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metaphor

By Shawn Sanders,2014-09-22 11:58
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metaphor

Contents

    Abstract

    ?.Introduction

    ?.A brief survey

    1.Defition of metapho

    2.Types of metaphor

    3.Metaphors in Chinese and Western studies

    ?.Metaphor in the relationship between Chinese and Western cultures

    1.correspondin, non-correspondence

    2.Chinese and Western cultures in the common metaphor ;

    the metaphor of the difference between Chinese and Western cultures ;

    The metaphor of the cross-cultural differences between Chinese and Western influence ?. 1.metaphorical expression of cultural conflict

    2. different living conditions caused differences of metaphor

    3.the metaphor arising from religious and cultural differences

    ?. Translation of metaphors

    1.On the standard of translation

    2.Obstacles in the translation of metaphor

    3.Skills in translation of metaphor

    ?. Conclusion

    Bibliography

    Acknowledgements

Abstract

    ?.Introduction: Metaphor is a common phenomenon, a large number of people use metaphor to express his feelings and ideas. British scientists rhetoric Richards (IARichards) once said, "We have day-to-day in almost every conversation in three sentences may be a metaphor." According to statistics, life around the use of 4,700,000 new metaphor, 2,140,000 stereotypes of metaphor. Research in recent years, there is a great metaphor. This article introduced in the definition of

    metaphor on the basis of summing up the similarities and differences between Chinese and Western metaphor, and that its culture, precisely because of the prevalence of metaphor, how to translate metaphor has become a very important issue in the latter part of the article is aimed at The translation of metaphor put forward a translation of the three strategies. This paper studies aimed at trying to comparative analysis of English and Chinese in a large number of day-to-day language of metaphor to express, find out the differences and similarities, in order to be able to accurately translate the article in good metaphor to explore a little. This article is about the metaphor from the point of view to explore the differences in the way Thinking allows us to a deeper understanding of language, culture, the relationship between thinking and can more clearly understand the different ethnic language, culture, way of thinking, and so on. ?.A brief survey

    1.Defition of metaphor

    Metaphor is the concept of understanding one thing in terms of another. A metaphor is a figure of speech that constructs an analogy between two things or ideas; the analogy is conveyed

    by the use of a metaphorical word in place of some other word.

    2.Types of metaphor

    2.1.Common types:?A dead metaphor is one in which the sense of a transferred image is absent. Examples: "to grasp a concept" and "to gather what you've understood" use physical action as a metaphor for understanding. Most people do not visualize the action dead metaphors normally

    go unnoticed. Some people distinguish between a dead metaphor and a cliché. Others use "dead

    metaphor" to denote both. ?An extended metaphor (conceit), establishes a principal subject

    (comparison) and subsidiary subjects (comparisons). The As You Like It quotation is a good example, the world is described as a stage, and then men and women are subsidiary subjects further described in the same context. ?A mixed metaphor is one that leaps from one

    identification to a second identification inconsistent with the first. Example: "If we can hit that bullseye then the rest of the dominoes will fall like a house of cards... Checkmate." Quote from Futurama TV show character Zapp Brannigan.

    2.2.Uncommon types

    Other types of metaphor have been identified as well, though the nomenclatures are not as universally accepted:

    2.2.1.An absolute or paralogical metaphor (sometimes called an anti-metaphor) is one in which there is no discernible point of resemblance between the idea and the image.

    2.2.2.An active metaphor is one which by contrast to a dead metaphor, is not part of daily language and is noticeable as a metaphor.

    2.2.3.A complex metaphor is one which mounts one identification on another. Example: "That throws some light on the question." Throwing light is a metaphor: there is no actual light, and a question is not the sort of thing that can be lit up.

    2.2.4.A compound or loose metaphor is one that catches the mind with several points of similarity. Example: "He has the wild stag's foot." This phrase suggests grace and speed as well as daring. 2.2.5.An implicit metaphor is one in which the tenor is not specified but implied. Example: "Shut your trap!" Here, the mouth of the listener is the unspecified tenor.

