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Chapter One DISABILITY STATISTICS

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Chapter One DISABILITY STATISTICS

     National Council on Disability

    An independent federal agency making recommendations to the President and Congress to enhance the quality of life for all Americans with disabilities and their families.

    Letter of Transmittal

    January 15, 2008

    The President

    The White House

    Washington, DC 20500

Dear Mr. President:

    On behalf of the National Council on Disability (NCD), it is my duty and honor to submit NCD’s National Disability Policy: A Progress Report, as required by Section 401(b)(1) of

    the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended.

    This report covers the period from December 2005 through December 2006. It reviews federal policy activities by issue areas, noting progress where it has occurred and making further recommendations where necessary to the executive and legislative branches of the Federal Government.

    As noted in the report, NCD has observed many examples of continued progress in disability policy. Among these are the Help America Vote Act for increasing access to elections for Americans with disabilities, developments under the Assistive Technology Act that hold out the promise for enhanced coordination in the delivery of services, and the positive role of the Department of Justice in a recent Detroit public transit case. This is just some of the positive progress we note as a result of the Administration’s leadership through the New Freedom Initiative.

    Notwithstanding this progress, many challenges remain for our citizens who are living with disabilities and who wish to be more independent, more productive, and more actively involved in their families and communities. Far too many Americans are desperately trying to improve the quality of their lives, but they are frustrated by a lack of affordable accessible housing, transportation, and long-term services and supports. NCD will continue to develop policy recommendations to address these issues.

    In the past year, NCD has undertaken and completed a number of projects that support the Administration’s New Freedom Initiative and that respond to NCD’s statutory

    mission. In particular, NCD has issued a series of policy evaluations and evidence-based studies that measure progress toward implementation of the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    NCD encourages all government agencies and Congress to use our work as a reference point and source of data for recommendations and as a basis for further examination of issues that affect the lives of people with disabilities. NCD will continue

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    to work with the Administration and Congress to ensure that every individual with a disability has access to the American dream.

    Thank you for your continuing leadership on these issues, and please contact me if you have any questions.

Sincerely,

John R. Vaughn

    Chairperson

    (The same letter of transmittal was sent to the President Pro Tempore of the U.S. Senate and the Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives.)

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    National Council on Disability Members and Staff

    Members

    John R. Vaughn, Chairperson

    Chad Colley, Vice Chair

    Patricia Pound, Vice Chair

    Milton Aponte, J.D.

    Victoria Ray Carlson

    Robert R. Davila, Ph.D.

    Graham Hill

    Marylyn Howe

    Young Woo Kang, Ph.D.

    Kathleen Martinez

    Lisa Mattheiss

    Lonnie Moore

    Anne M. Rader

    Cynthia Wainscott

    Linda Wetters

    Staff

    Michael C. Collins, Executive Director

    Martin Gould, Ed.D., Director of Research and Technology

    Mark S. Quigley, Director of Communications

    Julie Carroll, Senior Attorney Advisor Joan M. Durocher, Senior Attorney Advisor

    Sharon M. Lisa Grubb, Special Assistant to the Executive Director

    Geraldine Drake Hawkins, Ph.D., Senior Program Analyst

    Brenda Bratton, Executive Assistant

    Stacey S. Brown, Staff Assistant

    Carla Nelson, Secretary

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    Acknowledgments

    The National Council on Disability expresses its sincere appreciation to Steve Mendelsohn, Esq., for all his work in the development of this report.

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Table of Contents

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................. 11 MAJOR TRENDS.......................................................................................................... 27 Pay-As-You-Go Budgeting .................................................................................................................. 28 Key National Indicators ....................................................................................................................... 29 Asset Development ............................................................................................................................. 31 Market-Based Regulation .................................................................................................................... 33 CHAPTER ONE: DISABILITY STATISTICS ................................................................ 35 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 35 The Fundamental Problem .................................................................................................................. 36 The Census .......................................................................................................................................... 36 Program Data ....................................................................................................................................... 37 Experimentation .................................................................................................................................. 39 Recommendations .............................................................................................................................. 40 CHAPTER TWO: CIVIL RIGHTS .................................................................................. 41 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 41 The Americans with Disabilities Act ................................................................................................... 42 Section 504 of The Rehabilitation Act ................................................................................................ 51 Voting Rights ....................................................................................................................................... 54 The Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act .............................................................................. 57 Genetic Nondiscrimination and Privacy ............................................................................................. 58 Recommendations .............................................................................................................................. 59 CHAPTER THREE: EDUCATION ................................................................................ 63 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 63 Idea Regulations and NCLB Reauthorization ..................................................................................... 64

