontheother,ismorehomogene

    ;OUSfromthispointof,_iewDataofAcAndonotcorrelate ;duetopresenceoftwoacetylsinitsmolecule:fromthe

;pointofviewoftheelectrostatieintermoleeularinterac

    ;tionsa(etylgroupscannotbetakenequi~alenttonitro ;groupsDataoftheglobularnitraminemoleculesHNIW ;andDV]‟arealikedifferentfromothernitram{nesinFig ;3E}sandEdvaluesofTNAZsignalisethatunlikethe ;m0nttraminesttts1cssvuinerableJ.

    ;TheinactivityolS,OITIeOithepolynitrocompoundstn

    ;vestigatedintheimpacttestsignalsthatthetransferof ;impactenerg3‟tothereactioncentreofmoleculewdlnot

    ;beidenticalwiththewayoftransferofelectricsparkel1- ;ergy.Thehypothesisofenergytransferdifferencesbe- ;tweenthetwotestsisalsosupportedbythefindingsb, ;Stengaeh,whostudiedtheelectricsparksensitivityof ;leadfIIazideandfoundoutthat/inadditionofhardin

    ;

    ;能材料第9

    ;erradmixturestothisazidefupto1O%bywt.1has ;practicallynoeffectontheelectricsparksensitivity ;(whereastheimpactsensitivityisincreased)Onthe ;otherhanditshouldbenotedthatanlntroduetionof ;methylgroupintotheDIPSmoleculeresultsinloweringof ;bothimpactsensitivityandelectricsparksensitivity.

;Onthebasisofab0vementionedfactsitispossible

    ;toarriveattheconclusionthataeolnlnonfeatureofthe ;divisionofthepolynitrocompoundsstudiedintothe ;groupsdepictedinFigs13primarilyliesinthemo

    ;locularstructure,whilethechemicalmechanismofpri. ;maD‟thermolysisissubsidia~,here.Hencethereasonof

    ;differencesbetweentheenergytransferfromelectricspark ;andthatfromimpactInthereactioncentreofmoleeule ;seemstobeprimarilygivenbyintermoleeulm”interaction

    ;factorsinCl3”stalsoftheenergeticmaterials.

    ;4Conclusion

    ;[3

    ;[4]

    ;[5

    ;[6]

    ;[7]

    ;[8]

    ;I.heresutsobtainedconfirmthatemutualrelation

    ;shipbetweentheelectricsparksensitivityandimpactsen- ;sitivityofpolynitrocompoundsisnotunambiguousDe[9- ;pendingonintermolecu]arinteractionfactorsincrystalsof ;energeticmateria[s,theimpactenergD,transfermechanism

;t0thereacLi0ncentreofLhem0leculecanbedirent[1O]

    ;fromtheelectricsparkener~,transfer.

    ;Acknowledgement

    ;Theataborsaleindebtedthero,anageD~eNtoftilea.~tinDeto- ;nator(formerzbovkalndet,Inc1,CZ75537Vsetin,forits ;kindinterestinandsupportofrealizationofthisstudy,Theauthor ;alsoexpressesblsgratitudetotileIhmgariancompmlyGEOIN

    ;FORMSzalnokforaffordingtheimpacttesterandsponsor/ngthere ;spectivemeasurements

    ;REFERENCES:

    ;[1]ZemanS,KamenskyZ.ValentaP.eta1.Ontheel?t

    ;staticsparksetLsitivityofsomeorganicpolynitrocorn

    ;pounds,irtM.Rom,:(Ed)reeueildeseomunications ;Joumeesd‟etudessurlasensibilit6descompo,santsetdes

    ;substances6nerg6td1‟electridtestatique”[C]Aus—

    ;sois,Mat1996,PPI97206.

    ;[2Zemans,ZemanV.gamenskyzltelatJonshJpbetween ;theelectricsparksensitivityandtheNMRcheInicalslnfts ;ofsomeorganicpolynitrocompounds[C:Proc28th ;[12]

    ;[13j

    ;[14]

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