    3.Metaphors in Chinese and Western studies

    In 1980, Lakoff & Johnson (George Lakoff & Mark Johnson) made a "living metaphor" (Metaphors We Live By) of the book, a modern metaphor to open a new chapter in the school. Domestic academia on the "metaphor" This is also a review of the system, such as Lin Wu's book "Study abroad metaphor Looking at the" beam-setting "metaphor research," Li of China and India "The main subjects Metaphor" and so on. However, the Chinese metaphor for the academic study of rare. "Chinese scholars on the study of metaphor, I am afraid the real contribution should be through the metaphor of the Chinese characteristics of research and study, through the metaphor of the Chinese and other languages in the comparative study of metaphor, metaphor for the establishment of a more general theory of the strong, and even unique The basis. "Lin Wu in the book" metaphor of the basic research the status quo, and the focus of the trend "in the main text, put forward a model of cultural metaphors with the relationship:" The language of metaphor is the emergence of expression into the system, which not only reflects the psychological Structure, but also reflect the different cultural models also play a role. "

    ?.Metaphor in the relationship between Chinese and Western cultures

    1. Correspond to (corresponding) refers to the relationship between the two languages- English and Chinese. Metaphor have the same meaning in the culture and image, and so on .This is because the survival of mankind itself, as well as all the external conditions, including the geographical environment, climate change, the whole of human society and cultural background

    are certain there is a common, which formed a common humanity of their own and the outside world on many issues. In the "angry" mood, the English are angry that physiological responses, such as: grind one's teeth. (Teeth), bare one's teeth. (Ziyaliezui) an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. (an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth), reflecting the Chinese culture on the basis of common experience.

    2.non-correspondence: English-Chinese metaphor, after all, rooted in two different languages , resulting in very different cultural backgrounds, fully corresponds to the few metaphors, the vast majority do not have common cultural identity in order to form the corresponding non-(non-corresponding ) Relations. Non-relationship metaphor can be roughly divided into three categories:

    2.1. Vehicle is same, Yu Yi does not correspond to

    English and Chinese in some cases there are , but in in the meaning of their own language and culture the metaphor means different. Peacock in the Chinese culture is auspicious, a symbol of beauty, especially the Dai people to express jumped Pavaner desire to better their own. If the Chinese people will be likened to a peacock, it means that beautiful light. However, in English, peacock (Peacock) is a symbol of pride, often interpreted as arrogance, love to show off. For example, They were eager to take the young peacock down a peg. (They want to pressure a pressure that the arrogant young guy's momentum)

    2.2.Yu Yi is same, the vehicle does not correspond to

    The two nations, English and Chinese, due to their differences, from different angles to look at things the same, it will be a different analogy. As a result both English and Chinese language there is a different vehicle, but Yu was referring to was basically the same as the meaning of the case, that is the same kind of non-correspondence. Such as: a person described as the hearts of anxious, restless, Chinese is "ants on the hot pan" and English is "a cat on the bricks". There are similar: To kick down the ladder. Guohechaiqiao.

    2.3.Yu Yu Yi and the meaning do not correspond to

    Some of the metaphors Yu-Yu has a meaning and it refers to the language and culture are closely related, in another culture often can not find corresponding Yu and Yu Yi, which resulted in a culture known as the default Phenomenon. For example: in English "my rib" I am referring to Yu's wife, it comes from the "Bible" story, that is, Adam (Adam)'s wife Eve (Eve) God is with a

    piece of Adam's rib made. The Chinese did not, "the Bible" cultural background, and there was no analogy with rib habit, so the formation of a corresponding gap. Similarly, "ugly duckling" (Ugly Duckling) refers to the metaphor will get ahead of Little, "early bird" refers to the diligent Yu, in the words into Chinese language, culture, as a result of the default, can not find a corresponding relationship between metaphor .