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    Other Issues under IDEA ..................................................................................................................... 67 Recommendations .............................................................................................................................. 77 CHAPTER FOUR: HEALTH CARE .............................................................................. 79 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 79 Medicaid ............................................................................................................................................... 80 Medicare .............................................................................................................................................. 90 Mental Health Issues ........................................................................................................................... 97 Veterans ............................................................................................................................................. 100 Recommendations ............................................................................................................................ 101 CHAPTER FIVE: LONG-TERM SERVICES AND SUPPORTS .................................. 105 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 105 Scope of the Concept ........................................................................................................................ 106 Recommendations ............................................................................................................................ 116 CHAPTER SIX: CHILDREN AND YOUTH ................................................................. 117 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 117 The Youth Advisory Committee ........................................................................................................ 117 The National Youth Leadership Network .......................................................................................... 118 White House Conference .................................................................................................................. 119 Foster Care ........................................................................................................................................ 120 Transition and Employment .............................................................................................................. 120 Recommendations ............................................................................................................................ 121 CHAPTER SEVEN: EMPLOYMENT .......................................................................... 123 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 123 The Changing Nature of Employment .............................................................................................. 125 Work Incentives ................................................................................................................................. 131 Employer Education .......................................................................................................................... 135

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    Federal Government Employment .................................................................................................... 136 Other Specialized Programs ............................................................................................................. 138 Recommendations ............................................................................................................................ 139 CHAPTER EIGHT: WELFARE REFORM ................................................................... 141 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 141 The Law .............................................................................................................................................. 141 Problems in Program Administration ............................................................................................... 144 Asset Development ........................................................................................................................... 144 Financial Education ........................................................................................................................... 146 Recommendations ............................................................................................................................ 146 CHAPTER NINE: HOUSING ...................................................................................... 149 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 149 Affordable Housing ........................................................................................................................... 150 Civil Rights ........................................................................................................................................ 154 Energy and Transportation ............................................................................................................... 157 Homeownership................................................................................................................................. 159 Recommendations ............................................................................................................................ 163 CHAPTER TEN: TRANSPORTATION ....................................................................... 167 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 167 United We Ride .................................................................................................................................. 168 Job Access Program ......................................................................................................................... 171 Urban and Regional Mass Transit..................................................................................................... 173 Passenger Vessel and Cruise Ship Accessibility Guidelines .......................................................... 174 Air Travel............................................................................................................................................ 175 Recommendations ............................................................................................................................ 178

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    CHAPTER ELEVEN: ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS .... 181 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 181 NCD’s Over The Horizon Report ....................................................................................................... 182 The Digital Divide .............................................................................................................................. 183 Nondiscrimination ............................................................................................................................. 185 Specific Issues .................................................................................................................................. 186 Relay Services ................................................................................................................................... 193 Closed-Captioning ............................................................................................................................. 195 E-9-1-1 Access ................................................................................................................................... 196 The Assistive Technology Act .......................................................................................................... 197 Tax Provisions ................................................................................................................................... 197 Recommendations ............................................................................................................................ 198 CHAPTER TWELVE: INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS ................................................... 201 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 201 The U.N. Convention ......................................................................................................................... 201 Global Initiative .................................................................................................................................. 202 The Organization of American States ............................................................................................... 203 Involving People with Disabilities In Policymaking ......................................................................... 203 Trade and Commerce ........................................................................................................................ 204 Recommendations ............................................................................................................................ 205 CHAPTER THIRTEEN: HOMELAND SECURITY ...................................................... 207 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 207 Accessible Trailers ............................................................................................................................ 208 The Rebuilding Process .................................................................................................................... 209 The Scope of the Problem ................................................................................................................. 210 Emergency Communications ............................................................................................................ 211 Recommendations ............................................................................................................................ 212

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    APPENDIX A: MISSION OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON DISABILITY ............... 213 Overview and Purpose ...................................................................................................................... 213 Specific Duties ................................................................................................................................... 213 International ....................................................................................................................................... 215 Consumers Served and Current Activities ....................................................................................... 215 Statutory History ............................................................................................................................... 216 ENDNOTES ................................................................................................................ 217

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