    3.1.Chinese and Western cultures in the common metaphor

    Metaphor and culture to a large extent, human beings have a common understanding, rooted in the people's own day-to-day experience. In this connection, often between different ethnic groups are the same. Both English and Chinese language in a lot of abstract thinking that the metaphorical expression is the same. For example: the human child in the period to form a position on the concept of input in that direction in the form of many of them easily understood, including the position expressed by metaphor, which has become a fixed pattern of thinking. For example: The term direction (up, down) to describe people's social status, physical, emotional, and other abstract concepts to the case when the good is up; Sad is down. We Chinese are also not difficult to find a similar sentence: "Gas Prices "," enhance the social status "and" vision "and" depressed. " Since the objective laws of nature with the relative unity of different cultures to understand the nature of the course is similar to the cognitive experience.

    3.2.the metaphor of the difference between Chinese and Western cultures

    As the English-Chinese geographical and cultural differences, living in two different cultures in practice there are a lot of differences, and different life experiences and let people understand the objective world, a different language carries different nationalities Cultural characteristics and cultural information. Understanding of metaphor is not out of socio-cultural backgrounds. For example, social and cultural impact of the color words is deep-rooted, some color words in different cultures in an entirely different meaning, has a distinctive feature of our national culture. Such as: English, said in green "inexperienced" and "shallow knowledge", such as: "a green hand", "I was very green when I started working there." The Chinese like to express the meaning of the word is "yellow" Such as: "Huangmaoyatou" and "flower girl". Cultural background knowledge is the metaphor to create a rich source of thinking, as the Eastern and Western cultures are different, metaphors in English and Chinese applications there are also significant differences. 3.3. The metaphor of the cross-cultural differences between Chinese and Western influence

    Language is a cultural change in the development of the complex, subject to political, economic, historical, environmental and other factors. Chinese and Western styles are different, but in many ways to infiltrate interaction and integration, language differences and cultural metaphor for the inevitable impact is complex and diverse.

    ?.1.1.metaphorical expression of cultural conflict

    Different nationalities in the world to observe a different perspective and ideas, different cultures have a lot of conflicts or inconsistency metaphor. Such as the animal metaphors, in English Long (dragon) is a kind of evil, will belch out smoke monster. "Bible", the dragon is the devil, is a symbol of evil and terror, there is a terrible vicious meaning. The Chinese dragon is in power, the auspicious symbol of Chinese traditional culture, the Chinese have "Wangzichenglong", "descendants of the Dragon." "Dragon" give a different connotation.So the same analogy in different cultures have different meaning.

    1.2.different living conditions caused differences of metaphor

    In English is a lot of metaphor and marine-related, such as: all at sea (at a loss what to do); drink like a fish (drinking cow); fish in the air (Shuizhonglaoyue); give up the ship (give up). In Chinese, there are a lot of the horse or cattle pose a metaphor, such as: "a willing ox" (a willing horse) Gan means to serve the community; "old ox" (a working horse) refers to the hard work; "bragging "(Talk horse), and so on. This is due to different geographical location and natural environment caused by different cultural metaphor. Britain is an island, ultimately, dependent on the sea, and China is a large agricultural country, farming culture deeply feudal society. 1.3.the metaphor arising from religious and cultural differences

    Religious culture of human culture is an important part of it by referring to the nation's religious beliefs, such as the formation of the sense of culture, "the Bible" in the story, with its language and meaning has become a feature of daily life in the West in terms of . For example, power of the keys (the keys to the kingdom of heaven; the rights of the Pope), in the right church, but in the wrong pew (in general is right, but not the details), and so on. Chinese culture and Buddhism, Taoism and more affected by the impact of Confucianism, the Chinese, there are a lot of related argot. "Jiehuaxianfo"; "临时抱佛脚"; "做一天和尚撞一天钟" and so on.

    ?. Translation of metaphors

    1.On the standard of translation

     In the field of translation, the standard of translation has been a fierce controversy,

    including Nida‟s formal correspondence vs. Functional Equivalence, Newmark‟s semantic

    translation vs. communication translation, literal translation vs. free translation, form vs. content,

    source-oriented vs. target-oriented, author-centered vs. reader-centered, the purpose of the

    author vs. the purpose of the translation and so on; [12]P5 Therefore, it is impossible to define a

    standard for the translation of all metaphors. Metaphor reveals the aesthetics of language; what‟s

    more, it reflects the speaker or writer‟s education, experiences, observation, conception towards

    the world ect., so it is very important to keep the metaphorical meaning and the images by using

    any skills of translation, that is, metaphors can be translated in flexible ways to convey the

    information and the effect of the source language.

    2.Obstacles in the translation of metaphor

     For the differences between languages, the obstacles in translation sometimes make it very

    difficult even impossible to convey the effect of the source metaphor. As Chinese is regarded

    contextual language, which always turns to be obstacles on translation into English. The

    following cases are among the most common.

    eg.1她就是这样风里来雨里去。成年累月地工作着.

    This how she carries on her work, rain or shine, all the year round.

    A „Scene‟ comes into readers‟ mind, that is an image of human being walking in the rain and

    wind, when reading ‘风里来,雨里去’ six characters; However, there is only the fact of „rain

    and shine‟ left in the English expression.

    eg.2人言鼎沸

    Many people talk together and the noise t

    2.1.Living environment and history

    England is an island nation, and its navigation has been the most advanced in the world history, while Chinese is a continental nation with its people living on the land. Therefore, there is metaphor „spending money like water‟, sharing the same metaphorical meaning with Chinese metaphor ‘挥金

    如土’. As a result of the different climates, Chinese has a saying „ 万事具备只欠东风‟, in contrast

    with „ west warm wind‟ in English. Moreover, there are a lot of unique metaphorical expressions that come out as the product of a nation‟s developed history. Take „zipper gate‟ as an example. It became a metaphorical word frequently used by the press (referring to the sexual scandals) since the news of the

    sexual relationship between President Clinton and Wensgi. In Chinese there are so many typical examples such as 守株待兔‟.

     2.2.Tradition and custom

     Tradition and custom have great influences on the way of people‟ thinking; therefore, metaphor, as a proportion of language, comes out of people‟s mind, which has been laid with the brand of the custom and tradition of their country. Different metaphors about animals are the most obvious evidence. Take „bear‟ as an example. In English, bear is associated with the person with special talents, such as „he is a bear at maths‟. In contrast, bear in Chinese refers to the fool man or the ignorant, such as “瞧他那个

    熊样‛ ‚笨熊”.

     2.3.Religion

     Buddhism has a history of more than one thousand years. As a result, people‟s concept and

    attitude towards world are influenced greatly, and there are numerous metaphors related to

    Buddhism, such as „借花献佛’, ‘闲时不烧香,临时抱佛脚’ ect. However, in western counties,

    most people take the Christianity as their religion, so there are sayings such as „no respect of

    persons (一视同仁)‟, „God comes with leaden feet but strikes with iron hands(天网恢恢,输而不

    )‟ ect. Religion as a part of culture penetrates into every aspect of people‟s life including

    language.

     2.4.Classical tales and literary works

     A large sum of metaphors is quoted from classical tales and works, which are the components of

    the national spirits. On the other hand, metaphor, in a sense, is the reflection of the literature, fairy

    and folk tales ect., for example „Faustian spirit‟ comes from the classical work Faust , in which the

    protagonist sold out his soul to the devil in order to obtain the knowledge and the power, and now

    „Faustian spirit‟ refers to a spirit to obtain knowledge at any price.

     3.Skills in translation of metaphor

     From New mark‟s view, “there are five methods of translating metaphor: transferring the image,

    finding an equivalent image, converting the metaphor to a simile or sense plus simile, most

    frequently converting the image to sense, which may involve analysis into several components,

    including figurative and concrete elements.” However, in aboard sense, there would be only 3

    ways in the translation of metaphor.

    3.1.Literal translation

     As sharing the living environment----the earth, all human beings would have something in common. Therefore, there would be similarities among the culture of different countries, that is, equivalent expressions would exist among the languages. On condition that the tenor and the vehicle, the construction of metaphor in source language have the same usage in the target language, literal translation is the best way to keep the vivid image and the effect of source metaphor, as can be seen in the following examples.

     eg.(3) During the 1980s, a new drug called crack began to flood the street.80年代有一种叫强

    效可卡因的毒品在大街小巷大肆泛滥.

     eg. 4) iron hand ----铁腕

     eg. (5) 丢脸 ---- lose face;

     eg. (6) 中国当前的改革的春风

     The spring breeze of present reform in china

     Literal translation as example (67) can convey the vivid image with the special culture of source language, and at the same time, vocabulary and new expression of the target language would be explored.

     3.2.Free translation

     The culture clash results in the clash of language. On the other hand, among the tenor and the vehicle and the construction of metaphor of source language, not all could find the same usage in target language; therefore, equivalent images or constructions in target language should befound to replace that of source language, or the metaphorical effect of source language would be decreased. By the way, if the equivalent image or construction could not be found in target language, which is very common, there would be no way but completely free translation such as „人言鼎沸‟ in

    example . There are other examples,

     eg. (7) 热锅上的蚂蚁 A cat on hot bricks

     eg. (8) It was diamond cut diamond when the two men met because they more both so sure their own wears were right.这两个人都坚持自己的主张正确因此他们相遇是一场棋逢对手的酣战

     eg. (9) The policemen who patrolled the big city slum area that summer were sitting on a volcano. 那年夏天,在城市大贫民区巡逻的警察如同在火山口上 (construction: metaphor in source

    language to simile in target language)

     eg. (10) It‟s regrettable that our appeal remained a dead letter 遗憾的是,我们当时的呼吁石沉

大海。

     3.3.Combination of literal and free translation

     As metaphor reflects the customs, living condition, folk tales ect. of its nation, compensations are needed in the translation to help to understand the metaphorical meaning of sources language. On the other hand, although images of source language may be found in the target language, they have not the metaphorical meanings of source language. In that case, combination of literal and free translation could help to convey the metaphorical meanings. There are some examples.

     eg. (11) People consider that what he had played on that occasion was no more than a Judas Kiss.人们认为他在哪种场合的表演不过是犹太人之吻, 居心险恶.

     eg. (12) 挂羊头卖狗肉.Cry wine but only vinegar for sale

     ?. Conclusion

     Translation, as a tool for the communication between different countries, in a great sense, depends on not only the skills of translation but also the understanding of both the language and the culture. Therefore, comparison between English metaphor and Chinese metaphor together with the culture they reflect servers the translation greatly.

     According to the definitions from the authorities, English metaphor covers much more fields than Chinese metaphor. In the field of language, there are three components in English metaphor, the tenor, the vehicle and the ground, based on which there are four basic patterns in English metaphor structure. From the angle of rhetoric effect, metaphors can be sorted into the live metaphor and the dead metaphor. And from the Newmark‟s view, English metaphor could be classified in to four categories, the fossilized, the stock, the recently created and the original. The last classification is based on the emergence of three components of metaphor. At the level of the cognition of metaphor, structure metaphor and ontological metaphor and orientational, which are from Lakeoff‟s classification, are helpful in the understanding of metaphor. In contrast, Chinese

    metaphor called 隐喻 differs greatly in the definition and structure and classification. However, both English and Chinese metaphor has the same functions, descriptive, illuminative, illustrative. The comparison and contrast between English and Chinese metaphor can be traced back to the culture clash, which is the origin of the obstacles in the translation of metaphor. Literal translation, Free translation, and the combination of both are the basic methods in translation of metaphor, which should be chosen properly to solve the obstacles after the metaphor is analyzed exactly.

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